189 relations: Achaemenid Assyria, Akkadian language, Alexander the Great, Amenhotep III, Anabasis (Xenophon), Ancient Church of the East, Ancient Near East, Antiquities of the Jews, Arabic, Arabs, Aramaic language, Asōristān, Ashur, Ashur (god), Ashur-uballit I, Ashurbanipal, Ashurnasirpal II, Asiatic lion, Assur, Assyria, Assyrian Church of the East, Assyrian people, Assyrian sculpture, Austen Henry Layard, Babylon, Babylonia, Baghdad, Battle of Nineveh (627), Benjamin of Tudela, Bible, Blasphemy, Book of Jonah, Book of Jubilees, Book of Tobit, British Museum, Bull, Bulldozer, Byzantine Empire, Carsten Niebuhr, Chaldea, Chaldean Catholic Church, Cimmerians, Copts, Ctesias, Cuneiform script, CyArk, Danish Arabia expedition (1761–67), David Stronach, Dead Sea Scrolls, Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL, ..., Diyala River, Dumuzid, Dur-Sharrukin, Early Muslim conquests, Edwin Atherstone, Egyptian language, Eponym, Erbil, Esarhaddon, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Fall of Mosul, Fast of Nineveh, Fault (geology), Geneva Bible, George Smith (Assyriologist), Global Heritage Fund, Gospel of Luke, Gospel of Matthew, Hadad, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Hassuna culture, Hatra, Hebrew language, Hellenistic period, Herodotus, Hezekiah, Historical urban community sizes, Hormuzd Rassam, Hurrian language, Idolatry, Inanna, Indian Ocean, Iraq, Isaac of Nineveh, Isaiah, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, James Talboys Wheeler, Jemdet Nasr, Jerwan, Johannes Nauclerus, John Martin (painter), John Masefield, Jonah, Josephus, Kara Koyunlu, Karemlash, Khosr River, King James Version, Koine Greek, Kura–Araxes culture, Lachish reliefs, Lady Charlotte Guest, Lake Hamrin, Lamassu, Latin, Leonard William King, Library of Ashurbanipal, List of cities of the ancient Near East, List of largest monoliths, Lorestan Province, Manishtushu, Mari, Syria, Medes, Mediterranean Sea, Merlon, Mesopotamia, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Middle Assyrian Empire, Mitanni, Mosul, Mosul Dam, Mosul Museum, Nabu, Nahum, National Geographic Society, National Museum of Iraq, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neolithic, Nergal, Nimrod, Nimrud, Nineveh, Nineveh Governorate, Ninurta, Ninus, Old Assyrian Empire, Oriental Orthodoxy, Palmyra, Paul-Émile Botta, Peplum (film genre), Pergamon Museum, Persepolis, Persian language, Persian people, Petachiah of Regensburg, Recessional (poem), Relief, Rudyard Kipling, Saint Thomas Christians, Samuel Shuckford, Sargon II, Sasanian family tree, Saving Our Vanishing Heritage, Scythians, Sennacherib, Septuagint, Shalmaneser I, Shamshi-Adad I, Short chronology, Sin (mythology), Stephanie Dalley, Sumerian language, Syriac Catholic Church, Syriac Christianity, Syriac language, Syriac Orthodox Church, Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Tanakh, Tel Keppe, Tel Lachish, Tell (archaeology), The Fall of Nineveh, Thebes, Greece, Tiglath-Pileser I, Tiglath-Pileser III, Tigris, United States Army Corps of Engineers, University of California, University of California, Berkeley, University of Chicago Press, Upper Mesopotamia, Urartu, Uruk, Utu, Walter Raleigh, War Gods of Babylon, World War II, Xenophon, Zephaniah. Expand index (139 more) » « Shrink index
Athura (𐎠𐎰𐎢𐎼𐎠 Aθurā), also called Assyria Babylonia, was a geographical area within the Persian Achaemenid Empire held by the last nobility of Aššur (Akkadian), known as Athura (Neo-Aramaic) or Atouria (Greek), during the period of 539 BC to 330 BC as a military protectorate state of Persia under the rule of Cyrus the Great.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Amenhotep III (Hellenized as Amenophis III; Egyptian Amāna-Ḥātpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied), also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Anabasis (Ἀνάβασις, (literally an "expedition up from")) is the most famous work, published in seven books, of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon.
