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Niels Bohr

Index Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. [1]

279 relations: Aage Bohr, Akademisk Boldklub, Albert Einstein, Alfred Fowler, American Institute of Physics, Anthony Bate, Aqua regia, Arnold Sommerfeld, Arthur Compton, Arthur R. von Hippel, Assistens Cemetery (Copenhagen), Association football, Atheism, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atoms for Peace Award, Balmer series, Banknotes of Denmark, 1997 series, BBC, BBC Two, Beta decay, Big Science, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, BKS theory, Bohr (crater), Bohr magneton, Bohr model, Bohr radius, Bohr–Einstein debates, Bohr–van Leeuwen theorem, Bohrium, Bomb bay, Brighter than a Thousand Suns (book), British Overseas Airways Corporation, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Carl Jacobsen, Carlsberg (district), Carlsberg Foundation, Carlsberg Group, Cathode ray, Cavendish Laboratory, CERN, Charles Darwin, Charles Galton Darwin, Christian Bohr, Christian Christiansen, Christian existentialism, Christian X of Denmark, ..., Church of Denmark, Classical physics, Coat of arms, Commemorative stamp, Como, Complementarity (physics), Compton scattering, Conservation of energy, Copenhagen, Copenhagen (2002 film), Copenhagen (play), Copenhagen interpretation, Copley Medal, Correspondence principle, Daniel Craig, Danmarks Nationalbank, David Favrholdt, David Hilbert, De frie Danske, De Havilland Mosquito, Denmark in World War II, Denmark national football team, Dirk Coster, Docent, Doctor of Philosophy, Edward Teller, Electromagnetism, Electron, Ellipse, Enrico Fermi, Ernest Bohr, Ernest Rutherford, Ernst von Weizsäcker, Erwin Schrödinger, Eugene Rabinowitch, Faraday Lectureship Prize, Felix Bloch, Felix Frankfurter, Field hockey, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Franklin Institute, Franklin Medal, Frederick IX of Denmark, Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, Göttingen, Geneva, George de Hevesy, George Placzek, George Uhlenbeck, Georges Urbain, German invasion of Denmark (1940), German nuclear weapon project, Glassblowing, Goalkeeper (association football), Guido Beck, Gustaf V of Sweden, Hafnium, Hall effect, Hamburg, Hans Geiger, Hans Kramers, Harald Bohr, Harald Høffding, Helium, Hendrik Lorentz, Hendrika Johanna van Leeuwen, Heuristic, Hilde Levi, History of the Jews in Denmark, Horizon (UK TV series), Hughes Medal, Human capital flight, Hydrogen, Institute for Advanced Study, International Atomic Energy Agency, Ionization, Ivan Supek, J. J. Thomson, J. Robert Oppenheimer, James Chadwick, James Franck, James Jeans, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Johann Jakob Balmer, John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley, John Archibald Wheeler, John C. Slater, John R. Dunning, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Joseph Larmor, Jutarnji list, Lawrence Bragg, Léon Rosenfeld, Lector, Leiden, Leslie Groves, Lev Landau, Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, Lise Meitner, List of Directors General of CERN, List of minor planets: 3001–4000, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Manhattan Project, Martin Knudsen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Master's degree, Mathematician, Matrix (mathematics), Matrix mechanics, Matter wave, Matteucci Medal, Max Born, Max Delbrück, Max Mason, Max Planck, Max Planck Medal, Max von Laue, Michael Frayn, Modulated neutron initiator, Moscow, Nazi Germany, Nazism, Nørrebro, Neutrino, Neutron, New Mexico, Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Erik Nørlund, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, Nuclear fission, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear weapon, Old quantum theory, Orbit, Order of the Elephant, Oskar Klein, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Otto Stern, Pascual Jordan, Paul Dirac, Paul Drude, Paul Ehrenfest, Pauli exclusion principle, Philosopher, Philosophical Magazine, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard, Photon, Physical Review, Physicist, Physics, Physiology, Pickering series, Pierre Victor Auger, Planck constant, Plum pudding model, Princeton, New Jersey, Privatdozent, Pyotr Kapitsa, Quantum, Quantum mechanics, Quantum number, Rare-earth element, RDS-1, Reader (academic rank), Rescue of the Danish Jews, Richard Feynman, Richard Rhodes, Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Robert Jungk, Rockefeller Foundation, Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Royal Society, Rutherford model, Rydberg constant, Samuel Goudsmit, Søren Kierkegaard, Science (journal), Semi-empirical mass formula, Slagelse, Solvay Conference, Sonning Prize, South Tyrol, Soviet Union, Spectral line, Spin (physics), St James's Palace, Stages on Life's Way, Stefan Rozental, Stephen Rea, Surface tension, Svein Rosseland, Taijitu, The Heavy Water War, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, Theory of relativity, Thermodynamics, Thorvald N. Thiele, Transuranium element, Trinity College, Cambridge, Tube Alloys, Uncertainty principle, United Nations, University of Cambridge, University of Copenhagen, University of Göttingen, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Utrecht University, Victor Weisskopf, Victoria University of Manchester, Viscosity, Volta Conference, Walther Bothe, Washington, D.C., Wave–particle duality, Werner Heisenberg, Wojciech Rubinowicz, Wolfgang Pauli, Zentralblatt MATH, Zirconium, 1908 Summer Olympics, 1948 Summer Olympics. Expand index (229 more) »

