175 relations: Actinorhizal plant, Active site, Adenosine triphosphate, Adolph Frank, Agriculture, Alder, Alfalfa, Alkali metal, Allocasuarina, Amino acid, Ammonia, Ammonium, Anaerobic organism, Archaea, Archean, Atmosphere of Earth, Azolla, Azotobacter, Bacteria, Barium carbonate, Barium cyanide, Betulaceae, Biosphere, Biosynthesis, Birkeland–Eyde process, Buckwheat, Calcium carbide, Calcium cyanamide, Cannabaceae, Casuarina, Casuarinaceae, Ceanothus, Cercocarpus, Ceuthostoma, Chamaebatia, Cladistics, Clostridium, Clover, Cluster chemistry, Cofactor (biochemistry), Colletia, Comptonia (plant), Coordination complex, Coral reef, Coriaria, Cucurbitales, Cyanobacteria, Cyanothece, Cycad, Datisca, ..., Denitrification, Diatom, Diatomic molecule, Diazotroph, Dimer (chemistry), Discaria, Dryas (plant), Earth, Ecosystem, Elaeagnaceae, Elaeagnus, Endosymbiont, Explosive material, Fabaceae, Fabales, Fagales, FeMoco, Fertilizer, Frank–Caro process, Frankia, Genetics, Genus, George Washington Carver, Glutamic acid, Glutamine synthetase, Green manure, Green sulfur bacteria, Gunnera, Gymnostoma, Haber process, Hermann Hellriegel, Hippophae, Hydrogenation, Hydrolysis, Inga, Inga alley cropping, Inorganic Chemistry (journal), Iron, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Ketone, Kudzu, Leghemoglobin, Legume, Lightning, Lithium, Lithium nitride, Lobaria, Lupinus, Martinus Beijerinck, Methanogen, Molybdenum, Molybdenum(V) chloride, Most recent common ancestor, Myrica, Myricaceae, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nif gene, Nikodem Caro, Nikola Tesla, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nitrification, Nitrile, Nitrite, Nitrogen, Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen deficiency, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen fixation package, Nitrogenase, Nitrous acid, Nostoc, NOx, Nucleic acid, Nucleotide, Order (biology), Ostwald process, Peanut, Peltigera, Pentaamine(dinitrogen)ruthenium(II) chloride, Photochemistry, Physiology, Plant, Polygonaceae, Prokaryote, Protein, Protonation, Pseudomonadaceae, Purshia, Push–pull agricultural pest management, Pyridinium, Pyrrole, Reducing agent, Rhamnaceae, Rhizobia, Rice, Rooibos, Root, Root nodule, Rosaceae, Rosales, Rosids, Science (journal), Shepherdia, Soil, Soybean, Styphnolobium, Symbiosis, Termite, The Century Magazine, The Guardian, Transition metal dinitrogen complex, Transition metal pincer complex, Trema (plant), Trevoa, Trichodesmium, Trimethylsilyl chloride, Triple bond, Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, Tris(trimethylsilyl)amine, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Urea, Vanadium, 1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane. Expand index (125 more) » « Shrink index
Actinorhizal plants are a group of angiosperms characterized by their ability to form a symbiosis with the nitrogen fixing actinobacteria Frankia.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adolph Frank (January 20, 1834 – May 30, 1916) was a German chemist, engineer, and businessman.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.
Alfalfa, Medicago sativa also called lucerne, is a perennial flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
Allocasuarina is a genus of trees in the flowering plant family Casuarinaceae.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns in the family Salviniaceae.
Azotobacter is a genus of usually motile, oval or spherical bacteria that form thick-walled cysts and may produce large quantities of capsular slime.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Barium carbonate (BaCO3), also known as witherite, is a chemical compound used in rat poison, bricks, ceramic glazes and cement.
Barium cyanide is a chemical compound with the formula Ba(CN)2.
Betulaceae, the birch family, includes six genera of deciduous nut-bearing trees and shrubs, including the birches, alders, hazels, hornbeams, hazel-hornbeam, and hop-hornbeams numbering a total of 167 species.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
The Birkeland–Eyde process was one of the competing industrial processes in the beginning of nitrogen based fertilizer production.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), also known as common buckwheat, Japanese buckwheat and silverhull buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop.
Calcium carbide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula of CaC2.
Calcium cyanamide is the inorganic compound with the formula CaCN2.
Cannabaceae is a small family of flowering plants.
