268 relations: Abu Hamad, Achwa River, African Great Lakes, Agatharchides, Akhet (hieroglyph), Al Dabbah, Sudan, Al Mansheiya Bridge, Alexandria, Amazon River, Anabranch, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Arabic, Aswan, Aswan Dam, Asyut, Atbara, Atbarah River, Athanasius Kircher, Bahr el Arab rift, Bahr el Ghazal (region of South Sudan), Bahr el Ghazal River, Bahr el Zeraf, Bayuda Desert, Before Present, BGN/PCGN romanization, Biblical Hebrew, Blue Nile, Blue Nile Falls, Blue Nile rift, Blue Nile Road and Railway Bridge, Boulak Bridge, Bujagali Hydroelectric Power Station, Bukoba, Burundi, Bururi Province, Cairo, Camel, Cammell Laird, Canada, Canadians, Cataracts of the Nile, Central African Shear Zone, Chad, Cicero, Clastic rock, Clay, Confluence, Congo River, ..., Coptic language, Damietta, Damot, David Livingstone, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Desert, Distributary, Drainage basin, Dry season, East African Rift, Edfu, Egypt, Egyptian Arabic, Egyptian language, Egyptian Public Works, Encyclopædia Britannica, Entebbe, Eratosthenes, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ethiopian Highlands, Evaporation, Evapotranspiration, Felucca, Flax, Flooding of the Nile, Florence Baker, Ge'ez script, Ghazal, Gish Abay, Giza, Giza pyramid complex, Goa, Groundwater, Gulf of Sirte, Hapi (Nile god), Harvard University Press, Helwan, Hendrik Coetzee, Henry Morton Stanley, Herodotus, Hesiod, History of Egypt, History of Sudan, Horn of Africa, Hydrological transport model, IMAX, Imbaba Bridge, ITV (TV network), James Augustus St. John, James Bruce, Jerónimo Lobo, Jinja, Uganda, Joanna Lumley, Johann Michael Vansleb, John Goddard (adventurer), John Hanning Speke, John Petherick, Jonglei Canal, Joseph Kony, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Juba, Jur River, Kagera River, Karuma, Karuma Falls, Kenya, Khartoum, Kiira Hydroelectric Power Station, Kom Ombo, Kordofan, Lake Albert (Africa), Lake Baringo, Lake Kyoga, Lake Moeris, Lake Nasser, Lake No, Lake Tana, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Latin, Libya, List of explorers, List of rivers by length, Liverpool, Luxor, Mac Nimir Bridge, Main stem, Malakal, Mansoura, Egypt, Masaesyli, Masindi Port, Massawa, Mauretania, Mediterranean Sea, Melut Basin, Merowe Dam, Merowe, Sudan, Messinian salinity crisis, Minya, Egypt, Miocene, Modern Standard Arabic, Mombasa, Mongalla, South Sudan, Mount Kilimanjaro, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Murchison Falls, Mystery of the Nile, Nalubaale Hydroelectric Power Station, Napoleon, National Geographic Society, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Natural History (Pliny), Neogene, New Vision (newspaper), New Zealand, Niger River, Nile Basin Initiative, Nile Delta, Nilus (mythology), Nimule, Nubia, Nubian Swell, Nyabarongo River, Nyungwe Forest, Oceanus, Orders of magnitude (length), Ouaddaï highlands, Outboard motor, Owen Falls, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Paddle steamer, Paleogene, Papyrus, Pedro Páez, Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use, Pharaoh, Pliny the Elder, Popular Science, Potamoi, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Qasr El Nil Bridge, Quaternary glaciation, Queen Victoria, Ra, Red Sea, Renk, South Sudan, Richard Francis Burton, Ripon Falls, River, River delta, River source, Roman Empire, Romanization of Arabic, Rosetta, Rukarara River, Rusumo Falls, Ruvyironza River, Rwanda, Sabaloka Game Reserve, Sahara, Samuel Baker, Satellite imagery, Sea level, Season of the Emergence, Season of the Harvest, Semitic languages, Shendi, Siege of Khartoum, Silt, Sobat River, Society of Jesus, South Africa, South Sudan, Springer Science+Business Media, Stone Age, Stream capture, Suakin, Sudan, Sudd, Suez Canal, Syria, Tabula Rogeriana, Tanzania, Tectonics, Tekezé River, Tertiary, Tethys (mythology), The New York Times, Thebes, Egypt, Theogony, Ticknor and Fields, Tigray Province, Tim Jeal, Transpiration, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, Tributary, Uganda, United States Board on Geographic Names, University of Alberta, Vid Flumina, Virunga Mountains, Wadi Howar, Water, Water buffalo, Water politics in the Nile Basin, West Darfur, Wheat, White Nile, White Nile rift, Whitewater, William Blackwood, William Clowes Ltd., Yalo, Zambia, Zande people, 6th October Bridge. Expand index (218 more) » « Shrink index
Abu Hamad (Arabic: أبو حمد), also spelt 'Abu Hamed', is a town of Sudan on the right bank of the Nile, 345 mi by rail north of Khartoum.