Aage Bohr

Aage Niels Bohr (19 June 1922 – 8 September 2009) was a Danish nuclear physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1975 with Ben Mottelson and James Rainwater "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection".

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Akademisk Boldklub

Akademisk Boldklub Gladsaxe (or AB, AB Gladsaxe) is a Danish professional football club from Gladsaxe north of Copenhagen, currently playing at the 3rd highest level of Danish domestic football the Danish 2nd Division group 1.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Alfred Fowler

Alfred Fowler, CBE FRS (22 March 1868, in Yorkshire – 24 June 1940) was an English astronomer.

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American Institute of Physics

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.

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Anthony Bate

Anthony Bate (31 August 1927 – 19 June 2012) was an English actor.

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Aqua regia

Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.

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Arnold Sommerfeld

Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.

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Arthur Compton

Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.

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Arthur R. von Hippel

Arthur Robert von Hippel (November 19, 1898 – December 31, 2003) was a German American materials scientist and physicist.

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Assistens Cemetery (Copenhagen)

Assistens Cemetery (Danish: Assistens Kirkegård) in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the burial site of a large number of Danish notables as well as an important greenspace in the Nørrebro district.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Atoms for Peace Award

The Atoms for Peace Award was established in 1955 through a grant of $1,000,000 by the Ford Motor Company Fund.

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Balmer series

The Balmer series or Balmer lines in atomic physics, is the designation of one of a set of six named series describing the spectral line emissions of the hydrogen atom.

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Banknotes of Denmark, 1997 series

Danmarks Nationalbank issues banknotes of the Danish Krone (kr.) and has replaced the 1997 banknote series as of 24 May 2011.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC Two is the second flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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Big Science

Big science is a term used by scientists and historians of science to describe a series of changes in science which occurred in industrial nations during and after World War II, as scientific progress increasingly came to rely on large-scale projects usually funded by national governments or groups of governments.

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Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society

The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.

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BKS theory

The Bohr-Kramers-Slater (BKS) theory was perhaps the final attempt at understanding the interaction of matter and electromagnetic radiation on the basis of the so-called old quantum theory, in which quantum phenomena are treated by imposing quantum restrictions on classically describable behaviour.

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Bohr (crater)

Bohr is a lunar impact crater that is located near the western lunar limb, in the area that is affected by librations.

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Bohr magneton

In atomic physics, the Bohr magneton (symbol μB) is a physical constant and the natural unit for expressing the magnetic moment of an electron caused by either its orbital or spin angular momentum.

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Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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Bohr radius

The Bohr radius (a0 or rBohr) is a physical constant, approximately equal to the most probable distance between the nucleus and the electron in a hydrogen atom in its ground state.