Casuarina is a genus of 17 tree species in the family Casuarinaceae, native to Australia, the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, and islands of the western Pacific Ocean.
The Casuarinaceae are a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants placed in the order Fagales, consisting of four genera and 91 species of trees and shrubs native to the Australia, Southeast Asia, Malesia, Papuasia, and the Pacific Islands.
Ceanothus L. is a genus of about 50–60 species of nitrogen-fixing shrubs or small trees in the family Rhamnaceae.
Cercocarpus, commonly known as mountain mahogany, is a small genus of five or six species of nitrogen-fixing flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae.
Ceuthostoma is a genus of two species of trees, constituting part of the plant family Casuarinaceae.
Chamaebatia, also known as mountain misery, is a genus of two species of aromatic evergreen shrubs endemic to California.
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.
Clover or trefoil are common names for plants of the genus Trifolium (Latin, tres "three" + folium "leaf"), consisting of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae.
In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms or molecules that is intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Colletia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rhamnaceae, with 15 to 17 species of spiny shrubs.
Comptonia is a monotypic genus (containing only Comptonia peregrina) in the family Myricaceae, order Fagales.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Coriaria is the sole genus in the family Coriariaceae described by Linnaeus in 1753.
The Cucurbitales are an order of flowering plants, included in the rosid group of dicotyledons.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cyanothece is a genus of unicellular, diazotrophic, oxygenic photosynthesizing cyanobacteria.
Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.
The Datiscaceae are a family of dicotyledonous plants, containing two species of the genus Datisca.
Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process where nitrate is reduced and ultimately produces molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
Diazotrophs are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Discaria is a genus of about 12 species of flowering plants in the family Rhamnaceae, native to temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere, in Australia, New Zealand and South America.
Dryas is a genus of perennial cushion-forming evergreen dwarf shrubs in the family Rosaceae, native to the arctic and alpine regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
The Elaeagnaceae are a plant family, the oleaster family, of the order Rosales comprising small trees and shrubs, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, south into tropical Asia and Australia.
Elaeagnus, silverberry or oleaster, is a genus of about 50–70 species of flowering plants in the family Elaeagnaceae.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, Article 18.5 states: "The following names, of long usage, are treated as validly published:....Leguminosae (nom. alt.: Fabaceae; type: Faba Mill.);...
The Fabales are an order of flowering plants included in the rosid group of the eudicots in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II classification system.
The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best-known trees.
FeMoco is the primary cofactor of nitrogenase.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The Frank–Caro process, also called cyanamide process, is the nitrogen fixation reaction of calcium carbide with nitrogen gas in a reactor vessel at about 1,000°C.
Frankia is a genus of nitrogen-fixing, filamentous bacteria that live in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, similar to the Rhizobium bacteria found in the root nodules of legumes in the family Fabaceae.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
George Washington Carver (1860sThe Notable Names Database states around 1860 citing a census report from 1870: "1864 is frequently cited as his birth year, but in the 1870 census form filed by Moses and Susan Carver he is listed as being ten years old.", NNDB. – January 5, 1943), was an American botanist and inventor.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine: Glutamate + ATP + NH3 → Glutamine + ADP + phosphate Glutamine Synthetase uses ammonia produced by nitrate reduction, amino acid degradation, and photorespiration.
In agriculture, green manure is created by leaving uprooted or sown crop parts to wither on a field so that they serve as a mulch and soil amendment.
The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria.
Gunnera is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants.
Gymnostoma is a genus of about eighteen species of trees and shrubs, constituting one of the four genera of the plant family Casuarinaceae.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
Hermann Hellriegel (October 21, 1831 – September 24, 1895) was a German agricultural chemist who discovered that leguminous plants assimilate the free nitrogen of the atmosphere.
Hippophae is a genus of sea buckthorns, deciduous shrubs in the family Elaeagnaceae.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Inga (common name shimbillo) is a genus of small tropical, tough-leaved, nitrogen-fixing treesElkan, Daniel.
Inga alley cropping refers to planting agricultural crops between rows of Inga trees.
Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Kudzu (also called Japanese arrowroot) is a group of plants in the genus Pueraria, in the pea family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
Leghemoglobin (also leghaemoglobin or legoglobin) is an oxygen carrier and hemoprotein found in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lithium nitride is a compound with the formula Li3N.
Lobaria is a genus of lichens commonly known as "lungwort" or "lung moss" as their physical shape somewhat resembles a lung.