The Achwa River is a river of Uganda in eastern Africa.
The African Great Lakes (Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.
Agatharchides or Agatharchus (Ἀγαθαρχίδης or Ἀγάθαρχος, Agatharchos) of Cnidus was a Greek historian and geographer (flourished 2nd century BC).
Akhet (Ꜣḫt; Gardiner:N27) is an Egyptian hieroglyph that represents the place where the sun rises or sets.
Al Dabbah (also known as Ed Debba, El Debba, El Debbah or Ed Debbah) is a town on the river banks of the Nile, which is served by the Al Dabbah Airport.
Al Mansheiya Bridge is a bridge that links the capital Khartoum and the industrial city Khartoum North across the Blue Nile in central Sudan.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
An anabranch is a section of a river or stream that diverts from the main channel or stem of the watercourse and rejoins the main stem downstream.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aswan (أسوان; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.
The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970.
AsyutMore often spelled Assiout or Assiut.
Atbara (sometimes Atbarah) (عطبرة ʿAṭbarah) is a city of 111,399 (2007) located in River Nile State in northeastern Sudan.
The Atbarah River (نهر عطبرة; transliterated: Nahr 'Atbarah) in northeast Africa rises in northwest Ethiopia, approximately 50 km north of Lake Tana and 30 km west of Gondar.
Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner; Athanasius Kircherus, 2 May 1602 – 28 November 1680) was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine.
The Bahr el Arab rift is a major geological feature in the southwest Sudan.
The Bahr el Ghazal is a historical region of northwestern South Sudan.
The Bahr el Ghazal (بحر الغزال) (also spelled Bahr al Ghazal and Baḩr al Ghazāl) is a river in South Sudan.
The Bahr el Zeraf (Baḥr ez-Zerāf, also spelt Bahr az-Zaraf, Bahr ez Zeraf, and Baḩr az Zarāf), or Zeraf River in the English language, is an arm of the White Nile in the Sudd region of South Sudan.
The Bayuda Desert, located at, is in the eastern region of the Sahara Desert, spanning approximately 100,000 km² of NE Sudan north of Omdurman and south of Korti, embraced by the great bend of the Nile in the N, E and S and limited by the Wadi Muqaddam in the W. The north to south aligned Wadi Abu Dom divides the Bayuda Desert into the eastern Bayuda Volcanic Field and the western ochre-coloured sand-sheets scattered with rocky outcrop.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization (transliteration into the Latin script) and Roman-script spelling conventions adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN).
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
The Blue Nile is a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia.
The Blue Nile Falls is a waterfall on the Blue Nile river in Ethiopia.
The Blue Nile rift is a major geological formation in the Sudan, a rift with a NW trend that terminates on the Central African Shear Zone.
The Blue Nile Road and Railway Bridge is a bascule bridge in Sudan, which links the capital Khartoum to the industrial city Khartoum North across the Blue Nile.
The Boulak Bridge (also called the Boulac Bridge, Abou El Ela Bridge, Abou al-Ela Bridge) was a bridge that crossed the Nile River in Cairo, Egypt.
The Bujagali Power Station is a hydroelectric power station across the Victoria Nile that harnesses the energy of its namesake – the Bujagali Falls – in Uganda.
