299 relations: Aïr and Ténéré National Nature Reserve, Aïr Mountains, Abalak, Abu Yazid, Addax, African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development, African Union, Agadez, Agadez Region, Agriculture in Niger, Ahmadiyya, Algeria, Ali Saibou, André Salifou, Anfani FM, Arabic, Arli National Park, Arlit, Baghdad, Bayajidda (mythology), BBC, BBC News, Benin, Berlin Conference, Bilateralism, Bilma, Bioreclamation of degraded lands, Birni-N'Konni, Birth control, Brigi Rafini, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Burkina Faso, Capsicum, Cassava, Cation-exchange capacity, Central Bank of West African States, CFA franc, Chad, Chad Basin, China National Petroleum Corporation, Christianity, Cinema of Niger, Cohabitation (government), COMINAK, Coup d'état, Cowpea, Daouda Malam Wanké, Date palm, Daurama, ..., Debt relief, Demographics of Niger, Departments of Niger, Desert, Desertification, Developing country, Diffa, Diffa Arabs, Diffa Region, Diori Hamani International Airport, Dogondoutchi, Dosso Region, Dosso, Niger, Drought, Dune, Economic Community of West African States, Economic sanctions, Education in Niger, Egypt, Elf Aquitaine, Esso, European Union, Executive (government), FM broadcasting, Food and Agriculture Organization, France, Freedom of religion, Freedom of the press, French colonial empire, French Community, French Fifth Republic, French language, Fula jihads, Fula language, Fula people, Gao, Gaya, Niger, Gendarmerie Nationale (Niger), Gothèye, Gourmanché language, Gurma people, Gypsum, Hama Amadou, Hamallayya, Hamani Diori, Harvest, Hausa animism, Hausa Kingdoms, Hausa language, Hausa people, Health in Niger, Heavily indebted poor countries, High Council for Communication (Niger), History of Niger, Human Development Index, Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara, Ibrahim Niass, In-Gall, Infant mortality, Inquisitorial system, International airport, International Court of Justice, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, International Futures, International Monetary Fund, Iron ore, Islam, Jos, Journalism, Judiciary of Niger, Kandadji Dam, Kanem–Bornu Empire, Kanuri language, Kanuri people, Kaocen revolt, Kaouar, Kob, La Nigérienne, Lake Chad Basin Commission, Landlocked country, Lété Island, LGBT rights in Niger, Libya, Limestone, Liptako-Gourma Authority, List of airports in Niger, List of heads of state of Niger, List of Prime Ministers of Niger, Literacy, Madrasa, Maghreb, Maguzawa Hausa people, Mahamadou Issoufou, Mahamane Ousmane, Mainé-Soroa, Mali, Mali Empire, Mamadou Tandja, Mandinka people, Mano Dayak International Airport, Maouri people, Maradi Region, Maradi, Niger, Maternal death, Military dictatorship, Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès, Multi-party system, Multilateralism, Musa I of Mali, Music of Niger, N'guigmi, Napoleonic Code, National Assembly (Niger), National Geographic, National Guard of Niger, National language, National Police of Niger, Neolithic Subpluvial, Niamey, NIGELEC, Niger Basin Authority, Niger River, Nigeria, Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism, Nomad, Non-Aligned Movement, Non-denominational, Northwest African cheetah, Office of Radio and Television of Niger, Official language, OHADA, Open Doors, Orano, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Ouallam, Outline of Niger, Overpopulation, Parakou, Paul Sereno, Pearl millet, Pendjari National Park, Petronas, Phosphate, Political prisoner, Polygyny, Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Presidential system, Prime meridian, Privatization, Provisional government, Public domain, Radio France Internationale, Regions of Niger, Republic, Roan antelope, Sahara, Sahel, Sahel drought, Sahel-Benin Union, Salou Djibo, Samira Hill Gold Mine, Sarraounia, Saudi Arabia, Save the Children, Scimitar oryx, Secular state, Semi-presidential system, Senussi, Seyni Kountché, Seyni Oumarou, Shia Islam, Slate (magazine), Slavery in Niger, Sokoto Caliphate, SOMAIR, Songhai Empire, Songhai people, Songhay