Lupinus, commonly known as lupin or lupine (North America), is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Molybdenum(V) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula 2.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
Myrica is a genus of about 35–50 species of small trees and shrubs in the family Myricaceae, order Fagales.
The Myricaceae are a small family of dicotyledonous shrubs and small trees in the order Fagales.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
The nif genes are genes encoding enzymes involved in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into a form of nitrogen available to living organisms.
Nikodem Caro (23 May 1871, Łódź, then Russian Empire – 27 June 1935, Rome, Italy) was an industrial chemist and entrepreneur.
Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
All plants require sufficient supplies of macronutrients for healthy growth, and nitrogen (N) is a nutrient that is commonly in limited supply.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
A nitrogen fixation package is a piece of research equipment for studying nitrogen fixation in plants.
Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak and monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts.
Nostoc is a genus of cyanobacteria found in various environments that forms colonies composed of filaments of moniliform cells in a gelatinous sheath.
In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
The Ostwald process is a chemical process for making nitric acid (HNO3).
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
Peltigera is a genus of approximately 91 species of foliose lichens in the family Peltigeraceae.
Pentaamine(nitrogen)ruthenium(II) chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula Cl2.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
The Polygonaceae are a family of flowering plants known informally as the knotweed family or smartweed—buckwheat family in the United States.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
The Pseudomonadaceae are family of bacteria which includes the genera Azomonas, Azomonotrichon, Azorhizophilus, Azotobacter, Cellvibrio, Mesophilobacter, Pseudomonas (the type genus), Rhizobacter, Rugamonas, and Serpens.
Purshia (bitterbrush or cliff-rose) is a small genus of 5-8 species of flowering plants in the family Rosaceae, native to western North America, where they grow in dry climates from southeast British Columbia in Canada south throughout the western United States to northern Mexico.
Push–pull technology is a strategy for controlling agricultural pests by using repellent "push" plants and trap "pull" plants.
Pyridinium refers to the cation +. It is the conjugate acid of pyridine.
Pyrrole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, a five-membered ring with the formula C4H4NH.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
The Rhamnaceae are a large family of flowering plants, mostly trees, shrubs, and some vines, commonly called the buckthorn family.
Rhizobia are bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae).
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), meaning "red bush"; is a broom-like member of the Fabaceae family of plants growing in South Africa's fynbos.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Root nodules occur on the roots of plants (primarily Fabaceae) that associate with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Rosaceae, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants, including 4,828 known species in 91 genera.
Rosales is an order of flowering plants.
The rosids are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Shepherdia, commonly called buffaloberry or bullberry, is a genus of small shrubs in the Elaeagnaceae family.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Styphnolobium is a small genus of three or four species of small trees and shrubs in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae, formerly included within a broader interpretation of the genus Sophora.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
The Century Magazine was first published in the United States in 1881 by The Century Company of New York City, which had been bought in that year by Roswell Smith and renamed by him after the Century Association.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Metal dinitrogen complexes are coordination compounds that contain the dinitrogen molecule (N2) as a ligand.
In chemistry, a transition metal pincer complex is a type of coordination complex with a pincer ligand.
Trema is a genus of about 15 species of evergreen trees closely related to the hackberries (Celtis), occurring in subtropical and tropical regions of southern Asia, northern Australasia, Africa, South and Central America, and parts of North America.
Trevoa is a genus of actinorhizal plants; these dicotyledon flora are trees or small shrubs.
Trichodesmium, also called sea sawdust, is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria.
Trimethylsilyl chloride, also known as chlorotrimethylsilane is an organosilicon compound (silyl halide), with the formula (CH3)3SiCl, often abbreviated Me3SiCl or TMSCl.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine is the organic compound with the formula N(CH2CH2NH2)3.
Tris(trimethylsilyl)amine is the simplest tris(trialkylsilyl)amine which are having the general formula (R3Si)3N, in which all three hydrogen atoms of the ammonia are replaced by trimethylsilyl groups (-Si(CH3)3).
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) is an organophosphorus compound with the formula (Ph2PCH2)2 (Ph.
"fixing" nitrogen, Biological nitrogen fixation, Fixed nitrogen, Fixing nitrogen, Nitrate fixation, Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen fixating, Nitrogen fixation process, Nitrogen fixing, Nitrogen-fixation, Nitrogen-fixing, Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Nitrogen-fixing trees, Non-legume Nitrogen fixer, Non-legume nitrogen fixer.