Bukoba is a city situated in the north west of The United Republic Of Tanzania on the south western shores of Lake Victoria.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Bururi Province is one of the eighteen provinces of Burundi.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Cammell Laird is a British shipbuilding company.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.
The Cataracts of the Nile are shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River, between Aswan and Khartoum, where the surface of the water is broken by many small boulders and stones jutting out of the river bed, as well as many rocky islets.
The Central African Shear Zone (CASZ) (or Shear System) is a wrench fault system extending in an ENE direction from the Gulf of Guinea through Cameroon into Sudan.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
In geography, a confluence (also: conflux) occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel.
The Congo River (also spelled Kongo River and known as the Zaire River) is the second longest river in Africa after the Nile and the second largest river in the world by discharge volume of water (after the Amazon), and the world's deepest river with measured depths in excess of.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
Damietta (دمياط,; ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ) also known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see.
Damot (Amharic: ዳሞት) was a medieval kingdom in what is now Ethiopia, and neighbor to the Ethiopian Empire.
David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Christian Congregationalist, pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society, an explorer in Africa, and one of the most popular British heroes of the late-19th-century Victorian era.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics.
The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.
Edfu (إدفو,; also spelt Idfu, or in modern French as Edfou, and known in antiquity as Behdet) is an Egyptian city, located on the west bank of the Nile River between Esna and Aswan, with a population of approximately sixty thousand people.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
The Egyptian Department of Public Works was established in the early 19th century, and concentrates mainly on public works relating to irrigation and hydraulic engineering.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Entebbe is a major town in Central Uganda.
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
A felucca (فلوكة, possibly originally from Greek ἐφόλκιον (Epholkion)) is a traditional wooden sailing boat used in protected waters of the Red Sea and eastern Mediterranean, in Egypt and Sudan (particularly along the Nile), including Malta and Tunisia, and also in Iraq.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times.
Florence, Lady Baker or Barbara Szász; Maria Freiin von Sass; Barbara Szasz; Barbara Maria Szász; Barbara Maria Szasz (Sass Flóra; 6 August 1841 – 11 March 1916) was a Hungarian–British explorer.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The ghazal (غزَل, غزل, غزل), a type of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry.
Gish Abay is a town in west-central Ethiopia.
Giza (sometimes spelled Gizah or Jizah; الجيزة; ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ, ⲅⲓⲍⲁ) is the third-largest city in Egypt and the capital of the Giza Governorate.
The Giza pyramid complex (أهرامات الجيزة,, "pyramids of Giza") is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Gulf of Sirte (خليج سرت, Khalij Surt), or Gulf of Sidra (خليج السدرة, Khalij as-Sidra) after the port of Sidra, is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya.
Hapi was the god of the annual flooding of the Nile in ancient Egyptian religion.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Helwan (حلوان,, Halouan) is a city in Egypt and part of Greater Cairo, on the bank of the Nile, opposite the ruins of Memphis.
Hendrik "Hendri" Coetzee (c. 1975 – 7 December 2010) was a renowned South African outdoorsman and author.
Sir Henry Morton Stanley (born John Rowlands; 28 January 1841 – 10 May 1904) was a Welsh journalist and explorer who was famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for missionary and explorer David Livingstone.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and outside influence.
The history of Sudan includes that of both the territory that composes Republic of the Sudan as well as that of a larger region known by the term "Sudan".
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
An hydrological transport model is a mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters.
IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats and film projectors.
The Imbaba Bridge is a major railway bridge located in Cairo, Egypt across the Nile River.
ITV is a British commercial TV network.
James Augustus St.
James Bruce of Kinnaird (14 December 1730 – 27 April 1794) was a Scottish traveller and travel writer who spent more than a dozen years in North Africa and Ethiopia, where he traced the origins of the Blue Nile.
Jerónimo Lobo (1595 – 29 January 1678) was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary.
Jinja is a town in Uganda, the third-largest economy in the East African Community.
Joanna Lamond Lumley, (born 1 May 1946) is an English actress, former model, author and activist.
Johann Michael Vansleb (1 November 1635 – 1679) was a German theologian, linguist and Egypt traveller.
