415 relations: Aardvark, Aestivation, Africa, African buffalo, African bush elephant, African clawless otter, African darter, African fish eagle, African manatee, African marsh rat, African rock python, African wild dog, African wildcat, Agriculture, Alligator, Ambush predator, American alligator, American crocodile, Amietophrynus regularis, Ampullariidae, Ancient Egypt, Angola, Anseriformes, Antelope, Ape, Apex predator, Arabic, Arachnid, Arba Minch, Aswan Dam, Baboon, Bagrus, Barbus, Basketball (ball), Bass (fish), Bat, Beetle, Belostomatidae, Bible, Big cat, Binomial nomenclature, Bird, Bite force quotient, Biting, Bitis arietans, Bivalvia, Black caiman, Black mamba, Black rhinoceros, Blue wildebeest, ..., Botswana, Brady Barr, Brown hyena, Bull shark, Burundi, Bushpig, Bustard, Buzzard, Caiman, Cameroon, Cane rat, Canter and gallop, Cape bushbuck, Cape porcupine, Carnivore, Carp, Cat, Catfish, Cattle, Central Africa, Central African Republic, Chacma baboon, Cheetah, Chipoka, 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The aardvark (Orycteropus afer) is a medium-sized, burrowing, nocturnal mammal native to Africa.
Aestivation or æstivation (from aestas, summer, but also spelled estivation in American English) is a state of animal dormancy, similar to hibernation, characterized by inactivity and a lowered metabolic rate, that is entered in response to high temperatures and arid conditions.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The African buffalo or Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large African bovine.
The African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), also known as the African savanna elephant, is the larger of the two species of African elephants, and the largest living terrestrial animal.
The African clawless otter (Aonyx capensis), also known as the Cape clawless otter or groot otter, is the second-largest freshwater species of otter.
The African darter (Anhinga rufa), sometimes called the snakebird, is a water bird of sub-Saharan Africa and Iraq.
The African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), or to distinguish it from the true fish eagles (Ichthyophaga), the African sea eagle, is a large species of eagle found throughout sub-Saharan Africa wherever large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply occur.
The African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis), also known as the West African manatee or sea cow, is a species of manatee that is mostly herbivorous.
The African marsh rat or common dasymys (Dasymys incomtus) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
The African rock python (Python sebae) is a large, nonvenomous snake of sub-Saharan Africa.
The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), also known as African hunting dog, African painted dog, painted hunting dog, or painted wolf, is a canid native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
The African wildcat (Felis lybica), also called Near Eastern wildcat is a wildcat species that lives in Northern Africa, the Near East and around the periphery of the Arabian Peninsula.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae.
Ambush predators or sit-and-wait predators are carnivorous animals or other organisms, such as some nematophagous fungi and carnivorous plants, that capture or trap prey by stealth or by strategy (typically not conscious strategy), rather than by speed or by strength.
The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), sometimes referred to colloquially as a gator or common alligator, is a large crocodilian reptile endemic to the southeastern United States.
The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a species of crocodilian found in the Neotropics.
The African common toad (Amietophrynus regularis), also known as the square-marked toad, African toad, Egyptian toad, African bouncing toad (due to the bouncing motion) and Reuss's toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae.
Ampullariidae, common name the apple snails, is a family of large freshwater snails, aquatic gastropod mollusks with a gill and an operculum.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
Arba Minch (አርባ ምንጭ, "forty springs") is a city and separate woreda in southern Ethiopia; the first common name for this city was Ganta Garo.
The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970.
Baboons are Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae which are found natively in very specific areas of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Bagrus is a genus of bagrid catfishes.
Barbus is a genus of ray-finned fish in the family Cyprinidae.
A basketball (basketball ball) is a spherical ball used in basketball games.
Bass is a name shared by many species of fish.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Belostomatidae is a family of freshwater hemipteran insects known as giant water bugs or colloquially as toe-biters, Indian toe-biters, electric-light bugs, alligator ticks, or alligator fleas (in Florida).