languages, SONITEL, Sorghum, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subsistence agriculture, Subtropics, Sufism, Sundiata Keita, Sunni Islam, Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy, Syncretism, Tahoua, Tahoua Region, Tariqa, Tasawaq language, Ténéré, Téra Department, Tchirozerine, Tebu languages, Telecommunications in Niger, Telephone numbers in Niger, Tessaoua, The Economist, The World Factbook, Tijaniyyah, Tillabéri Department, Tillabéri Region, Total fertility rate, Toubou people, Traditional African religions, Traditional Berber religion, Trans-Saharan trade, Transhumance, Tuareg languages, Tuareg people, Tuareg rebellion (2007–2009), Unicameralism, UNICEF, Unitary state, United Nations, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Security Council, United States Agency for International Development, United States Department of Labor, United States Department of State, Universal suffrage, Uranium, Uranium ore, Usman dan Fodio, Voulet–Chanoine Mission, W National Park, West Africa, West Africa Time, West African CFA franc, West African giraffe, West African lion, Wodaabe, World Bank, World Food Programme, Yedina language, Zarma people, Zinder, Zinder Airport, Zinder Region, .ne, 11th parallel north, 16th meridian east, 2009–10 Nigerien constitutional crisis, 2010 Nigerien coup d'état, 24th parallel north. Expand index (249 more) » « Shrink index
The Aïr and Ténéré National Nature Reserve is a national nature reserve in Niger.
The Aïr Mountains or Aïr Massif (Ayăr; Hausa: Eastern Azbin, Western Abzin) is a triangular massif, located in northern Niger, within the Sahara Desert.
Abalak (or Abalagh) is a town located in the Tahoua Region, Abalak Department of northern Niger.
Abū Yazīd Mukhallad ibn Kayrād al-Nukkari (أبو يزيد مخلد بن كيراد; 873 - 19 August 947), nicknamed Ṣāhib al-Himār "Possessor of the donkey", was a Ibadi Berber of the Banu Ifran tribe who led a rebellion against the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) starting in 944.
The addax (Addax nasomaculatus), also known as the white antelope and the screwhorn antelope, is an antelope of the genus Addax, that lives in the Sahara desert.
The African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development, or ACMAD, is an African weather office based in Niamey, Niger.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Agadez, formerly spelled Agades, is the largest city in central Niger, with a population of 118,244 (2012 census).
Agadez is an administrative Region in Niger.
Agriculture is the primary economic activity of a majority of Niger's 17 million citizens.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ali Saibou (17 June 1940 – 31 October 2011) was the third President of Niger from 1987 to 1993 succeeding the deceased Seyni Kountché.
André Salifou (born 1942.) is a Nigerien politician, diplomat, and professor.
Anfani FM is a privately operated radio network in Niger.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arli National Park often called Arly is a national park located in southeastern Burkina Faso.
Arlit is an industrial town and capital of the Arlit Department of the Agadez Region of northern-central Niger, built between the Sahara Desert and the eastern edge of the Aïr Mountains.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
"Bayajidda (Hausa: Bàyā̀jiddà) is the eponymous ancestor of the Hausa people of Nigeria and Niger.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
Bilateralism is the conduct of political, economic, or cultural relations between two sovereign states.
Bilma is an oasis town and commune in north east Niger with a population of 4,016 people.
Large swathes of the Sahel region, which were once covered by grasslands, savannah, woodlands and scrub, suffer from land degradation.
Birni-N'Konni (also Birnin-Konni or shortened to Konni/Bkonni) is a town in Niger, lying on the border of Nigeria and the Kori River.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Brigi Rafini (born 7 April 1953) is a Nigerien politician who has been Prime Minister of Niger since 2011.
