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Nilo-Saharan languages

Index Nilo-Saharan languages

The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet. [1]

140 relations: Acholi dialect, Afroasiatic languages, Algeria, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Aringa language, Aspirated consonant, Aswan Dam, Benin, Berta languages, Birri language, Burkina Faso, Cairo, Carlo Conti Rossini, Central Africa, Central Sudanic languages, Chad, Chari River, Christopher Ehret, Classifier (linguistics), Click consonant, Cognate, Collective, Coronal consonant, Dahalo language, Darfur, Daza language, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dental consonant, Diedrich Hermann Westermann, Dinka language, East Africa, Eastern Jebel languages, Eastern Sudanic languages, Egypt, Ejective consonant, Ethiopia, Fricative consonant, Friedrich Müller (linguist), Fur language, Fur languages, Gaam language, Gao, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Georgiy Starostin, Glottal consonant, Glottolog, Great Rift Valley, Kenya, Gumuz language, Gumuz languages, ..., Hadza language, Heinrich Barth, Implosive consonant, Joseph Greenberg, Kadu languages, Kanembu language, Kanuri language, Karl Richard Lepsius, Kenya, Khoisan languages, Kikuyu people, Kingdom of Kush, Koman languages, Komuz languages, Kresh languages, Kuliak languages, Kunama languages, Kunama people, Labial consonant, Lake Chad, Lango dialect, Language family, Languages of Africa, Languages of Sudan, Libya, Linguistic reconstruction, Lionel Bender, Liquid consonant, Lugbara language, Luhya people, Luo dialect, Luo languages, Luo people (Kenya), Maasai language, Maasai people, Maban languages, Mali, Mande languages, Maurice Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Max Planck Society, Meroitic language, Mimi of Decorse, Murle language, Nandi–Markweta languages, Nara language, Nasal consonant, Neolithic Subpluvial, Ngambay language, Niger, Niger–Congo languages, Nigeria, Nile, Nilotic languages, Northern Eastern Sudanic languages, Nubia, Nubian languages, Nuer language, Nuer people, Nyima languages, Palatal consonant, Proto-language, Retroflex consonant, Roger Blench, Sahara, Saharan languages, Semivowel, Shabo language, Singulative number, Songhai Empire, Songhai people, Songhay languages, South Sudan, Southern Eastern Sudanic languages, Stop consonant, Sudan, Sudanic languages, Tanzania, Tebu languages, Teda language, Teso language, The Languages of Africa, Tibesti Mountains, Timbuktu, Tripartite language, Uganda, Upper Paleolithic, Velar consonant, Wastebasket taxon, Zaghawa language, Zarma language. Expand index (90 more) »

Acholi dialect

Acholi (also Acoli, Akoli, Acooli, Atscholi, Shuli, Gang, Lwoo, Lwo, Lok Acoli, Dok Acoli) is a Southern Luo dialect spoken by the Acholi people in the districts of Gulu, Kitgum and Pader (a region known as Acholiland) in northern Uganda.

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Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.

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Algeria

Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Aringa language

Aringa, also known as Low Lugbara, is a Central Sudanic language spoken by the Aringa people in the West Nile region of Uganda.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Aswan Dam

The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970.

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Benin

Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.

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Berta languages

The Berta languages, or Wetawit, traditionally considered dialects of a single language, are Gebeto (Berta proper), Fadashi, and Undu.

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Birri language

Birri (Bviri) is a nearly extinct, possibly Central Sudanic language of CAR and formerly of (South) Sudan.

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Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Carlo Conti Rossini

Carlo Conti Rossini (1872-1949) was an Italian orientalist.

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Central Africa

Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.

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Central Sudanic languages

Central Sudanic is a family of about sixty languages that have been included in the proposed Nilo-Saharan language family.

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Chad

Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Chari River

The Chari River, or Shari River, is a long stream, flowing in Central Africa.

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Christopher Ehret

Christopher Ehret (born July 27, 1941), who currently holds the position of Distinguished Research Professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, is an American scholar of African history and African historical linguistics particularly known for his efforts to correlate linguistic taxonomy and reconstruction with the archeological record.

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Classifier (linguistics)

A classifier (abbreviated or), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.

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Click consonant

Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.

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Cognate

In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Collective

A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective.

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Coronal consonant

Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.