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The informal term "big cat" is typically used to refer to any of the five living members of the genus Panthera, namely tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard and snow leopard.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bite force quotient (BFQ) is the regression of the quotient of an animal's bite force in newtons divided by its body mass in kilograms.
Biting is a common behaviour which involves the opening and closing of the jaw found in many animals.
Bitis arietans is a venomous viper species found in savannah and grasslands from Morocco and western Arabia throughout Africa except for the Sahara and rain forest regions.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
The black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) is a large crocodilian and, along with the American alligator, is one of the biggest extant members of the family Alligatoridae and order Crocodilia.
The black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) is a highly venomous snake endemic to parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
The black rhinoceros or hook-lipped rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) is a species of rhinoceros, native to eastern and southern Africa including Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
The blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), also called the common wildebeest, white-bearded wildebeest or brindled gnu, is a large antelope and one of the two species of wildebeest.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Brady Robert Barr (born 4 January 1963) is a herpetologist and currently the host of Nat Geo WILD's Dangerous Encounters with Brady Barr.
The brown hyena (Hyaena brunnea, formerly Parahyaena brunnea), also called strandwolf, is a species of hyena found in Namibia, Botswana, western and southern Zimbabwe, southern Mozambique and South Africa.
The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas), also known as the Zambezi shark (informally "zambi") in Africa, and Lake Nicaragua shark in Nicaragua, is a requiem shark commonly found worldwide in warm, shallow waters along coasts and in rivers.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
The bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus) is a member of the pig family and lives in forests, woodland, riverine vegetation and reedbeds in East and Southern Africa.
Bustards, including floricans and korhaans, are large, terrestrial birds living mainly in dry grassland areas and on the steppes of the Old World.
Buzzard is the common name of several species of bird of prey.
A caiman is an alligatorid crocodilian belonging to the subfamily Caimaninae, one of two primary lineages within Alligatoridae, the other being alligators.
The genus Thryonomys, also known as the cane rats, is a genus of rodent found throughout Africa south of the Sahara, the only members of the family Thryonomyidae.
The canter and gallop are variations on the fastest gait that can be performed by a horse or other equine.
The imbabala or Cape bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus) is a widespread species of antelope in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Cape porcupine or South African porcupine, (Hystrix africaeaustralis), is a species of Old World porcupine native to central and southern Africa.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The chacma baboon (Papio ursinus), also known as the Cape baboon, is, like all other baboons, from the Old World monkey family.
List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.
Chipoka is a town located in the Central Region district of Salima, in Malawi.
Chromolaena odorata is a tropical and subtropical species of flowering shrub in the sunflower family.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
Clarias is a genus of catfishes (order Siluriformes) of the family Clariidae, the airbreathing catfishes.
Clarias gariepinus or African sharptooth catfish is a species of catfish of the family Clariidae, the airbreathing catfishes.
The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape.
The common eland (Taurotragus oryx), also known as the southern eland or eland antelope, is a savannah and plains antelope found in East and Southern Africa.
The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
The common rufous-nosed rat (Oenomys hypoxanthus) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
A conservation officer is a law enforcement officer who protects wildlife and the environment.
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of approximately 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags.
Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies, choughs, and nutcrackers.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
The crèche (from French) in zoology refers to care of another's offspring, for instance in a colony.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Crocodile attacks on humans are common in places where large crocodilians are native and human populations live.
Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.
Crocodylus anthropophagus is an extinct species of crocodile from Plio-Pleistocene from Tanzania.
Crocodylus checchiai is an extinct species of crocodile from the Pliocene of Libya and the Miocene of Kenya.
Crocodylus thorbjarnarsoni is an extinct species of crocodile from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of the Turkana Basin in Kenya.
The crowned eagle, also known as the African crowned eagle or the crowned hawk-eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus) is a large bird of prey found in sub-Saharan Africa; in Southern Africa it is restricted to eastern areas.
The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a small species of crocodile found only in Cuba.
The Cunene River (Portuguese spelling) or Kunene River (Namibian spelling) is a river in Southern Africa.