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Bohr–Einstein debates

The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr.

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Bohr–van Leeuwen theorem

The Bohr–van Leeuwen theorem states that when statistical mechanics and classical mechanics are applied consistently, the thermal average of the magnetization is always zero.

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Bohrium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Bh and atomic number 107.

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Bomb bay

The bomb bay or weapons bay on some military aircraft is a compartment to carry bombs, usually in the aircraft's fuselage, with "bomb bay doors" which open at the bottom.

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Brighter than a Thousand Suns (book)

Brighter than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists, by Austrian Robert Jungk, is the first published account of the Manhattan Project and the German atomic bomb project.

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British Overseas Airways Corporation

British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was the British state-owned airline created in 1940 by the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd.

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Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker

Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker (28 June 1912 – 28 April 2007) was a German physicist and philosopher.

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Carl Jacobsen

Carl Christian Hillman Jacobsen (2 March 1842 – 11 January 1914) was a Danish brewer, art collector and philanthropist, the son of J. C. Jacobsen, who founded the brewery Carlsberg and named it after him.

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Carlsberg (district)

Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square.

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Carlsberg Foundation

Carlsberg Foundation (Carlsbergfondet) was founded by J. C. Jacobsen in 1876 and owns 30.3% of the shares in Carlsberg Group and has 74.2% of the voting power.

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Carlsberg Group

Carlsberg A/S is a global brewer.

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Cathode ray

Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.

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Cavendish Laboratory

The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences.

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The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Charles Galton Darwin

Sir Charles Galton Darwin, KBE, MC, FRS (18 December 1887 – 31 December 1962) was an English physicist who served as director of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) during the Second World War.

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Christian Bohr

Christian Harald Lauritz Peter Emil Bohr (1855–1911) was a Danish physician, father of the physicist and Nobel laureate Niels Bohr, as well as the mathematician and football player Harald Bohr and grandfather of another physicist and nobel laureate Aage Bohr.

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Christian Christiansen

Christian Christiansen (9 October 1843 in Lønborg, Denmark – 28 November 1917 Frederiksberg) was a Danish physicist.

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Christian existentialism

Christian existentialism is a theo-philosophical movement which takes an existentialist approach to Christian theology.

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Christian X of Denmark

Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm; 26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947) was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and the only king of Iceland (where the name was officially Kristján X), between 1918 and 1944.

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Church of Denmark

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark or National Church, sometimes called Church of Denmark (Den Danske Folkekirke or Folkekirken, literally: "the People's Church" or "the National Church"), is the established, state-supported church in Denmark.

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Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.

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Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.

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Commemorative stamp

A commemorative stamp is a postage stamp, often issued on a significant date such as an anniversary, to honor or commemorate a place, event, person, or object.

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Como (Lombard: Còmm, Cómm or Cùmm; Novum Comum) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy.

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Complementarity (physics)

In physics, complementarity is both a theoretical and an experimental result of quantum mechanics, also referred to as principle of complementarity.

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Compton scattering

Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.

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Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

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Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Copenhagen (2002 film)

Copenhagen is a 2002 British television drama film written and directed by Howard Davies, and starring Daniel Craig, Stephen Rea, and Francesca Annis.

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Copenhagen (play)

Copenhagen is a play by Michael Frayn, based on an event that occurred in Copenhagen in 1941, a meeting between the physicists Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg.

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Copenhagen interpretation

The Copenhagen interpretation is an expression of the meaning of quantum mechanics that was largely devised in the years 1925 to 1927 by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg.

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Copley Medal

The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.

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Correspondence principle

In physics, the correspondence principle states that the behavior of systems described by the theory of quantum mechanics (or by the old quantum theory) reproduces classical physics in the limit of large quantum numbers.