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Dahalo language

Dahalo is an endangered Cushitic language spoken by at most 400 Dahalo people on the coast of Kenya, near the mouth of the Tana River.

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Darfur

Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.

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Daza language

Daza (also known as Dazaga) is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Daza people inhabiting northern Chad.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Diedrich Hermann Westermann

Diedrich Hermann Westermann (June 24, 1875–May 31, 1956) was a German missionary, Africanist, and linguist.

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Dinka language

Dinka (natively Thuɔŋjäŋ, Thuɔŋ ee Jieng or simply Jieng) is a Nilotic dialect cluster spoken by the Dinka people, the major ethnic group of South Sudan.

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East Africa

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.

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Eastern Jebel languages

The Eastern Jebel languages are a small subfamily belonging to the Eastern Sudanic subgroup of Nilo-Saharan.

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Eastern Sudanic languages

In most classifications, the Eastern Sudanic languages are a group of nine families of languages that may constitute a branch of the Nilo-Saharan language family.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Ejective consonant

In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Friedrich Müller (linguist)

Friedrich Müller (born 6 March 1834, Jemnik, Austrian Empire (now Jemnice, Czech Republic); died 25 May 1898, Vienna) was an Austrian linguist and ethnologist who originated the term Hamito-Semitic languages for what are now called the Afro-Asiatic languages.

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Fur language

The Fur language (Fur: bèle fòòr or fòòraŋ bèle; Fûrâwî; sometimes called Konjara by linguists, after a former ruling clan) is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Fur of Darfur in western Sudan.

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Fur languages

The Fur or For languages constitute a small, closely related family which are a proposed member of the Nilo-Saharan family.

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Gaam language

Gaam (Gaahmg), also known as Ingessana, (Me/Mun)Tabi, Kamanidi, or Mamedja/Mamidza, is an Eastern Sudanic language spoken by the Ingessana people in the Tabi Hills in eastern Sudan, near Ethiopia.

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Gao

Gao is a city in Mali and the capital of the Gao Region.

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Genetic relationship (linguistics)

In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.

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Georgiy Starostin

Georgiy Sergeevich "George" Starostin (Гео́ргий Серге́евич Ста́ростин; born 4 July 1976) is a Russian linguist who presides the Center of Comparative Studies at the Russian State University for the Humanities.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Glottolog

Glottolog is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany.

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Great Rift Valley, Kenya

The Great Rift Valley is part of an intra-continental ridge system that runs through Kenya from north to south.

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Gumuz language

Gumuz (also spelled Gumaz) is a dialect cluster spoken along the border of Ethiopia and Sudan.

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Gumuz languages

Gumuz is a small language family spoken along the border of Ethiopia and Sudan.

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Hadza language

Hadza is a language isolate spoken along the shores of Lake Eyasi in Tanzania by around 1,000 Hadza people, the last full-time hunter-gatherers in Africa.

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Heinrich Barth

Heinrich Barth (16 February 1821 – 25 November 1865) was a German explorer of Africa and scholar.

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Implosive consonant

Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.

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Joseph Greenberg

Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.

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Kadu languages

The Kadu languages, also known as Kadugli–Krongo or Tumtum, are a small language family of the Kordofanian geographic grouping, once included in Niger–Congo but since Thilo Schadeberg (1981) widely seen as Nilo-Saharan.

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Kanembu language

Kanembu is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken in Chad by the Kanembu people.

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Kanuri language

Kanuri is a dialect continuum spoken by some four million people, as of 1987, in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, as well as small minorities in southern Libya and by a diaspora in Sudan.

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Karl Richard Lepsius

Karl or Carl Richard Lepsius (23 December 1810– 10 July 1884) was a pioneering Prussian Egyptologist and linguist and pioneer of modern archaeology.

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Kenya

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Khoisan languages

The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.

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Kikuyu people

The Kikuyu (also Akikûyu/Agikuyu/Gikuyu) is the largest ethnic group in Kenya.

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Kingdom of Kush

The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.

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Koman languages

The Koman languages are a small close-knit family of languages located along the Sudan–Ethiopia border with about 50,000 speakers.

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Komuz languages

The Komuz languages are a proposed branch of the Nilo-Saharan language family which would include the Koman languages, the Gumuz languages and the Shabo language, all spoken in eastern South Sudan and Sudan and western Ethiopia.

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Kresh languages

Kresh is a small language group of South Sudan.