Dasypeltis scabra, known as the common egg eater, egg-eating snake or rhombic egg eater, is a species of nonvenomous snake endemic to Africa.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
A dik-dik is the name for any of four species of small antelope in the genus Madoqua that live in the bushlands of eastern and southern Africa.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dolomedes is a genus of large spiders of the family Pisauridae.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera (from Greek ἄνισος anisos, "uneven" and πτερόν pteron, "wing", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).
The dromedary, also called the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius), is a large, even-toed ungulate with one hump on its back.
The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics.
Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the waterfowl family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese.
A duiker is a small to medium-sized brown in colour antelope native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
The dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis), also known commonly as the African dwarf crocodile, broad-snouted crocodile, or bony crocodile, is an African crocodile that is also the smallest extant crocodile species.
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
The East African black mud turtle (Pelusios subniger), also known as the Pan terrapin, is a species of turtle in the Pelomedusidae family, native to eastern and southeastern Africa.
The eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei) is a critically endangered species of the genus Gorilla and the largest living primate.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
In some egg-laying animals, the egg tooth is a small, sharp, cranial protuberance used by offspring to break or tear through the egg's surface during hatching.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiaca) is a member of the duck, goose, and swan family Anatidae.
The Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), also known as the ichneumon, is a species of mongoose.
The Egyptian plover (Pluvianus aegyptius), also known as the crocodile bird, is a wader, the only member of the genus Pluvianus.
Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
The false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii), also known as Malayan gharial, Sunda gharial and tomistoma, is a freshwater crocodilian native to Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra and Java.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
A fisherman or fisher is someone who captures fish and other animals from a body of water, or gathers shellfish.
The flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) is an important food fish species in the mullet family Mugilidae.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
The forest cobra (Naja melanoleuca), also commonly called the black cobra and the black and white-lipped cobra, is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae.
The freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus johnsoni or Crocodylus johnstoni; see below), also known as the Australian freshwater crocodile, Johnstone's crocodile or colloquially as freshie, is a species of crocodile endemic to the northern regions of Australia.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate.
A gastrolith, also called a stomach stone or gizzard stones, is a rock held inside a gastrointestinal tract.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella or formerly considered to belong to it.
The gemsbok, gemsbuck or South African oryx (Oryx gazella) is a large antelope in the genus Oryx.
A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotroph with a varied diet).
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".
The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), also known as the gavial or fish-eating crocodile, is a crocodilian in the family Gavialidae, and is native to the northern part of the Indian Subcontinent.
The giraffe (Giraffa) is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals, the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The goliath frog otherwise known as goliath bullfrog or giant slippery frog (Conraua goliath) is the largest living frog on Earth.
The Goliath heron (Ardea goliath), also known as the giant heron, is a very large wading bird of the heron family, Ardeidae.
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.
The Grévy's zebra (Equus grevyi), also known as the imperial zebra, is the largest living wild equid and the largest and most threatened of the three species of zebra, the other two being the plains zebra and the mountain zebra.
The greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus) is one of two species of cane rats, a small family of African hystricognath rodents.
The greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is a woodland antelope found throughout eastern and southern Africa.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The ground hornbills (Bucorvidae) are a family of the order Bucerotiformes, with a single genus Bucorvus and two extant species (though possibly including another genus with six extant species).
A guide is a person who leads travelers or tourists through unknown or unfamiliar locations.
Guineafowl (sometimes called "pet speckled hen", or "original fowl" or guineahen) are birds of the family Numididae in the order Galliformes.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
A gular fold is a feature of the body of lizards and many other reptiles.
Gustave is a large male Nile crocodile from Burundi.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The hamerkop (Scopus umbretta), is a medium-sized wading bird.
Haplochromis is a ray-finned fish genus in the family Cichlidae.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
The harnessed bushbuck or kéwel (Tragelaphus scriptus) is a small to medium-sized antelope widespread in west and central Africa.
The hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), also known as kongoni, is an African antelope.
In oviparious biology, a hatchling is a newly hatched fish, amphibian, reptile, or bird.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and shield bugs.
