156 relations: Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid hydrolysis, Acid strength, Adipic acid, Albertus Magnus, Alkaloid, Alloy, Alum, Aluminium, Amide, Amino acid, Ammonia, Ammonium nitrate, Anhydrous, Aniline, Antimony, Antoine Lavoisier, Aqua regia, Aromaticity, Arsenic, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Azeotrope, Baumé scale, Benzene, Birkeland–Eyde process, Calcination, Carbide, Carbon nanotube, Catalysis, Chemical burn, Chemical kinetics, Chromium, CIM-10 Bomarc, Cobalt, Colored gold, Copper, Copper(II) nitrate, Corrosion, Corrosive substance, Cyanide, Cyclohexanol, Cyclohexanone, Dehydration reaction, Dinitrogen pentoxide, Distillation, Disulfuric acid, Electric arc, Electrochemistry, ..., Elemental analysis, Epithelium, Equilibrium constant, Ester, Etching, Explosive material, Fertilizer, Fineness, Flesh, Functional group, Gold, Haber process, Halogen, Health Protection Agency, Henry Cavendish, Human skin, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydroxy group, Hypergolic propellant, Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Iodic acid, Iron, Jewellery, Johann Rudolf Glauber, Keratin, Latin, Liquid-propellant rocket, List of alloys, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Magnesium, Magnesium nitrate, Manganese, Manganese(II) nitrate, Maple, McGraw-Hill Education, Metalloid, Mineral acid, Nickel, Nital, Niter, Nitrate, Nitration, Nitric oxide, Nitro compound, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, Nitroglycerin, Nitronium ion, Nitrous acid, Noble gas, Noble metal, Nylon, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Ostwald process, Oxidation state, Oxidizing acid, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Pascal (unit), Passivation (chemistry), Phosphoric acid, Pickling (metal), Pine, Platinum, Potassium nitrate, Precious metal, Properties of water, Protein, Pseudo-Geber, Ramon Llull, Red fuming nitric acid, Reducing agent, Rhodium, Self-ionization of water, Semiconductor, Silicon, Silver, Skin, Sodium nitrate, Sodium sulfate, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Sulfuric acid, Thermal, Thermodynamics, Tin, Tissue (biology), Titanium, TNT, Toluene, Torr, Turpentine, Viscosity, Vitriol, Water, White fuming nitric acid, Wilhelm Ostwald, Wood finishing, Xanthoproteic acid, Xanthoproteic reaction, Zinc, Zinc nitrate. Expand index (106 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
In organic chemistry, acid hydrolysis is a process in which a protic acid is used to catalyze the cleavage of a chemical bond via a nucleophilic substitution reaction, with the addition of the elements of water (H2O).
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
Adipic acid or hexanedioic acid is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)4(COOH)2.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound, the nitrate salt of the ammonium cation.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.
An azeotrope (gK, US) or a constant boiling point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple distillation.
The Baumé scale is a pair of hydrometer scales developed by French pharmacist Antoine Baumé in 1768 to measure density of various liquids.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
The Birkeland–Eyde process was one of the competing industrial processes in the beginning of nitrogen based fertilizer production.
The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to a corrosive substance such as a strong acid or base.
Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
The Boeing CIM-10 Bomarc (IM-99 Weapon System prior to September 1962) was a supersonic long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) used during the Cold War for the air defense of North America.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Pure gold is slightly reddish yellow in color, but colored gold in various other colors can be produced.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2, is an inorganic compound that forms a blue crystalline solid.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyclohexanol is the organic compound with the formula HOCH(CH2)5.
Cyclohexanone is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)5CO.
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
Dinitrogen pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O5.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Disulfuric acid (alternative spelling disulphuric acid) or pyrosulfuric acid (alternative spelling pyrosulphuric acid), also named oleum, is an oxyacid of sulfur.
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (e.g., soil, waste or drinking water, bodily fluids, minerals, chemical compounds) is analyzed for its elemental and sometimes isotopic composition.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.
Flesh is the soft substance of the body of a living thing.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
The Health Protection Agency (HPA) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom.
Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), also referred to as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), is an analytical technique used for the detection of chemical elements.
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry which is capable of detecting metals and several non-metals at concentrations as low as one part in 1015 (part per quadrillion, ppq) on non-interfered low-background isotopes.
Iodic acid, HIO3, can be obtained as a white or off-white solid.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 16 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
This is a list of named alloys grouped alphabetically by base metal.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium nitrate refers to inorganic compounds with the formula Mg(NO3)2(H2O)x, where x.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Manganese(II) nitrate are the inorganic compounds with formula Mn(NO3)2(H2O)n.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nital is a solution of nitric acid and alcohol commonly used for etching of metals.
Niter, or nitre (chiefly British), is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitration is a general class of chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (−2).
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
The nitronium ion,, is a cation.
Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak and monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
The Ostwald process is a chemical process for making nitric acid (HNO3).
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxidizing acid is a Brønsted acid that is a strong oxidizing agent.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, rust or scale from ferrous metals, copper, precious metals and aluminum alloys.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pseudo-Geber (or "Latin Pseudo-Geber") refers to a corpus of Latin alchemist writing dated to the late 13th and early 14th centuries, attributed to Geber (Jābir ibn Hayyān), an early alchemist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a philosopher, logician, Franciscan tertiary and Spanish writer.
Red fuming nitric acid (RFNA) is a storable oxidizer used as a rocket propellant.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
The self-ionization of water (also autoionization of water, and autodissociation of water) is an ionization reaction in pure water or in an aqueous solution, in which a water molecule, H2O, deprotonates (loses the nucleus of one of its hydrogen atoms) to become a hydroxide ion, OH−.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere, a form of atmospheric updraft.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
The torr (symbol: Torr) is a unit of pressure based on an absolute scale, now defined as exactly of a standard atmosphere (101.325 kPa).
Chemical structure of pinene, a major component of turpentine Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
In chemistry, vitriol is an archaic name for a sulfate, and vitriol names have the obvious meaning: for example, vitriol of lead is lead sulfate, and so on.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
White fuming nitric acid (WFNA) is a storable liquid oxidizer used with kerosene and hydrazine rocket fuel.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (2 September 1853 – 4 April 1932) was a German chemist.
Wood finishing refers to the process of refining or protecting a wooden surface, especially in the production of furniture where typically it represents between 5 and 30% of manufacturing costs.
Xanthoproteic acid is a noncrystallizable yellow substance derived from proteins upon treatment with nitric acid.
The xanthoproteic reaction is a method that can be used to determine the amount of protein soluble in a solution, using concentrated nitric acid.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc nitrate is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula Zn(NO3)2.
Aqua Fortis, Aqua fortis, Aqua sortis, Aquafortis, Azotic acid, Concentrated nitric acid, Fuming nitric acid, HNO3, HNO₃, HONO2, Hno3, Hydrogen nitrate, Nitric Acid, Nitryl hydroxide, Salpetre acid, Spirit of niter, Spirit of nitre, 🜅.