John Goddard (July 29, 1924 – May 17, 2013) was an American adventurer, explorer, author, and lecturer.
John Hanning Speke (4 May 1827 – 15 September 1864) was an English explorer and officer in the British Indian Army who made three exploratory expeditions to Africa.
John Petherick (1813 – 15 July 1882), Welsh traveller, trader and consul in East Central Africa.
The Jonglei Canal is a canal project that has been proposed, started but never completed to divert water through the vast Sudd wetlands of South Sudan so as to deliver more water downstream to Sudan and Egypt for use in agriculture.
Joseph Rao Kony (born July 24, 1961) is the leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), a guerrilla group that formerly operated in Uganda.
The Journal of the Royal Statistical Society is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of statistics.
Juba (جوبا) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of South Sudan.
The Jur River (also Sue River) is a river in western South Sudan, flowing through the Bahr el Ghazal and Equatoria regions.
The Kagera River, also Akagera River, or Alexandra Nile, is an East African river, forming part of the upper headwaters of the Nile and carrying water from its most distant source.
Karuma is a settlement in the Western Region of Uganda.
Karuma Falls is a town in Uganda.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
Kiira Power Station, sometimes spelled Kiyira Power Station, is a hydroelectric power station with an installed capacity of, in Uganda.
Kom Ombo (كوم أمبو, Ⲉⲙⲃⲱ Embo, Ὄμβοι Omboi, Ptol. iv. 5. § 73; Steph. B. s. v.; It. Anton. p. 165) or Ombos (Juv. xv. 35) or Latin: Ambo (Not. Imp. sect. 20) and Ombi – is an agricultural town in Egypt famous for the Temple of Kom Ombo.
Kordofan (كردفان) is a former province of central Sudan.
Lake Albert, also Albert Nyanza and formerly Lake Mobutu Sese Seko, is a lake located in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Lake Baringo is, after Lake Turkana, the most northern of the Kenyan Rift Valley lakes, with a surface area of about and an elevation of about.
Lake Kyoga (also spelled Kioga) is a large shallow lake in Uganda, about in area and at an elevation of 1,033 metres.
Lake Moeris (Μοῖρις, genitive Μοίριδος) is an ancient lake in the northwest of the Faiyum Oasis, southwest of Cairo, Egypt.
Lake Nasser (بحيرة ناصر) is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.
Lake No is a lake in South Sudan.
Lake Tana (also spelled T'ana, ጣና ሀይቅ,,; an older variant is Tsana, Ge'ez: ጻና Ṣānā; sometimes called "Dembiya" after the region to the north of the lake) is the source of the Blue Nile and is the largest lake in Ethiopia.
Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake.
Lake Victoria (Nam Lolwe in Luo; Nalubaale in Luganda; Nyanza in Kinyarwanda and some Bantu languages) is one of the African Great Lakes.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The following is a list of explorers.
This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Luxor (الأقصر; Egyptian Arabic:; Sa'idi Arabic) is a city in Upper (southern) Egypt and the capital of Luxor Governorate.
Opened in 2007, the Mac Nimir Bridge links Khartoum, Sudan with Khartoum North across the Blue Nile river.
In hydrology, a main stem (or trunk) is "the primary downstream segment of a river, as contrasted to its tributaries".
Malakal is a city and Latin Catholic bishopric in South Sudan and second largest city after the national capital Juba.
El-Mansoura (المنصورة,, rural) is a city in Egypt, with a population of 960,423.
The Masaesyli were a Berber tribe of western Numidia and the main antagonists of the Massylii in eastern Numidia.
Masindi Port is a town in Uganda.
Massawa (Maṣṣawa‘, Mitsiwa), also known as Miṣṣiwa‘ (مِـصِّـوَع) and Bāḍiʿ (بَـاضِـع),Matt Phillips, Jean-Bernard Carillet, Lonely Planet Ethiopia and Eritrea, (Lonely Planet: 2006), p.340.
Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Melut Basin is a rift basin in South Sudan.
The Merowe Dam, also known as Merowe High Dam, Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large dam near Merowe Town in northern Sudan, about north of the capital Khartoum.