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Daniel Craig

Daniel Wroughton Craig (born 2 March 1968) is an English actor. He trained at the National Youth Theatre and graduated from the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in 1991, before beginning his career on stage. His film debut was in the drama The Power of One (1992). Other early appearances were in the historical television war drama Sharpe's Eagle (1993), Disney family film A Kid in King Arthur's Court (1995), the drama serial Our Friends in the North (1996) and the biographical film Elizabeth (1998). Craig's appearances in the British television film Love Is the Devil: Study for a Portrait of Francis Bacon (1998), the indie war film The Trench (1999), and the drama Some Voices (2000) attracted the film industry's attention. This led to roles in bigger productions such as the action film Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001), the crime thriller Road to Perdition (2002), the crime thriller Layer Cake (2004), and the Steven Spielberg historical drama Munich (2005). Craig achieved international fame when chosen as the sixth actor to play the role of Ian Fleming's British secret agent character James Bond in the film series, taking over from Pierce Brosnan in 2005. His debut film as Bond, Casino Royale, was released internationally in November 2006 and was highly acclaimed, earning him a BAFTA award nomination. Casino Royale became the highest-grossing in the series at the time. Quantum of Solace followed two years later. Craig's third Bond film, Skyfall, premiered in 2012 and is currently the highest-grossing film in the series and the fifteenth highest-grossing film of all time; it was also the highest-grossing film in the United Kingdom until 2015. Craig's fourth Bond film, Spectre, premiered in 2015. He also made a guest appearance as Bond in the opening ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games, alongside Queen Elizabeth II. Since taking the role of Bond, Craig has continued to star in other films, including the fantasy film The Golden Compass (2007), World War II film Defiance (2008), science fiction western Cowboys & Aliens (2011), the English-language adaptation of Stieg Larsson's mystery thriller The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011), and the heist film Logan Lucky (2017).

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Danmarks Nationalbank

Danmarks Nationalbank (National Bank of Denmark; in Danish often simply Nationalbanken) is the central bank of the Kingdom of Denmark.

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David Favrholdt

David Favrholdt (24 April 1931 – 6 December 2012) was a Danish philosopher, educated with M.A.s in psychology and philosophy and later Dr. Phil. from Copenhagen University.

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David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

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De frie Danske

The Free Danes (De frie Danske) was a Danish resistance newspaper published in Copenhagen about monthly from December 1941 to 24 May 1945.

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De Havilland Mosquito

The de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito is a British twin-engine shoulder-winged multi-role combat aircraft.

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Denmark in World War II

During most of World War II, Denmark was first a protectorate, then an occupied territory under Germany.

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Denmark national football team

The Denmark national football team (Danmarks fodboldlandshold) represents Denmark in association football and is controlled by the Danish Football Association (DBU), the governing body for the football clubs which are organized under DBU.

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Dirk Coster

Dirk Coster (October 5, 1889 – February 12, 1950), was a Dutch physicist.

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Docent is a title at some European universities to denote a specific academic appointment within a set structure of academic ranks at or below the full professor rank.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Edward Teller

Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.

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Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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Ernest Bohr

Ernest David Bohr (7 March 1924 – 26 February 2018) was a Danish lawyer, former barrister, and field hockey player who played for Denmark in the 1948 Summer Olympics in London.

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Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.

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Ernst von Weizsäcker

Ernst Heinrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker (25 May 1882 – 4 August 1951) was a German naval officer, diplomat and politician.

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Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.

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Eugene Rabinowitch

Eugene Rabinowitch (1901–1973) was a Russian-born American biophysicist who is best known for his work in relation to nuclear weapons, especially as a co-author of the Franck Report and a co-founder in 1945 of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, a global security and public policy magazine, which he edited until his death.

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Faraday Lectureship Prize

The Faraday Lectureship Prize, previously known simply as the Faraday Lectureship is awarded once every three years (approximately) by the Royal Society of Chemistry for "exceptional contributions to physical or theoretical chemistry".

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Felix Bloch

Felix Bloch (23 October 1905 – 10 September 1983) was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the U.S. He and Edward Mills Purcell were awarded the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physics for "their development of new ways and methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements."Sohlman, M (Ed.) Nobel Foundation directory 2003. Vastervik, Sweden: AB CO Ekblad; 2003.