Hepsetus is a genus of African fishes, the African pike characins, in the order Characiformes.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
Hluhluwe–Imfolozi Park, formerly Hluhluwe–Umfolozi Game Reserve, is the oldest proclaimed nature reserve in Africa.
The honey badger (Mellivora capensis), also known as the ratel, is the only species in the mustelid subfamily Mellivorinae and its only genus Mellivora.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
Hydrocynus goliath, also known as the goliath tigerfish, giant tigerfish, or mbenga, is a very large African predatory freshwater fish of the family Alestidae.
Hydrocynus vittatus, the African tigerfish, tiervis or ngwesh is a predatory freshwater fish distributed throughout much of Africa.
Hydrophilus is a genus of beetles in the family Hydrophilidae, the water scavenger beetles.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
Hyperolius (commonly known as the African reed frogs or reed frogs) is a large genus of frogs in the Hyperoliidae family from Sub-Saharan Africa.
The impala; (Aepyceros melampus) is a medium-sized antelope found in eastern and southern Africa.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
Jackals are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the genus Canis, which also includes wolves, coyotes and the domestic dog.
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food.
Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti (4 December 1735, Vienna – 17 February 1805, Vienna) was an Austrian naturalist and zoologist of Italian origin.
The Jubba River (Wabiga Jubba, Giuba) is a river in southern Somalia.
The Kafue Flats (locally called Butwa) are a vast area of swamp, open lagoon and seasonally inundated flood-plain on the Kafue River in the Southern, Central and Lusaka provinces of Zambia.
The Kafue River is the longest river lying wholly within Zambia at about long.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kobus is a genus containing six species of African antelopes, all of which are associated with marshes, floodplains, or other grassy areas near water.
Korogwe is one of the eight districts of Tanga Region in Tanzania.
The korrigum (Damaliscus lunatus korrigum), also known as Senegal hartebeest, is a subspecies of the tsessebe, an African antelope.
Kruger National Park is one of the largest game reserves in Africa.
Kwana Island (in Dutch: Kwana Eiland) is the name of an island in the southwestern part of Brokopondo Lake or Brokopondo Reservoir (Brokopondostuwmeer, also formerly known as Blommenstein Lake or B. reservoir) in the District of Brokopondo (Brokopondo-district) the second largest in the nation located east of their territory.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Bangweulu — 'where the water sky meets the sky' — is one of the world's great wetland systems, comprising Lake Bangweulu, the Bangweulu Swamps and the Bangweulu Flats or floodplain.
Lake Baringo is, after Lake Turkana, the most northern of the Kenyan Rift Valley lakes, with a surface area of about and an elevation of about.
Lake Chamo (Amharic: Chamo Hayk) is a lake in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region of southern Ethiopia.
Lake Edward, Rutanzige or Edward Nyanza is the smallest of the African Great Lakes.
Lake Kyoga (also spelled Kioga) is a large shallow lake in Uganda, about in area and at an elevation of 1,033 metres.
Lake Moeris (Μοῖρις, genitive Μοίριδος) is an ancient lake in the northwest of the Faiyum Oasis, southwest of Cairo, Egypt.
Lake Mweru Wantipa or Mweru-wa-Ntipa meaning "muddy lake" (also called 'Mweru Marsh') is a lake and swamp system in the Northern Province of Zambia.
Lake Nasser (بحيرة ناصر) is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.
Lake Sibhayi, also known as Lake Sibaya, a freshwater lake in South Africa, with a surface area of 64 km².
Lake St Lucia (Lake Saint Lucia) is an estuarine lake system in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake.
Lake Turkana, formerly known as Lake Rudolf, is a lake in the Kenyan Rift Valley, in northern Kenya, with its far northern end crossing into Ethiopia.
Lake Victoria (Nam Lolwe in Luo; Nalubaale in Luganda; Nyanza in Kinyarwanda and some Bantu languages) is one of the African Great Lakes.
Lanistes ovum is a species of freshwater snail with an operculum, an African apple snail, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Ampullariidae.
The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is a freshwater gamefish in the Centrarchidae (sunfish) family, a species of black bass native to North America.