Merowe is a town in Northern State, Sudan, near Karima Town, about north of Khartoum.
The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), also referred to as the Messinian Event, and in its latest stage as the Lago Mare event, was a geological event during which the Mediterranean Sea went into a cycle of partly or nearly complete desiccation throughout the latter part of the Messinian age of the Miocene epoch, from 5.96 to 5.33 Ma (million years ago).
MinyaAlso spelled el… or al… …Menia, …Minia or …Menya.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Mombasa is a city on the coast of Kenya.
Mongalla or Mangalla is a community in Jubek State in South Sudan, on the east side of the Bahr al Jebel or White Nile river.
Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, "Kibo", "Mawenzi", and "Shira", is a dormant volcano in Tanzania.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
Murchison Falls, also known as Kabalega Falls, is a waterfall between Lake Kyoga and Lake Albert on the White Nile River in Uganda.
Mystery of the Nile is a 2005 IMAX film documenting the first successful expedition to navigate the entire length of the Blue Nile and Nile from its source in Ethiopia to the Mediterranean Sea.
Nalubaale Power Station, formerly known as Owen Falls Dam, is a hydroelectric power station across the White Nile near to its source at Lake Victoria in Uganda.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.
The New Vision is an English-language newspaper published daily in print form and online.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.
The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) is a partnership among the Nile riparian states that “seeks to develop the river in a cooperative manner, share substantial socioeconomic benefits, and promote regional peace and security”.
The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
Nilus or Neilos (Ancient Greek: Νειλος or Νεῖλόν), in Greek mythology, was one of the Potamoi, children of Oceanus and Tethys.
Nimule is a town in the southern part of South Sudan in Magwi County, Imatong State.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
The Nubian Swell is a geologic structural uplift in northern Africa that trends east-west and separates the lower Nile of Egypt from the Sudan basin.
The Nyabarongo (or Nyawarungu) is a major river in Rwanda, part of the upper headwaters of the Nile.
The Nyungwe rainforest is located in southwestern Rwanda, at the border with Burundi, to the south, and Lake Kivu and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn), was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.
The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.
Ouaddaï Highlands is an area in east of Chad along the border with Sudan.
An outboard motor is a propulsion system for boats, consisting of a self-contained unit that includes engine, gearbox and propeller or jet drive, designed to be affixed to the outside of the transom.
The Owen Falls was a waterfall on the White Nile in Uganda near the city of Jinja, 4 km from the point at which the river leaves Lake Victoria.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat powered by a steam engine that drives paddle wheels to propel the craft through the water.
The Paleogene (also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene Period Mya.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Pedro Páez Jaramillo (Portuguese: Pêro Pais; 1564 – May 25, 1622) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary in Ethiopia.
The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN) is an independent inter-departmental body in the United Kingdom established in 1919.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
The Potamoi (Ποταμοί, "Rivers") are the gods of rivers and streams of the earth in Greek mythology.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
The Qasr El Nil Bridge (originally named Khedive Ismail Bridge), also commonly spelled Kasr El Nil Bridge, is a historic structure dating to 1931 and replaced the first bridge to span the Nile River in central Cairo, Egypt.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Ra (rꜥ or rˤ; also transliterated rˤw; cuneiform: ri-a or ri-ia) or Re (ⲣⲏ, Rē) is the ancient Egyptian sun god.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Renk is a town in South Sudan.
Sir Richard Francis Burton (19 March 1821 – 20 October 1890) was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat.
Ripon Falls at the northern end of Lake Victoria in Uganda was formerly considered the source of the river Nile.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
Rosetta (رشيد; Rosette; ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ Rashit) is a port city of the Nile Delta, located east of Alexandria, in Egypt's Beheira governorate.
The Rukarara River (or Lukarara) is a river in western Rwanda that is a tributary of the Mwogo River, in turn a tributary of the Nyabarongo River.
Rusumo Falls is a waterfall located on the Kagera river on the border between Rwanda and Tanzania, part of the most distant headwaters of the river Nile.