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Felix Frankfurter

Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882February 22, 1965) was an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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Field hockey

Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Franklin Institute

The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Franklin Medal

The Franklin Medal was a science award presented from 1915 through 1997 by the Franklin Institute located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. It was founded in 1914 by Samuel Insull.

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Frederick IX of Denmark

Frederick IX (Christian Frederik Franz Michael Carl Valdemar Georg; 11 March 1899 – 14 January 1972) was King of Denmark from 1947 to 1972.

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Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell

Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, (5 April 18863 July 1957) was a British physicist and an influential scientific adviser to the British government from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, particularly to Winston Churchill.

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Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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George de Hevesy

George Charles de Hevesy (Georg Karl von Hevesy; 1 August 1885 – 5 July 1966) was a Hungarian radiochemist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate, recognized in 1943 for his key role in the development of radioactive tracers to study chemical processes such as in the metabolism of animals.

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George Placzek

George Placzek (native name: Georg Placzek) (September 26, 1905 – October 9, 1955) was a Czech physicist.

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George Uhlenbeck

George Eugene Uhlenbeck (December 6, 1900 – October 31, 1988) was a Dutch-American theoretical physicist.

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Georges Urbain

Georges Urbain (12 April 1872 – 5 November 1938 in Paris) French chemist, professor of Sorbonne.

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German invasion of Denmark (1940)

The German invasion of Denmark was the fighting that followed the German army crossing the Danish border on 9 April 1940 by land, sea and air.

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German nuclear weapon project

The German nuclear weapon project (Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II.

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Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating molten glass into a bubble (or parison), with the aid of a blowpipe (or blow tube).

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Goalkeeper (association football)

The goalkeeper, often shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football.

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Guido Beck

Guido Beck (August 29, 1903 – October 21, 1988) was a physicist born in what was then the town of Reichenberg in the Kingdom of Bohemia (Austria-Hungary), and is now Liberec in the Czech Republic.

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Gustaf V of Sweden

Gustaf V (Oscar Gustaf Adolf 16 June 1858 – 29 October 1950) was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death in 1950.

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Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.

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Hall effect

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and to an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the current.

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Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hans Geiger

Johannes Wilhelm "Hans" Geiger (30 September 1882 – 24 September 1945) was a German physicist.

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Hans Kramers

Hendrik Anthony "Hans" Kramers (2 February 1894 – 24 April 1952) was a Dutch physicist who worked with Niels Bohr to understand how electromagnetic waves interact with matter.

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Harald Bohr

Harald August Bohr (22 April 1887 – 22 January 1951) was a Danish mathematician and soccer player.

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Harald Høffding

Harald Høffding (11 March 1843 – 2 July 1931) was a Danish philosopher and theologian.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Hendrik Lorentz

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.

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Hendrika Johanna van Leeuwen

Hendrika Johanna van Leeuwen (July 3, 1887 – February 26, 1974) was a Dutch physicist, known for her early contributions to the theory of magnetism.

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A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.

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Hilde Levi

Hilde Levi (9 May 1909 – 26 July 2003) was a German-Danish physicist.

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History of the Jews in Denmark

The Jewish community of Denmark constitutes a small minority within Danish society.

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Horizon (UK TV series)

Horizon is an ongoing and long-running British documentary television series on BBC that covers science and philosophy.

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Hughes Medal

The Hughes Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London "in recognition of an original discovery in the physical sciences, particularly electricity and magnetism or their applications".

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Human capital flight

Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Institute for Advanced Study

The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld.

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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Ivan Supek

(photo circa 2003) --> Ivan Supek (8 April 1915 – 5 March 2007) was a Croatian physicist, philosopher, writer, playwright, peace activist and humanist.

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J. J. Thomson

Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.

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J. Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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James Chadwick

Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.

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James Franck

James Franck (26 August 1882 – 21 May 1964) was a German physicist who won the 1925 Nobel Prize for Physics with Gustav Hertz "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom".

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James Jeans

Sir James Hopwood Jeans (11 September 187716 September 1946) was an English physicist, astronomer and mathematician.