The Ancient Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܥܬܝܩܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ʿĒdtā ʿAttīqtā d'Maḏnəḥā, كنيسة المشرق القديمة, Kanīsa al-Mašriq al-Qadīma), officially the Ancient Holy Apostolic Catholic Church of the East, is an Eastern Christian denomination founded by Thoma Darmo in 1968.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Asōristān (𐭠𐭮𐭥𐭥𐭮𐭲𐭭 Asōrestān, Āsūrestān) was the name of the Sasanian provinces of Mesopotamia from 226 to 637.
Ashur (אַשּׁוּר) was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah.
Ashur (also, Assur, Aššur; cuneiform: dAš-šur) is an East Semitic god, and the head of the Assyrian pantheon in Mesopotamian religion, worshipped mainly in the northern half of Mesopotamia, and parts of north-east Syria and south east Asia Minor which constituted old Assyria.
Ashur-uballit I (Aššur-uballiṭ I), who reigned between 1365 and 1330 BC, was the first king of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC).
Ashurbanipal (Aššur-bāni-apli; ܐܫܘܪ ܒܢܐ ܐܦܠܐ; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'), also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 668 BC to c. 627 BC, the son of Esarhaddon and the last strong ruler of the empire, which is usually dated between 934 and 609 BC.
Ashur-nasir-pal II (transliteration: Aššur-nāṣir-apli, meaning "Ashur is guardian of the heir") was king of Assyria from 883 to 859 BC.
The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo leo) is a lion population in Gujarat, India.
Aššur (Akkadian; ܐܫܘܪ 'Āšūr; Old Persian Aθur, آشور: Āšūr; אַשּׁוּר:, اشور: Āšūr, Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was an Assyrian city, capital of the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC), of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC), and for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911–608 BC.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Assyrian sculpture is the sculpture of the ancient Assyrian states, especially the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911 to 612 BC, which ruled modern Iraq, Syria, and much of Iran.
Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 18175 July 1894) was an English traveller, archaeologist, cuneiformist, art historian, draughtsman, collector, politician and diplomat.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Battle of Nineveh (Ἡ μάχη τῆς Νινευί) was the climactic battle of the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628.
Benjamin of Tudela (בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה,; بنيامين التطيلي;‎ Tudela, Kingdom of Navarre, 1130Castile, 1173) was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 12th century.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
The Book of Jonah is a book of the Nevi’im (“Prophets”) in the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the Book of Division (Ge'ez: መጽሃፈ ኩፋሌ Mets'hafe Kufale).
The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canons, pronounced canonical by the Council of Hippo (in 393), Councils of Carthage of 397 and 417, Council of Florence (in 1442) and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546).
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
A bull is an intact (i.e., not castrated) adult male of the species Bos taurus (cattle).
A bulldozer is a crawler (continuous tracked tractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device (known as a ripper) to loosen densely compacted materials.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Carsten Niebuhr or Karsten Niebuhr (17 March 1733 Lüdingworth – 26 April 1815 Meldorf, Dithmarschen), a German mathematician, cartographer, and explorer in the service of Denmark, is renowned for his participation in the Royal Danish Arabia Expedition (1761-1767).
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Ctesias (Κτησίας, Ktēsíās), also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
CyArk is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization located in Oakland, California, United States.
The Danish Arabia expedition (Danish: Den Arabiske Rejse) was a Danish scientific expedition to Egypt, Arabia and Syria.
David Stronach (born 1931) is a Scottish archeologist of ancient Iran and Iraq.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
Deliberate destruction and theft of cultural heritage has been conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since 2014 in Iraq, Syria, and to a lesser extent in Libya.
The Diyala River, is a river and tributary of the Tigris.
Dumuzid, later known by the alternate form Tammuz, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of shepherds, who was also the primary consort of the goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar).