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Kuliak languages

The Kuliak languages are a group of languages spoken by small relict communities in the mountains of northeastern Uganda.

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Kunama languages

The Kunama languages are a family of languages traditionally considered dialects of a single language, spoken in western Eritrea and across the border in Ethiopia.

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Kunama people

The Kunama are a Nilotic ethnic inhabiting Eritrea and Ethiopia.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Lake Chad

Lake Chad (French: Lac Tchad) is a historically large, shallow, endorheic lake in Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries.

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Lango dialect

Lango (also called Lwo, Lwoo, or Leb-Lango) is a Southern Luo dialect spoken by the Langi people of Uganda.

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Language family

A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.

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Languages of Africa

The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.

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Languages of Sudan

Sudan is a multilingual country dominated by Sudanese Arabic.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Linguistic reconstruction

Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.

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Lionel Bender

Marvin Lionel Bender (August 18, 1934 – February 19, 2008) was an American author and linguist.

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Liquid consonant

In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.

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Lugbara language

Lugbara is the language of the Lugbara people.

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Luhya people

The Luhya (also known as Abaluyia or Luyia) are a Bantu ethnic group in Kenya.

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Luo dialect

The Luo dialect, Dholuo (pronounced) or Nilotic Kavirondo (pejorative colonial term), is the eponymous dialect of the Luo group of Nilotic languages, spoken by about 6 million Luo people of Kenya and Tanzania, who occupy parts of the eastern shore of Lake Victoria and areas to the south.

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Luo languages

The dozen Luo, Lwo or Lwoian languages are spoken by the Luo peoples in an area ranging from southern Sudan to southern Kenya, with Dholuo extending into northern Tanzania and Alur into the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Luo people (Kenya)

The Luo (also called Joluo or Jonagi/Onagi, singular Jaluo, Jaonagi or Joramogi/Nyikwaramogi, meaning "Ramogi's heirs") are an ethnic group in western Kenya, northern Uganda, and in Mara Region in northern Tanzania.

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Maasai language

Maasai (Masai) or Maa (autonym: ɔl Maa) is an Eastern Nilotic language spoken in Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania by the Maasai people, numbering about 800,000.

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Maasai people

Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting central and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.

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Maban languages

The Maban languages are a small family of languages which have been included in the proposed Nilo-Saharan family.

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Mali

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

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Mande languages

The Mande languages are spoken in several countries in Africa by the Mandé people and include Maninka, Mandinka, Soninke, Bambara, Dioula, Bozo, Mende, Susu, and Vai.

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Maurice Gaudefroy-Demombynes

Maurice Gaudefroy-Demombynes (15 December 1862 – 12 August 1957) was a French Arabist, a specialist in Islam and the history of religions.

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Max Planck Society

The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck.

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Meroitic language

Meroitic also called Kushite after the apparent attested endoethnonym transcribed in Egyptian as k3š ← "Meroitic",. The commonly used scholarly name "Meroitic" derives from the royal city of Meroë of the Kingdom of Kush.

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Mimi of Decorse

Mimi of Decorse, also known as Mimi of Gaudefroy-Demombynes and Mimi-D, is a language of Chad that is attested only in a word list labelled "Mimi" that was collected ca.

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Murle language

Murle (also Ajibba, Beir, Merule, Mourle, Murele, Murule) is a Nilo-Saharan Eastern Sudanic language spoken by the Murle people, spoken in the southeast of South Sudan, near the Ethiopian border.

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Nandi–Markweta languages

The Nandi languages, or Kalenjin proper, are a dialect cluster of the Kalenjin branch of the Nilotic language family.

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Nara language

The Nara (Nera) or Barea (Barya) language is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken chiefly in western Eritrea.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Neolithic Subpluvial

The Neolithic Subpluvial, or the Holocene Wet Phase, was an extended period (from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE) of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa.

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Ngambay language

Ngambay (also known as Sara, Sara Ngambai, Gamba, Gambaye, Gamblai and Ngambai) is one of the major languages spoken by Sara people in southwestern Chad, northeastern Cameroon and eastern Nigeria, with about a million native speakers.

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Niger

Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.

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Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Nile

The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Nilotic languages

The Nilotic languages are a group of Eastern Sudanic languages spoken across a wide area between South Sudan and Tanzania by the Nilotic peoples, who traditionally practice cattle-herding.