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Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs

The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (JCPA) is an Israeli research institute specializing in public diplomacy and foreign policy founded in 1976.

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Joachim von Ribbentrop

Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.

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Johann Jakob Balmer

Johann Jakob Balmer (1 May 1825 – 12 March 1898) was a Swiss mathematician and mathematical physicist.

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John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley

John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley, (8 July 1882 – 4 January 1958) was a British civil servant and politician who is best known for his service in the Cabinet during the Second World War, for which he was nicknamed the "Home Front Prime Minister".

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John Archibald Wheeler

John Archibald Wheeler (July 9, 1911 – April 13, 2008) was an American theoretical physicist.

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John C. Slater

John Clarke Slater (December 22, 1900 – July 25, 1976) was a noted American physicist who made major contributions to the theory of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solids.

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John R. Dunning

John Ray Dunning (September 24, 1907 – August 25, 1975) was an American physicist who played key roles in the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bombs.

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John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.

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Joseph Larmor

Sir Joseph Larmor FRS FRSE DCL LLD (11 July 1857 – 19 May 1942) was an Irish physicist and mathematician who made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the electron theory of matter.

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Jutarnji list

Jutarnji list is a Croatian daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in Zagreb since April, 6, 1998, by EPH (Europapress holding, owned by Ninoslav Pavić) which eventually changed name in Hanza Media, when bought by Marijan Hanžeković.

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Lawrence Bragg

Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.

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Léon Rosenfeld

Léon Rosenfeld (14 August 1904 in Charleroi – 23 March 1974) was a Belgian physicist and Marxist.

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Lector is Latin for one who reads, whether aloud or not.

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Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Leslie Groves

Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II.

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Lev Landau

Lev Davidovich Landau (22 January 1908 - April 1968) was a Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.

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Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings are annual, scientific conferences held in Lindau, Bavaria, Germany since 1951.

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Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.

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List of Directors General of CERN

CERN Directors General typically serve 5 year terms beginning on January 1.

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List of minor planets: 3001–4000

#d6d6d6 | 3089 Oujianquan || || December 3, 1981 || Nanking || Purple Mountain Obs.

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Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.

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Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

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Martin Knudsen

Martin Hans Christian Knudsen (February 15, 1871 in Hasmark – May 27, 1949 in Copenhagen) was a Danish physicist who taught and conducted research at the Technical University of Denmark He is primarily known for his study of molecular gas flow and the development of the Knudsen cell, which is a primary component of molecular beam epitaxy systems.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Master's degree

A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.

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A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

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Matrix mechanics

Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925.

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Matter wave

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.

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Matteucci Medal

The Matteucci Medal is an Italian award for physicists, named after Carlo Matteucci.

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Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

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Max Delbrück

Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (September 4, 1906 – March 9, 1981), a German–American biophysicist, helped launch the molecular biology research program in the late 1930s.

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Max Mason

Charles Max Mason (October 26, 1877 – March 22, 1961), better known as Max Mason, was an American mathematician.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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Max Planck Medal

The Max Planck medal is the highest award of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, the world's largest organization of physicists, for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics.

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Max von Laue

Max Theodor Felix von Laue (9 October 1879 – 24 April 1960) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.

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Michael Frayn

Michael Frayn, FRSL (born 8 September 1933) is an English playwright and novelist.

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Modulated neutron initiator

A modulated neutron initiator is a neutron source capable of producing a burst of neutrons on activation.

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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Nørrebro is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark.

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A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

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| magnetic_moment.

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New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.

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Niels Bohr Institute

The Niels Bohr Institute (Danish: Niels Bohr Institutet) is a research institute of the University of Copenhagen.

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Niels Erik Nørlund

Niels Erik Nørlund (26 October 1885, in Slagelse – 4 July 1981, in Copenhagen) was a Danish mathematician.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics

The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, or Nordita (Nordisk Institut for Teoretisk (Atom)fysik), is an international organisation for research in theoretical physics.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuclear reaction

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Old quantum theory

The old quantum theory is a collection of results from the years 1900–1925 which predate modern quantum mechanics.