The Ruvyironza (or Luvironza) River is a river in Africa which is considered by some to be the most remote source of the Nile, the world's longest river.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The Sabaloka Game Reserve is found in Sudan.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Sir Samuel White Baker, KCB, FRS, FRGS (8 June 1821 – 30 December 1893) was an English explorer, officer, naturalist, big game hunter, engineer, writer and abolitionist.
Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
The Season of the Emergence (Prt) was the second season of the lunar and civil Egyptian calendars.
The Season of the Harvest or Low Water was the third and final season of the lunar and civil Egyptian calendars.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Shendi or Shandi (Arabic: شندي) is a town in northern Sudan, situated on the east bank of the Nile River 150 km northeast of Khartoum.
The Battle of Khartoum, Siege of Khartoum or Fall of Khartoum was the conquest of Egyptian-held Khartoum by the Mahdist forces led by Muhammad Ahmad.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
The Sobat River is a river of the Greater Upper Nile region in northeastern South Sudan, Africa.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Stream capture, river capture, river piracy or stream piracy is a geomorphological phenomenon occurring when a stream or river drainage system or watershed is diverted from its own bed, and flows instead down the bed of a neighbouring stream.
Suakin or Sawakin (سواكن Sawákin) is a port city in north-eastern Sudan, on the west coast of the Red Sea, which has been leased to the Republic of Turkey for 99 years by bilateral agreement.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Sudd is a vast swamp in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile's Baḥr al-Jabal section.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Nuzhat al-mushtāq fi'khtirāq al-āfāq (نزهة المشتاق في اختراق الآفاق, lit. "the book of pleasant journeys into faraway lands"), most often known as the Tabula Rogeriana (lit. "The Book of Roger" in Latin), is a description of the world and world map created by the Arab geographer, Muhammad al-Idrisi, in 1154.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
The Tekezé River (ተከዘ or ተከዜ), also known as the Takkaze River, is a major river of Ethiopia.
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.
In Greek mythology, Tethys (Τηθύς), was a Titan daughter of Uranus and Gaia, sister and wife of Titan-god Oceanus, mother of the Potamoi and the Oceanids.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.
The Theogony (Θεογονία, Theogonía,, i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the gods") is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 700 BC.
Ticknor and Fields was an American publishing company based in Boston, Massachusetts.
Tigray was a province of the Ethiopian Empire and of the PDRE until 1995.
Tim Jeal (born 27 January 1945 in London, England) is a biographer of notable Victorians and is also a novelist.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, In the Years 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772 and 1773 is a multi-volume account by the Scottish traveller James Bruce (1730–94) of his journeys in the Horn of Africa, which includes an eye-witness account of Ethiopian history and culture, as well as a description of that country and the neighboring kingdom of Sennar and the Ottoman province of Habesh.
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal body operating under the United States Secretary of the Interior.
The University of Alberta (also known as U of A and UAlberta) is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Vid Flumina is a river of liquid methane and ethane on Saturn's moon Titan.
The Virunga Mountains (also known as Mufumbiro) are a chain of volcanoes in East Africa, along the northern border of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Uganda.
Wadi Howar (Wadi Howa) is a wadi in Sudan and Chad.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
The Nile river is subject to political interactions.
West Darfur State (Wilāyat Ḡarb Dārfūr; Gharb Darfor) is one of the states of Sudan, and one of five comprising the Darfur region.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The White Nile (النيل الأبيض) is a river in Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile; the other is the Blue Nile.
The White Nile rift is one of several rifts in central Sudan running in a NW direction and terminating in the Central African Shear Zone.
Whitewater is formed in a rapid, when a river's gradient increases enough to create so much turbulence that air is entrained into the water body, that is, it forms a bubbly or aerated and unstable current; the frothy water appears white.
William Blackwood (20 November 1776 – 16 September 1834) was a Scottish publisher who founded the firm of William Blackwood and Sons.
William Clowes Ltd. is a British printing company founded in London in 1803 by William Clowes.
Yalo (يالو, also transliterated Yalu) was a Palestinian Arab village located 13 kilometres southeast of Ramla.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
The Azande (plural of "Zande" in the Zande language) are an ethnic group of North Central Africa.
The 6th October Bridge (جسر 6 أكتوبر, Kubri 6 uktubar) is an elevated highway in central Cairo, Egypt.
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