Dur-Sharrukin ("Fortress of Sargon"; دور شروكين), present day Khorsabad, was the Assyrian capital in the time of Sargon II of Assyria.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Edwin Atherstone (1788–1872) was a poet and novelist.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
Esarhaddon (Akkadian: Aššur-aḥa-iddina "Ashur has given a brother";; Ασαρχαδδων; Asor Haddan) was a king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire who reigned 681 – 669 BC.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
The Fall of Mosul occurred between 410 June 2014, when Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) insurgents, initially led by Abu Abdulrahman al-Bilawi, defeated the Iraqi Army, led by Lieutenant General Mahdi Al-Gharrawi.
Fast of Nineveh (ܒܥܘܬܐ ܕܢܝܢܘܝ̈ܐ, literally "Petition of the Ninevites"), is a three-day fast starting the second Monday before Clean Monday from Sunday Midnight to Wednesday noon during which participants abstain from all kinds of dairy foods and meat products and which commemorates the three days that the Prophet Jonah spent in the belly of the Great Fish and the subsequent fast and repentance of the Ninevites at the warning message of the prophet Jonah according to the bible.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
The Geneva Bible is one of the most historically significant translations of the Bible into English, preceding the King James Version by 51 years.
George Smith (Chelsea, London 26 March 184019 August 1876), was a pioneering English Assyriologist who first discovered and translated the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the oldest-known written works of literature.
Global Heritage Fund (GHF) is a non-profit organization that operates internationally.
The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan evangelion), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
Hadad (𐎅𐎄), Adad, Haddad (Akkadian) or Iškur (Sumerian) was the storm and rain god in the Northwest Semitic and ancient Mesopotamian religions.
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World as listed by Hellenic culture, described as a remarkable feat of engineering with an ascending series of tiered gardens containing a wide variety of trees, shrubs, and vines, resembling a large green mountain constructed of mud bricks, and said to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon, near present-day Hillah, Babil province, in Iraq.
The Hassuna culture is a Neolithic archaeological culture in northern Mesopotamia dating to the early sixth millennium BC.
Hatra الحضر was an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and al-Jazira region of Iraq.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.
These are estimated populations of historical cities over time.
Hormuzd Rassam (182616 September 1910) (ܗܪܡܙܕ ܪܣܐܡ), was an Assyriologist who made a number of important archaeological discoveries from 1877 to 1882, including the clay tablets that contained the Epic of Gilgamesh, the world's oldest literature.
Hurrian is an extinct Hurro-Urartian language spoken by the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isaac of Nineveh (Arabic: إسحاق النينوي Ishak an-Naynuwī; Ἰσαὰκ Σύρος; c. 613 – c. 700) also remembered as Saint Isaac the Syrian, Abba Isaac, Isaac Syrus and Isaac of Qatar was a 7th-century Church of the East Syriac Christian bishop and theologian best remembered for his written works on Christian asceticism.
Isaiah (or;; ܐܹܫܲܥܝܵܐ ˀēšaˁyā; Greek: Ἠσαΐας, Ēsaïās; Latin: Isaias; Arabic: إشعيا Ašaʿyāʾ or šaʿyā; "Yah is salvation") was the 8th-century BC Jewish prophet for whom the Book of Isaiah is named.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
James Talboys Wheeler (Oxford, December 1824 – Ramsgate, 13 January 1897) was a bureaucrat-historian of the British Raj.
Jemdet Nasr (جمدة نصر) is a tell or settlement mound in Babil Governorate (Iraq) that is best known as the eponymous type site for the Jemdet Nasr period (3100–2900 BC).
Jerwan is a locality north of Mosul in the Nineveh Province of Iraq.
Johannes Nauclerus (Naucler, Naukler) (1425 – May 1, 1510) was a 16th-century Swabian historian and humanist.
John Martin (19 July 1789 – 17 February 1854) was an English Romantic painter, engraver and illustrator.
John Edward Masefield (1 June 1878 – 12 May 1967) English poet and writer, was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom from 1930.
Jonah or Jonas is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.