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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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Order of the Elephant

The Order of the Elephant (Elefantordenen) is a Danish order of chivalry and is Denmark's highest-ranked honour.

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Oskar Klein

Oskar Benjamin Klein (15 September 1894 – 5 February 1977) was a Swedish theoretical physicist.

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Otto Hahn

Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.

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Otto Robert Frisch

Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.

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Otto Stern

Otto Stern (17 February 1888 – 17 August 1969) was a German American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.

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Pascual Jordan

Ernst Pascual Jordan (18 October 1902 – 31 July 1980) was a theoretical and mathematical physicist who made significant contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

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Paul Dirac

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.

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Paul Drude

Paul Karl Ludwig Drude (12 July 1863 – 5 July 1906) was a German physicist specializing in optics.

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Paul Ehrenfest

Paul Ehrenfest (18 January 1880 – 25 September 1933) was an Austrian and Dutch theoretical physicist, who made major contributions to the field of statistical mechanics and its relations with quantum mechanics, including the theory of phase transition and the Ehrenfest theorem.

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Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

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Philosophical Magazine

The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy has been a major influence in the development of 20th-century philosophy, especially existentialism and postmodernism.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Pickering series

The Pickering series (also known as the Pickering–Fowler series) consists of three lines of singly ionized helium found, usually in absorption, in the spectra of hot stars like Wolf-Rayet stars.

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Pierre Victor Auger

Pierre Victor Auger (14 May 1899 – 25 December 1993) was a French physicist, born in Paris.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Plum pudding model

The plum pudding model is one of several scientific models of the atom.

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Princeton, New Jersey

Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.

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Privatdozent (for men) or Privatdozentin (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualifications that denote an ability to teach (venia legendi) a designated subject at university level.

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Pyotr Kapitsa

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa or Peter Kapitza (Russian: Пётр Леони́дович Капи́ца, Romanian: Petre Capiţa (– 8 April 1984) was a leading Soviet physicist and Nobel laureate, best known for his work in low-temperature physics.

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In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Quantum number

Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.

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Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

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The RDS-1 (РДС-1), also known as Izdeliye 501 (device 501) and First Lightning, was the nuclear bomb used in the Soviet Union's first nuclear weapon test.

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Reader (academic rank)

The title of reader in the United Kingdom and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations, for example India, Australia and New Zealand, denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship.

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Rescue of the Danish Jews

The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Nazi Germany's occupation of Denmark during World War II.

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Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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Richard Rhodes

Richard Lee Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American historian, journalist and author of both fiction and non-fiction (which he prefers to call "verity"), including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986), and most recently, Energy: A Human History (2018).

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Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy

Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy (Risø DTU Nationallaboratoriet for Bæredygtig Energi) was a scientific research organization north of Roskilde, Denmark.

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Robert Jungk

Robert Jungk (born Robert Baum, also known as Robert Baum-Jungk; May 11, 1913 – July 14, 1994) was an Austrian writer and journalist who wrote mostly on issues relating to nuclear weapons.

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Rockefeller Foundation

The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

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Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters

The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters (Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab) is a Danish non-governmental science Academy, founded in 1742 for the advancement of science in Denmark.

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Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Rutherford model

The Rutherford model is a model of the atom devised by Ernest Rutherford.

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Rydberg constant

The Rydberg constant, symbol R∞ for heavy atoms or RH for hydrogen, named after the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg, is a physical constant relating to atomic spectra, in the science of spectroscopy.

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Samuel Goudsmit

Samuel Abraham Goudsmit (July 11, 1902 – December 4, 1978) was a Dutch-American physicist famous for jointly proposing the concept of electron spin with George Eugene Uhlenbeck in 1925.

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Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Semi-empirical mass formula

In nuclear physics, the semi-empirical mass formula (SEMF) (sometimes also called Weizsäcker's formula, or the Bethe–Weizsäcker formula, or the Bethe–Weizsäcker mass formula to distinguish it from the Bethe–Weizsäcker process) is used to approximate the mass and various other properties of an atomic nucleus from its number of protons and neutrons.