The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs (DRL) is a bureau within the United States Department of State.
The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) is an operating unit of the United States Department of Labor which manages the Department's international responsibilities.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Cation-exchange capacity (CEC) is a measure of how many cations can be retained on soil particle surfaces.
The Central Bank of West African States (Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, BCEAO) is a central bank serving the eight west African countries which share the common West African CFA franc currency and comprise the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA).
The CFA franc (in French: franc CFA, or colloquially franc) is the name of two currencies used in parts of West and Central African countries which are guaranteed by the French treasury.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Chad Basin is the largest endorheic basin in Africa, centered on Lake Chad.
The China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)A common shortname for the corporation in Chinese, Zhongguo Shiyou (中国石油), formerly shared the same name as the Chinese Petroleum Corporation, the Republic of China (Taiwan)'s state-owned fuel corporation.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The cinema in Niger grew from ethnographic documentaries in the colonial period to become one of the most active national film cultures in Francophone Africa.
Cohabitation is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament.
COMINAK (Compagnie minière d'Akokan) is a national uranium mining company of Niger.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna.
Daouda Malam Wanké (May 6, 1946 – September 15, 2004) was a military and political leader in Niger.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Daurama or Magajiya Daurama (c. 9th century) was a ruler of the Hausa Nation, as the Last Kabara of Daura she presided over the upheaval that saw a transference of power from the matriarchal royal system of the Hausa people.
Debt relief or debt cancellation is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Niger, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The Regions of Niger are subdivided into 63 Departments (départements).
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diffa is a city and Urban Commune in the extreme southeast of Niger, near that country's border with Nigeria.
Diffa Arabs (ديفا عرب) (also known as Mahamid Arabs) is the Nigerien name given to Arab nomadic tribespeople living in eastern Niger, mostly in the Diffa Region.
Diffa is an administrative region in the southeast of Niger.
Diori Hamani International Airport is an airport in Niamey, the capital of Niger.
The urban community of Dongondoutchi ("High Hill"), also nicknamed Doutchi, is located about 300 km east of Niamey the capital of Niger and 40 km from the Nigerian border.
Dosso is an administrative Region of the Republic of Niger.
Dosso is a city in the south-west corner of Niger.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS, is a regional economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
Education in Niger, like that in other developing nations, particularly in the Sahelian region of Africa, faces challenges from poverty and poor access to schools.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elf Aquitaine was a French oil company which merged with TotalFina to form TotalFinaElf.
Esso is a trading name for ExxonMobil and its related companies.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Community (Communauté française) was an association of former French colonies, mostly from Africa.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Fula or Fulani jihads, were a series of independent but loosely connected events across Africa between the late 18th century and European colonisation, in which Muslim Fulas took control of various parts of the region.
Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
Gao is a city in Mali and the capital of the Gao Region.
Gaya is a city in the Dosso Region of Niger.
The Gendarmerie Nationale (Gendarmerie Nationale Nigérienne) is the national paramilitary police force of Niger.
Gotheye is a village and rural commune in Niger.
Gourmanchéma (Goulmacema, Gourma, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gulmancema, Gurma) is a major language of the Gurma people spoken in Burkina Faso, northern Togo and Benin, and Niger.
Gurma (also called Gourma or Gourmantché) is an ethnic group living mainly in Burkina Faso, around Fada N'Gourma, and also in northern areas of Togo and Benin, as well as southwestern Niger.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Hama Amadou (born 1949) is a Nigerien politician who was Prime Minister of Niger from 1995 to 1996 and again from 2000 to 2007.
Hamallayya or Hamallism is a sufi ṭarīqah (order, path) originating in West Africa as an outgrowth from and reaction against the Tijaniyyah brotherhood.
Hamani Diori (6 June 1916 – 23 April 1989) was the first President of the Republic of Niger.
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.
Hausa animism or Bori is an African traditional religion of the Hausa people of West Africa that involves spirit possession.