Laundry refers to the washing of clothing and other textiles.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), sometimes called the lute turtle or leathery turtle or simply the luth, is the largest of all living turtles and is the fourth-heaviest modern reptile behind three crocodilians.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
A leg is a weight bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape.
Lemurs are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Limpopo is the northernmost province of South Africa.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
The little egret (Egretta garzetta) is a species of small heron in the family Ardeidae.
Londolozi Private Game Reserve, is part of the Sabi Sands Private Game Reserve, situated on the western border of the Kruger National Park, which together with some other parks make up the Limpopo Transfrontier National Park.
The Lower Zambezi National Park lies on the north bank of the Zambezi River in southeastern Zambia.
Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.
Lycodonomorphus is a genus of colubrid snakes commonly referred to as African water snakes.
Maasai Mara National Reserve (also known as Maasai Mara, Masai Mara and by the locals as The Mara) is a large game reserve in Narok County, Kenya, contiguous with the Serengeti National Park in Mara Region, Tanzania.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face.
The marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumenifer) is a large wading bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
The marsh mongoose or water mongoose (Atilax paludinosus) is a medium-sized mammal, though large for a mongoose.
The maxilla (plural: maxillae) in animals is the upper jawbone formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones.
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.
A mesopredator is a mid ranking predator in the middle of a trophic level, which typically preys on smaller animals.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Molecular Ecology is a twice monthly scientific journal covering investigations that use molecular genetic techniques to address questions in ecology, evolution, behavior, and conservation.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
The monitor lizards are large lizards in the genus Varanus.
Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii), also known as the Mexican crocodile, is a modest-sized crocodilian found only in fresh waters of the Atlantic regions of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala.
Mormyrus is a genus of fish in the Mormyridae family.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Mpondwe is a town in the Western Region of Uganda.
The mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris.
Mwanza Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions with a postcode number 33000.
The nasolacrimal duct (sometimes called the tear duct) carries tears from the lacrimal sac of the eye into the nasal cavity.
Nat Geo People, formerly known as Adventure One (A1) and National Geographic Adventure (commonly abbreviated to Nat Geo Adventure), was a subscription TV channel part of National Geographic Channels International and 21st Century Fox.
The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
A nest is a structure built by certain animals to hold eggs, offspring, and, occasionally, the animal itself.
Niassa Reserve is a nature reserve in Cabo Delgado Province and Niassa Province, Mozambique.
Species use restricted ecological niches, and the niches of all species are segregated, often with much overlap, by the use of different habitats, different geographic areas and seasons, and different food resources, to mention only a few of the many niche dimensions.
The nictitating membrane (from Latin nictare, to blink) is a transparent or translucent third eyelid present in some animals that can be drawn across the eye from the medial canthus for protection and to moisten it while maintaining vision.
The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) is a large member of the monitor family (Varanidae) found throughout much of Africa, but is absent from the west, where it is replaced by Varanus stellatus.
The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) is a species of freshwater fish in family Latidae of order Perciformes.
Northern Ndebele, also called Sindebele, Zimbabwean Ndebele or North Ndebele, and formerly known as Matabele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, spoken by the Northern Ndebele people, or Matabele, of Zimbabwe.
A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.
Ntoroko is a town in Western Uganda.
The lowland nyala or simply nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), is a spiral-horned antelope native to Southern Africa.
Odonata is an order of carnivorous insects, encompassing the dragonflies (Anisoptera) and the damselflies (Zygoptera).
The Okavango Delta (or Okavango Grassland) (formerly spelled "Okovango" or "Okovanggo") in Botswana is a very large, swampy inland delta formed where the Okavango River reaches a tectonic trough in the central part of the endorheic basin of the Kalahari.
The Olifants River (Olifantsrivier) is a river in the southwestern area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa.
The olive baboon (Papio anubis), also called the Anubis baboon, is a member of the family Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys).
The oribi (Ourebia ourebi) is a small antelope found in eastern, southern and western Africa.
The Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) is a critically endangered crocodile.