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Northern Eastern Sudanic languages

The Northern Eastern Sudanic, Eastern k Sudanic, Ek Sudanic, NNT or Astaboran languages may form a primary division of the yet-to-be-demonstrated Eastern Sudanic family.

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Nubia

Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.

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Nubian languages

The Nubian languages (لغات نوبية) are a group of related languages spoken by the Nubians of Nubia, a region along the Nile in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.

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Nuer language

The Nuer language (Thok Naath) is a Nilo-Saharan language of the Western Nilotic group.

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Nuer people

The Nuer people are a Nilotic ethnic group primarily inhabiting the Nile Valley.

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Nyima languages

The Nyima languages are a pair of languages of Sudan spoken by the Nyimang of the Nuba Mountains that appear to be most closely related to the Eastern Sudanic languages, especially the northern group of Nubian, Nara and Tama.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Proto-language

A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.

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Retroflex consonant

A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.

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Roger Blench

Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist.

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Sahara

The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Saharan languages

The Saharan languages are a small family of languages spoken across parts of the eastern Sahara, extending from northwestern Darfur to southern Libya, north and central Chad, eastern Niger and northeastern Nigeria.

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Semivowel

In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.

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Shabo language

Shabo (or preferably Chabu; also called Mikeyir) is an endangered language and likely language isolate spoken by about 400 former hunter-gatherers in southwestern Ethiopia, in the westernmost part of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region.

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Singulative number

In linguistics, singulative number and collective number (abbreviated and) are terms used when the grammatical number for multiple items is the unmarked form of a noun, and the noun is specially marked to indicate a single item.

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Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century.

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Songhai people

The Songhai people (also Songhay or Sonrai) are an ethnic group in West Africa who speak the various Songhai languages.

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Songhay languages

The Songhay or Songhai languages are a group of closely related languages/dialects centred on the middle stretches of the Niger River in the West African countries of Mali, Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso and Nigeria.

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South Sudan

South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.

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Southern Eastern Sudanic languages

The Southern Eastern Sudanic, Eastern n Sudanic, En Sudanic or Kir–Abbaian languages form one of two primary divisions of the Eastern Sudanic languages in the classification of Bender (2000).

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Sudanic languages

In early 20th century classification of African languages, Sudanic was a generic term for languages spoken in the Sahel belt, from Ethiopia in the east to Senegal in the west.

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Tanzania

Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Tebu languages

Tebu is a small family of two Saharan languages, consisting of Daza and Teda.

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Teda language

The Teda language, also known as Tedaga, is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Teda, a northern subgroup of the Toubou people that inhabits southern Libya, northern Chad and eastern Niger.

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Teso language

Teso (natively Ateso) is an Eastern Nilotic language spoken by the Iteso people of Uganda and Kenya.

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The Languages of Africa

The Languages of Africa is a 1963 book of essays by Joseph Greenberg, in which the author sets forth a genetic classification of African languages that, with some changes, continues to be the most commonly used one today.

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Tibesti Mountains

The Tibesti Mountains are a mountain range in the central Sahara, primarily located in the extreme north of Chad, with a small extension into southern Libya.

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Timbuktu

Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.

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Tripartite language

A tripartite language, also called an ergative–accusative language, is one that treats the agent of a transitive verb, the patient of a transitive verb, and the single argument of an intransitive verb each in different ways.

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Uganda

Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Wastebasket taxon

Wastebasket taxon (also called a wastebin taxon, dustbin taxon or catch-all taxon) is a term used by some taxonomists to refer to a taxon that has the sole purpose of classifying organisms that do not fit anywhere else.

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Zaghawa language

Zaghawa is a Saharan language spoken by the Zaghawa people of east-central Chad (in the Sahel) and northwestern Sudan (Darfur).

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Zarma language

Zarma (also spelled Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Adzerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarma, Zarmaci or Zerma) is one of the Songhay languages.

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Redirects here:

Chari-Nile languages, Chari–Nile languages, ISO 639:ssa, Nilo-Saharan, Nilo-Saharan language, Nilo-Saharan language family, Nilo-Saharans, Nilo-Sahelian, Nilo-Sahelian languages, Nilo-saharan language, Nilosaharan, Nilo–Saharan language family, Proto-Nilo-Saharan.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nilo-Saharan_languages

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