The Hausa Kingdom, also known as Hausaland, was a collection of states started by the Hausa people, situated between the Niger River and Lake Chad (modern day northern Nigeria).
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
The Hausa (autonyms for singular: Bahaushe (m), Bahaushiya (f); plural: Hausawa and general: Hausa; exonyms: Ausa) are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.
Public health in Niger suffers from a chronic lack of resources and a small number of health providers relative to population.
The heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) are a group of 37 developing countries with high levels of poverty and debt overhang which are eligible for special assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
The High Council for Communication (Le Conseil Supérieur de la Communication, CSC) of the West African state of Niger is a government body which regulates press and media.
This is the history of Niger.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara (May 9, 1949 – April 9, 1999) was a military officer in Niger who seized power in a January 1996 coup d'état and ruled the country until his assassination during the military coup of April 1999.
Ibrāhīm Niass (1900–1975)—also written Ibrahima Niasse in French, Ibrayima Ñas in Wolof, Shaykh al-'Islām al-Ḥājj Ibrāhīm ibn al-Ḥājj ʿAbd Allāh at-Tijānī al-Kawlakhī in Arabic, شيخ الإسلام الحاج إبراهيم إبن الحاج عبد الله التجاني الكولخي in Arabic alphabet—was a major leader of the Tijānī Sufi order of Islam in West Africa.
In-Gall (var. In Gall, I-n-Gall, In-Gal, Ingal, Ingall) is a town in the Agadez Region, Tchirozerine Department of northeast Niger, with a year-round population of less than 500.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defense.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an International organization which conducts agricultural research for rural development, headquartered in Patancheru (Hyderabad, Telangana, India) with several regional centers (Bamako (Mali), Nairobi (Kenya)) and research stations (Niamey (Niger), Kano (Nigeria), Lilongwe (Malawi), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)).
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jos is a city in the Middle Belt of Nigeria.
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.
The current judiciary of Niger was established with the creation of the Fourth Republic in 1999.
The Kandadji Dam, when completed, will be a large multipurpose dam on the Niger River.
The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria.
Kanuri is a dialect continuum spoken by some four million people, as of 1987, in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, as well as small minorities in southern Libya and by a diaspora in Sudan.
The Kanuri people (Kanouri, Kanowri, also Yerwa, Bare Bari and several subgroup names) are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon.
The Kaocen revolt was a Tuareg rebellion against French colonial rule of the area around the Aïr Mountains of northern Niger during 1916–17.
The Kaouar, or Kaouar Cliffs (Falaise Kaouar, Kaouar-tal) is a north-south escarpment running some in north east Niger.
The kob (Kobus kob) is an antelope found across sub-Saharan Africa, in Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria and some part of Senegal to South Sudan.
"La Nigérienne" is the national anthem of Niger.
The Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC or CBLT in French) is an intergovernmental organization that oversees water and other natural resource usage in the basin.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
Lété Island is an island in the Niger River, approx.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Niger face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
The Liptako–Gourma Authority (LGA) is a regional organization seeking to develop the contiguous areas of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger.
This is a list of airports in Niger, sorted by location.
This is a list of heads of state of Niger since the country gained independence from France in 1960 to the present day.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Niger since the formation of the post of Prime Minister of Niger in 1983 to the present day.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maguzawa are a subgroup of the Hausa people who still adhere to some of the tenets of the pre-Islamic traditional religions of Kano and Katsina, cities in northern Nigeria.
Mahamadou Issoufou (born 1951) is a Nigerien politician who has been President of Niger since 7 April 2011.
Mahamane Ousmane (born January 20, 1950), Inter-Parliamentary Union, press release no.
Mainé-Soroa (Maine-Soroa, Maïné-Soroa) is a town in southeastern Niger, the capital of the Mainé-Soroa Department, and is in turn part of Diffa Region.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from 1230 to 1670.