Orthoptera is an order of insects that comprises the grasshoppers, locusts and crickets, including closely related insects such as the katydids and wetas.
The osprey or more specifically the western osprey (Pandion haliaetus) — also called sea hawk, river hawk, and fish hawk — is a diurnal, fish-eating bird of prey with a cosmopolitan range.
Ossification (or osteogenesis) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.
Osteoderms are bony deposits forming scales, plates or other structures based in the dermis.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").
Pansteatitis, or yellow fat disease, is a physiological condition in which the body fat becomes inflamed.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae.
The perentie (Varanus giganteus) is the largest monitor lizard or goanna native to Australia, and the fourth-largest living lizard on earth, after the Komodo dragon, Asian water monitor, and the crocodile monitor.
Phacochoerus is a genus in the family Suidae, commonly known as warthogs.
The Philippine crocodile (Crocodylus mindorensis), also known as the Mindoro crocodile, the Philippine freshwater crocodile, the bukarot in Ilocano, and more generally as a buwaya in most Filipino lowland cultures, is one of two species of crocodiles found in the Philippines; the other is the larger saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
Pila is a genus of large freshwater snails with an operculum, African and Asian apple snails, aquatic gastropod mollusks in the family Ampullariidae, the apple snails.
The plains zebra (Equus quagga, formerly Equus burchellii), also known as the common zebra or Burchell's zebra, or locally as the "quagga" (not to be confused with the extinct subspecies), is the most common and geographically widespread species of zebra.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The term Plio-Pleistocene refers to an informally described geological pseudo-period, which begins about 5 million years ago (mya) and, drawing forward, combines the time ranges of the formally defined Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs—marking from about 5 mya to about 12 kya.
The Ploceidae are a family of small passerine birds, many of which are called weavers or weaverbirds.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Potamonautes is a genus of African freshwater crabs in the family Potamonautidae.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
The premaxilla (or praemaxilla) is one of a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis) is a small hippopotamid which is native to the forests and swamps of West Africa, primarily in Liberia, with small populations in Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Ivory Coast.
Quadrupedalism or pronograde posture is a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs.
The Rahad is a river whose sources are in Ethiopia, where it is called Shinfa, and a tributary of the Abay (Blue Nile) on the right side.
A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is a species of beetle in the family Tenebrionidae, the darkling beetles.
The red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), also known as the bush pig (but not to be confused with P. larvatus, common name "bushpig"), is a wild member of the pig family living in Africa, with most of its distribution in the Guinean and Congolian forests.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea), also known as the red-billed weaver or red-billed dioch, is a small—approximately long and weighing —migratory, sparrow-like bird of the weaver family, Ploceidae, native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
The reed cormorant (Microcarbo africanus), also known as the long-tailed cormorant, is a bird in the cormorant family Phalacrocoracidae.
Reedbuck is a common name for African antelopes from the genus Redunca.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Rimasuchus is an extinct genus of crocodile from the Neogene period of Africa and the Middle East.
Ripon Falls at the northern end of Lake Victoria in Uganda was formerly considered the source of the river Nile.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
The roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) is a savanna antelope found in West, Central, East and Southern Africa.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The Royal Natal National Park is in the KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa and forms part of the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) is an antelope which inhabits wooded savannah in East Africa south of Kenya, and in Southern Africa.
The saddle-billed stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis) is a large wading bird in the stork family, Ciconiidae.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), also known as the estuarine crocodile, Indo-Pacific crocodile, marine crocodile, sea crocodile or informally as saltie, is the largest of all living reptiles, as well as the largest riparian predator in the world.
The Sambirano is a river of northwestern Madagascar in the region of Diana.
The sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus), grey nurse shark, spotted ragged-tooth shark, or blue-nurse sand tiger is a species of shark that inhabits subtropical and temperate waters worldwide.
The Savanna swamp shrew (Crocidura longipes) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae.
In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek λεπίς lepis, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection.
A scute or scutum (Latin scutum, plural: scuta "shield") is a bony external plate or scale overlaid with horn, as on the shell of a turtle, the skin of crocodilians, and the feet of birds.
Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.
Semliki River (sometimes Semuliki) is a major river, long, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Uganda in Central and East Africa.
Sensu is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of".
The serrated hinged terrapin (Pelusios sinuatus) is a species of turtles in the Pelomedusidae family.
The serval (Leptailurus serval) is a wild cat native to Africa.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
The shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) also known as whalehead, is a very large stork-like bird.
Shona (chiShona) is the most widely spoken Bantu language as a first language and is native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
A shore or a shoreline is the fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake.
A shrew (family Soricidae) is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla.
The sitatunga or marshbuck (Tragelaphus spekii) is a swamp-dwelling antelope found throughout central Africa, centering on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cameroon, parts of Southern Sudan, Ghana, Botswana, Zambia, Gabon, Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.
The slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus) is a critically endangered species of crocodile from Africa.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Sotho (Sesotho; also known as Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, Historically also Suto, or Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Sutu, or Sesutu, according to the pronunciation of the name.) is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Florida is a region of the U.S. state of Florida, comprising the southernmost part of the state.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
The spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus), also known as the white caiman or common caiman, is a crocodilian reptile found in much of Central and South America.
Speke's hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys spekii) is a species of turtle in the family Testudinidae.
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena, is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
The spotted-necked otter (Hydrictis maculicollis), or speckle-throated otter, is an otter native to sub-Saharan Africa.
The spur-winged goose (Plectropterus gambensis) is a large bird in the family Anatidae, related to the geese and the shelducks, but distinct from both of these in a number of anatomical features, and therefore treated in its own subfamily, the Plectropterinae.
The steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) is a common small antelope of southern and eastern Africa.
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills.
A stream bed is the channel bottom of a stream or river, the physical confine of the normal water flow.
The striated heron (Butorides striata) also known as mangrove heron, little heron or green-backed heron, is a small heron, about 44 cm tall.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Suni (Neotragus moschatus) is a small antelope.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
The swallows and martins, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents except Antarctica.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
In biology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus frequently encounter one another.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.
The long Tana River is the longest river in Kenya, and gives its name to the Tana River County.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tôlanaro or Tolagnaro (Tôlan̈aro) is a city (commune urbaine) on the southeast coast of Madagascar.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is a type of environmental sex determination in which the temperatures experienced during embryonic/larval development determine the sex of the offspring.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii) is one of the best-known gazelles.
Tilapia is the common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish from the tilapiine cichlid tribe.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Turkana are a Nilotic people native to the Turkana District in northwest Kenya, a semi-arid climate region bordering Lake Turkana in the east, Pokot, Rendille and Samburu people to the south, Uganda to the west, and South Sudan and Ethiopia to the north.
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The Uganda Game and Fisheries Department was the lead wildlife conservation agency of the Uganda Protectorate.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
The University of Iowa (also known as the UI, U of I, UIowa, or simply Iowa) is a flagship public research university in Iowa City, Iowa.
Venda was a Bantustan in northern South Africa, close to the South African border with Zimbabwe to the north, while to the south and east, it shared a long border with another black homeland, Gazankulu.
Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which is used primarily for immobilizing prey and defense mostly via mechanical injection by fangs.
Voay is an extinct genus of crocodile from Madagascar and includes only one species—V.
A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.
Waders are birds commonly found along shorelines and mudflats that wade in order to forage for food (such as insects or crustaceans) in the mud or sand.
The term water bird, waterbird or aquatic bird (not to be confused with wading birds) is used to refer to birds that live on or around water.
The waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) is a large antelope found widely in sub-Saharan Africa.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The West African crocodile or desert crocodile (Crocodylus suchus) is a species of crocodile related to – and often confused with – the larger and more aggressive Nile crocodile (C. niloticus).
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
The white-breasted cormorant (Phalacrocorax lucidus) is much like the widespread great cormorant and if not a regional variant of the same species, is at least very closely related.
The wildebeests, also called gnus, are a genus of antelopes, scientific name Connochaetes.
The Zambezi (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.