Karemlash (ܟܪܡܠܫ, كرمليس; also spelled Karemles, Karemlish) is an Assyrian town in northern Iraq located less than south east of Mosul.
The Khosr River (Nahr al-Khosr) was a tributary of the Tigris River which ran directly through the centre of the ancient city of Nineveh in Northern Mesopotamia.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The Kura–Araxes culture or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC, which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.
The Lachish reliefs are a set of Assyrian palace reliefs narrating the story of the Assyrian victory over the kingdom of Judah during the siege of Lachish in 701 BCE.
Lady Charlotte Elizabeth Guest (née Bertie; 19 May 1812 – 15 January 1895), later Lady Charlotte Schreiber, was an English aristocrat who is best known as the first publisher in modern print format of The Mabinogion which is the earliest prose literature of Britain.
Lake Hamrin, also known as Diyala Dam, is a man-made lake approximately 50 km north-east of the Baquba, in Iraq's Diyala province.
A lamassu (Cuneiform:,; Sumerian: lammař; Akkadian: lamassu; sometimes called a lamassus) is an Assyrian protective deity, often depicted as having a human's head, a body of a bull or a lion, and bird's wings.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leonard William King, F.S.A. (8 December 1869 – 20 August 1919) was an English archaeologist and Assyriologist educated at Rugby School and King's College in Cambridge.
The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, named after Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is a collection of thousands of clay tablets and fragments containing texts of all kinds from the 7th century BC.
The earliest cities in history appear in the ancient Near East.
This is a list of monoliths organized according to the size of the largest block of stone on the site.
Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.
Manishtushu (or Maništušu) was a king of the Akkadian Empire from 2270 to 2255 BC (Middle Chronology).
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A merlon is the solid upright section of a battlement (a crenellated parapet) in medieval architecture or fortifications.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.
The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BC.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Mosul Dam (سد الموصل), formerly known as Saddam Dam (سد صدام), is the largest dam in Iraq.
The Mosul Museum is the second largest museum in Iraq after the National Museum of Iraq in Baghdad.
Nabu (cuneiform: 𒀭𒀝 Nabū ܢܒܘ) is the ancient Mesopotamian patron god of literacy, the rational arts, scribes and wisdom.
Nahum (or; נַחוּם Naḥūm) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Museum of Iraq (Arabic: المتحف العراقي) is a museum located in Baghdad, Iraq.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian: dGÌR-UNUG-GAL;; Aramaic ܢܹܪܓܵܐܠ; Nergel) was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim.
Nimrod (ܢܡܪܘܕ, النمرود an-Namrūd), a biblical figure described as a king in the land of Shinar (Assyria/Mesopotamia), was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush, therefore the great-grandson of Noah.
Nimrud (النمرود) is the name that Carsten NiebuhrNiebuhr wrote on:: "Bei Nimrud, einem verfallenen Castell etwa 8 Stunden von Mosul, findet man ein merkwürdigeres Werk.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Nineveh Governorate (محافظة نينوى) (ܗܘܦܲܪܟܝܵܐ ܕܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ) is a governorate in northern Iraq that contains the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh.
Ninurta, also known as Ningirsu, was a Mesopotamian god of farming, healing, hunting, law, scribes, and war who was first worshipped in early Sumer.
Ninus (Νίνος), according to Greek historians writing in the Hellenistic period and later, was accepted as the eponymous founder of Nineveh (also called Νίνου πόλις "city of Ninus" in Greek), ancient capital of Assyria.
The Old Assyrian Empire is one of four periods in which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Period, and the New Assyrian Period.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
Paul-Émile Botta (6 December 1802 – 29 March 1870) was an Italian-born French scientist who served as Consul in Mosul (then in the Ottoman Empire, now in Iraq) from 1842, and who discovered the ruins of the ancient Assyrian capital of Dur-Sharrukin.
The peplum film (pepla plural), also known as sword-and-sandal, is a genre of largely Italian-made historical or Biblical epics (costume dramas) that dominated the Italian film industry from 1958 to 1965, eventually being replaced in 1965 by Eurospy films and Spaghetti Westerns.