Lieutenant Colonel (ret.) Mamadou Tandja (born 1938, accessed May 20, 2007.) is a Nigerien politician who was President of Niger from 1999 to 2010.
The Mandinka (also known as Mandenka, Mandinko, Mandingo, Manding or Malinke) are an African ethnic group with an estimated global population of 11 million (the other three largest ethnic groups in Africa being the unrelated Fula, Hausa and Songhai peoples).
Mano Dayak International Airport is an airport in Agadez in Niger.
The Maouri people are an ethnic group in western Africa.
The Region of Maradi is one of seven Regions of Niger.
Maradi is the third largest city in Niger and the administrative centre of Maradi Region.
Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès (also Mont Bagzane, Mont Bagzan) is the highest mountain in Niger.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.
Musa I or Mansa Musa was the tenth Mansa, which translates to "sultan", "conqueror", or "emperor", of the wealthy West African Mali Empire.
The music of Niger has developed from the musical traditions of a mix of ethnic groups; Hausa, the Zarma Songhai people, Tuareg, Fula Kanuri, Toubou, Diffa Arabs and Gurma.
N'guigmi is a city and Commune of fifteen thousand in the easternmost part of Niger, very near to Lake Chad – lying on its shore until the lake retreated.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
The unicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) is Niger's sole legislative body.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
Formerly known as the Forces Nationales d’Intervention et de Securité (1997-2011)Historical Dictionary of Niger pp.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
The National police (fr. Police nationale) of Niger are one of two Police forces, previously under the control of the Armed Forces of Niger, but following the Constitution of 1999, come under the control of the Ministry of the Interior.
The Neolithic Subpluvial, or the Holocene Wet Phase, was an extended period (from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE) of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa.
Niamey is the capital and largest city of the West African country Niger.
NIGELEC (Société Nigérienne d'Electricité, Nigerien Electricity Society) is the Parastatal electric power generation and transmission utility in Niger.
The Niger Basin Authority (Autorité du Bassin du Niger) is an intergovernmental organisation in West Africa aiming to foster co-operation in managing and developing the resources of the basin of the River Niger.
The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism (Parti Nigerien pour la Democratie et le Socialisme, PNDS-Tarayya) is a political party in Niger.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
A non-denominational person or organization is not restricted to any particular or specific religious denomination.
The Northwest African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki), also known as the Saharan cheetah, is a cheetah subspecies native to the Sahara desert and the Sahel.
The Office of Radio and Television of Niger (fr: Office de radiodiffusion et Télévision du Niger), or ORTN, is the state broadcaster of the West African nation of Niger.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
OHADA is a system of corporate law and implementing institutions adopted by seventeen West and Central African nations in 1993 in Port Louis, Mauritius.
Open Doors is a non-denominational mission supporting persecuted Christians in over 70 countries where Christianity is socially or legally discouraged or oppressed.
Orano (previously Areva) is a French multinational group specializing in nuclear power and renewable energy headquartered in Paris La Défense.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Ouallam is a town in southwestern Niger.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Niger: Niger – landlocked sovereign country located in West Africa.
Overpopulation occurs when a species' population exceeds the carrying capacity of its ecological niche.
Parakou is the largest city in northern Benin, with an estimated population of around 206,667 people, and capital of the Borgou Department.
Paul Callistus Sereno (born October 11, 1957) is a professor of paleontology at the University of Chicago and a National Geographic "explorer-in-residence" who has discovered several new dinosaur species on several continents, including at sites in Inner Mongolia, Argentina, Morocco and Niger.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet.
The Pendjari National Park (Parc National de la Pandjari) lies in north western Benin, adjoining the Arli National Park in Burkina Faso.
PETRONAS, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad (National Petroleum, Limited), is a Malaysian oil and gas company that was founded on 17 August 1974.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.
Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.
The Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) is an arm of the International Monetary Fund which lends to the world's poorest countries.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
A provisional government, also called a morning or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition, generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
Radio France Internationale generally referred to by its acronym RFI, is a French public radio service that broadcasts in Paris and all over the world.
Niger is divided into seven regions (French: régions; singularrégion), each named after its capital.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) is a savanna antelope found in West, Central, East and Southern Africa.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
The Sahel has long experienced a series of historic droughts, dating back to at least the 17th century.
Sahel-Benin Union was a short-lived union of four former French colonies of French West Africa, that were the four Republics of Upper Volta (Burkina Faso), Niger, Dahomey (Benin) and Côte d’Ivoire.
Lieutenant General Salou Djibo (born 15 April 1965) is a Nigerien military officer.
The Samira Hill Gold Mine (fr. Mine d'Or du Mont Samira) is a gold mine in Téra Department of the Tillabéri Region in Niger.
Sarraounia Mangou was a chief/priestess of the animist Azna subgroup of the Hausa, who fought French colonial troops of the Voulet–Chanoine Mission at the Battle of Lougou (in present-day Niger) in 1899.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Save the Children Fund, commonly known as Save the Children, is an international non-governmental organisation that promotes children's rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries.
The scimitar oryx or scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), also known as the Sahara oryx, is a species of Oryx once widespread across North Africa which went extinct in the wild in 2000.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The Senussi, or Sanussi (السنوسية), are a Muslim political-religious tariqa (Sufi order) and clan in colonial Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi (السنوسي الكبير), the Algerian Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.
Seyni Kountché (1 July 1931 – 10 November 1987) was a Nigerien military officer who led a 1974 coup d'état that deposed the government of Niger's first president, Hamani Diori.
Seyni Oumarou (born August 9, 1951, Sahel Quotidien, June 4, 2007.) is a Nigerien politician who was Prime Minister of Niger from June 2007 to September 2009 and President of the National Assembly of Niger from November 2009 to February 2010.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
Slavery in Niger involves a number of different practices which have been practiced in the Sahel region for many centuries and which persist to this day.
The Sokoto Caliphate was an independent Islamic Sunni Caliphate, in West Africa.
SOMAIR (Société des Mines de l'Air) is a national mining company of Niger in the mining area of its northern zone.
The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century.
The Songhai people (also Songhay or Sonrai) are an ethnic group in West Africa who speak the various Songhai languages.
The Songhay or Songhai languages are a group of closely related languages/dialects centred on the middle stretches of the Niger River in the West African countries of Mali, Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso and Nigeria.
SONITEL (an acronym of Société Nigérienne des Télécommunications or Nigerien Telecommunications Society) is the Nigerien national telephone and telecommunications carrier.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sundiata Keita (Mandinka, Malinke, Bambara) (1217 – c. 1255) (also known as Manding Diara, Lion of Mali, Sogolon Djata, son of Sogolon, Nare Maghan and Sogo Sogo Simbon Salaba) was a puissant prince and founder of the Mali Empire.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy (French: Conseil suprême pour la Restauration de la Démocratie, or CSRD), led by Salou Djibo, was a military junta that staged a coup in Niger on 18 February 2010, deposing President Mamadou Tandja in response to Tandja's attempts to remain in office after his term was over.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Tahoua is a city in Niger and the administrative centre of the Department of Tahoua and the larger Tahoua Region.
Tahoua is one of eight administrative Regions in Niger.
A tariqa (or tariqah; طريقة) is a school or order of Sufism, or specifically a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth".
Tasawaq (Tuareg name: Tesăwăq), sometimes also called Ingelshi, is a Northern Songhay language spoken by the Issawaghan (or Ingalkoyyu), a community surrounding the town of Ingal in Niger.
The Ténéré (Berber: Tiniri, literally: desert, wilderness) is a desert region in the south central Sahara.
Téra is a department of the Tillabéri Region in Niger.
Tchirozerine is a town and urban commune in Niger.
Tebu is a small family of two Saharan languages, consisting of Daza and Teda.