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Slagelse is a small town in Denmark located in west Zealand.

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Solvay Conference

The International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, located in Brussels, were founded by the Belgian industrialist Ernest Solvay in 1912, following the historic invitation-only 1911 Conseil Solvay, considered a turning point in the world of physics.

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Sonning Prize

The Sonning Prize (Sonningprisen) is a Danish culture prize awarded biennially for outstanding contributions to European culture.

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South Tyrol

South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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St James's Palace

St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom.

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Stages on Life's Way

Stages on Life's Way (Stadier på Livets Vej; historical orthography: Stadier paa Livets Vej) is a philosophical work by Søren Kierkegaard written in 1845.

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Stefan Rozental

Stefan Rozental (13 August 1903, Łódź – 2 August 1994, Copenhagen), was a nuclear physicist, specialising in quantum mechanics.

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Stephen Rea

Stephen Rea (born 31 October 1946) is an Irish film and stage actor.

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Surface tension

Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.

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Svein Rosseland

Svein Rosseland (March 31, 1894, Kvam, Hardanger – January 19, 1985, Bærum) was a Norwegian astrophysicist and a pioneer in the field of theoretical astrophysics.

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A taijitu (w) is a symbol or diagram (图 tú) in Chinese philosophy representing Taiji (太极 tàijí "great pole" or "supreme ultimate") representing both its monist (wuji) and its dualist (yin and yang) aspects.

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The Heavy Water War

The Heavy Water War (original title Kampen om tungtvannet and alternative title The Saboteurs (UK)) is a six-episode war drama TV miniseries written by Petter S. Rosenlund, produced by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation.

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The Making of the Atomic Bomb

The Making of the Atomic Bomb is a contemporary history book written by the American journalist and historian Richard Rhodes, first published by Simon & Schuster in 1987.

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Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Thorvald N. Thiele

Thorvald Nicolai Thiele (24 December 1838 – 26 September 1910) was a Danish astronomer and director of the Copenhagen Observatory.

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Transuranium element

The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).

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Trinity College, Cambridge

Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.

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Tube Alloys

Tube Alloys was a code name of the clandestine research and development programme, authorised by the United Kingdom, with participation from Canada, to develop nuclear weapons during the Second World War.

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Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Copenhagen

The University of Copenhagen (UCPH) (Københavns Universitet) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark.

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University of Göttingen

The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.

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Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.

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Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.

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Utrecht University

Utrecht University (UU; Universiteit Utrecht, formerly Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht) is a university in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

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Victor Weisskopf

Victor Frederick "Viki" Weisskopf (September 19, 1908 – April 22, 2002) was an Austrian-born American theoretical physicist.

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Victoria University of Manchester

The former Victoria University of Manchester, now the University of Manchester, was founded in 1851 as Owens College.

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The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Volta Conference

The Volta Conference was the name given to each of the international conferences held in Italy by the Royal Academy of Science in Rome, and funded by the Alessandro Volta Foundation.

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Walther Bothe

Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (8 January 1891 – 8 February 1957) was a German nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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Wojciech Rubinowicz

Wojciech Sylwester Piotr Rubinowicz (February 22, 1889 – October 13, 1974) was a Polish theoretical physicist who made contributions in quantum mechanics, mathematical physics, and the theory of radiation.

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Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

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Zentralblatt MATH

zbMATH, formerly Zentralblatt MATH, is a major international reviewing service providing reviews and abstracts for articles in pure and applied mathematics, produced by the Berlin office of FIZ Karlsruhe – Leibniz Institute for Information Infrastructure GmbH.

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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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1908 Summer Olympics

The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the IV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in 1908 in London, United Kingdom from 27 April to 31 October 1908.

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1948 Summer Olympics

The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom.

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Redirects here:

Bohr, Ellen Adler Bohr, Neils Bohr, Niehls Bohr, Niel Bohr, Niels (Henrik David) Bohr, Niels H. D. Bohr, Niels Henrick David Bohr, Niels Henrik Bohr, Niels Henrik David Bohr, Nils Bohr.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niels_Bohr

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