The Pergamon Museum (Pergamonmuseum) is situated on the Museum Island in Berlin.
Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Petachiah of Regensburg, also known as Petachiah ben Yakov, Moses Petachiah, and Petachiah of Ratisbon, was a Bohemian rabbi of the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries CE.
"Recessional" is a poem by Rudyard Kipling.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
The Saint Thomas Christians, also called Syrian Christians of India, Nasrani or Malankara Nasrani or Nasrani Mappila, Nasraya and in more ancient times Essani (Essene) are an ethnoreligious community of Malayali Syriac Christians from Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
Samuel Shuckford (1693?–1754) was an English cleric, antiquarian, and mythographer.
Sargon II (Assyrian Šarru-ukīn (LUGAL-GI.NA 𒈗𒄀𒈾).; Aramaic סרגן; reigned 722–705 BC) was an Assyrian king.
This is a family tree of the Sasanian emperors, their ancestors, and Sasanian princes/princesses.
Saving Our Vanishing Heritage: Safeguarding Endangered Cultural Heritage Sites in the Developing World was a report released by Global Heritage Fund on October 17, 2010.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Sennacherib was the king of Assyria from 705 BCE to 681 BCE.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Shalmaneser I (Shulmanu-asharedu; 1274 BC – 1245 BC or 1265 BC – 1235 BC) was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365 - 1050 BC).
Shamshi-Adad I (Šamši-Adad I; Amorite: Shamshi-Addu I; fl. c. 1809 BC – c. 1776 BC by the middle chronology) was an Amorite who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia for the Old Assyrian Empire.
The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1728–1686 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1531 BC.
Sin (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
Stephanie Mary Dalley FSA (née Page; March 1943) is a British scholar of the Ancient Near East.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
The Syriac Catholic Church (or Syrian Catholic Church) (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo), (also known as Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch or Aramean Catholic Church), is an Eastern Catholic Christian Church in the Levant that uses the West Syriac Rite liturgy and has many practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church.
Syriac Christianity (ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian traditions that employs Syriac language in their liturgical rites.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church (Aramaic/Syriac: ܥܸܕܬܵܐ ܩܵܬܘܿܠܝܼܩܝܼ ܕܡܲܠܲܒܵܪ ܣܘܼܪܝܵܝܵܐ Edta Qatholiqi D'Malabar Suryaya); (Malayalam: സുറിയാനി മലബാര് കത്തോലിക്ക സഭ Suriyani Malabar Katholika Sabha) or Church of Malabar Syrian Catholics is an Eastern Catholic Major Archiepiscopal Church based in Kerala, India.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tel Keppe (also spelled Tel Kaif) (ܬܸܠ ܟܹܐܦܹܐ, تل كيف), is an Assyrian town in northern Iraq.
Tel Lachish (תל לכיש; Λαχις; Tel Lachis), is the site of an ancient Near East city, now an archaeological site and an Israeli national park.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
The Fall of Nineveh is a long poem in blank verse by Edwin Atherstone.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Tiglath-Pileser I (from the Hebraic form of 𒆪𒋾𒀀𒂍𒊹𒊏 Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Ešarra") was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period (1114–1076 BC).
Tiglath-Pileser III (cuneiform: TUKUL.TI.A.É.ŠÁR.RA; Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of the Ešarra") was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE (ruled 745–727 BCE) who introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
Sir Walter Raleigh (or; circa 155429 October 1618) was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer.
Le sette folgori di Assur (English title: War Gods of Babylon) is a 1962 Italian film set in the ancient Middle East, which anachronistically portrays several figures as contemporaries who historically lived hundreds of years apart.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Zephaniah is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish Tanakh.
Adad Gate, Eski Mosul, Kouyunjik, Kuyunjik, Nenivah, Nergal Gate, Ninevah, Nineve, Nineveh ruins, Ninevite, Ninevite 5 period, Ninevite V culture, Ninevites, Ninewa, Niniveh, Ninua, Ninveh, Ninwe, Palace without a rival, Palace without rival, Qaryat Yunus, Qaryaṫ Yūnus, The Ancient City of Nineveh.