Telecommunications in Niger include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.
Tessaoua, formerly known as Tessawa, is a city located in the Maradi Region of Niger.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Tijāniyyah (The Tijānī Path) is a sufi tariqa (order, path) within Sunni Islam, originating in North Africa but now more widespread in West Africa, particularly in Senegal, The Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Guinea, Niger, Chad, Ghana, Northern and South-western Nigeria and some part of Sudan.
Tillabéri is a department of the Tillabéri Region in Niger.
Tillabéri (var. Tillabéry) is an administrative Region in Niger; the capital of the Region is Tillabéri.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
The Toubou, or Tubu (from Old Tebu, meaning "rock people"), are an ethnic group inhabiting northern Chad, southern Libya, northeastern Niger and northwestern Sudan.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
The traditional Berber religion is the ancient and native set of beliefs and deities adhered to by the Berber autochthones of North Africa.
Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.
Transhumance is a type of nomadism or pastoralism, a seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.
Tuareg, also known as Tamasheq, Tamajaq or Tamahaq (Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵌⴰⵆ), is a language or family of very closely related Berber languages and dialects.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
The Tuareg Rebellion of 2007–2009 was an insurgency that began in February 2007 amongst elements of the Tuareg people living in the Sahara desert regions of northern Mali and Niger.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.
Shaihu Usman dan Fodio, born Usuman ɓii Foduye, (also referred to as عثمان بن فودي, Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodio, Shehu Uthman Dan Fuduye, Shehu Usman dan Fodio or Shaikh Uthman Ibn Fodio) (15 December 1754, Senegal – 20 April 1817, Sokoto) was a religious teacher, writer and Islamic promoter, and the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate.
The Voulet–Chanoine Mission or Central African-Chad Mission (mission Afrique Centrale-Tchad) was a French military expedition sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa.
The W National Park or W Regional Park (W du Niger) is a major national park in West Africa around a meander in the River Niger shaped like the letter W. The park includes areas of the three countries Niger, Benin and Burkina Faso, and is governed by the three governments.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in west-central Africa; with countries west of Benin instead using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT; equivalent to UTC with no offset).
The West African CFA franc (franc CFA; franco CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XOF) is the currency of eight independent states in West Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo.
The West African giraffe, Niger giraffe or Nigerien giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta) is a subspecies of the giraffe distinguished by its light colored spots, which is found in the Sahel regions of West Africa.
The West African lion (Panthera leo leo) is a lion population in West Africa that is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
The Wodaabe (Woɗaaɓe), also known as the Mbororo or Bororo, are a small subgroup of the Fulani ethnic group.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
Yedina, also known as Buduma (Boudouma), is a Chadic language of the Biu–Mandara branch spoken around Lake Chad in western Chad and neighbouring Cameroon and Nigeria.
The Zarma people are an ethnic group predominantly found in westernmost Niger also found in significant numbers in the adjacent areas of Nigeria and Benin, along with smaller numbers in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast and Ghana.
Zinder (locally, Damagaram), formerly also spelled Sinder, is the second largest city in Niger, with a population of 170,574 (2001 census);, citing.
Zinder Airport is an airport serving Zinder, Niger, near the city.
Zinder Region is an administrative Region in Niger, the capital of the Region is the Commune of Zinder.
.ne is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Niger.
The 11th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 11 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 16° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 2009–2010 Nigerien constitutional crisis occurred in Niger due to a political conflict between President Mamadou Tandja and judicial and legislative bodies regarding the Constitutional referendum that opponents claimed was an attempt to extend his mandate beyond the constitutional maximum.
A coup d'état occurred in Niger on 18 February 2010.
The 24th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 24 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
ISO 3166-1:NE, Niger (country), Niger Republic, Nigerien, Nigerois, Republic Of Niger, Republic of Niger, Republic of the Niger, Republique du Niger, République du Niger, The Niger, The Republic of Niger.