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Nobel Prize

Index Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. [1]

294 relations: Aage Bohr, Adam Kirsch, Adolf Butenandt, Adolf Hitler, Al Gore, Alfred Nobel, Alva Myrdal, António Egas Moniz, Antitoxin, Anton Chekhov, Aqua regia, Arnold Sommerfeld, Arthur Kornberg, Arthur Miller, Ateshgah of Baku, Audit, Auditorium, August Strindberg, Aula Magna (Stockholm University), Aung San Suu Kyi, Azerbaijan International, Émile Zola, Baku, Ballistite, Barack Obama, Baruch Spinoza, Blue Hall, Board of directors, Bofors, Boris Pasternak, Brahma, Burton Feldman, C. R. Hagen, C. V. Raman, Cambridge University Press, Carl Ferdinand Cori, Cathode ray, CBC News, Chairman, Chemical bond, Chemical structure, Chemical thermodynamics, Chemistry, Chinua Achebe, CNN, Corazon Aquino, Cordite, Cuban Missile Crisis, Curie family, Dag Hammarskjöld, ..., Dagens Nyheter, Diphtheria, Diploma, Dynamite, Edvard Moser, Eleanor Roosevelt, Electron, Electrum, Elfriede Jelinek, Emil von Behring, Enrico Fermi Award, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Eurocentrism, Executive director, Ezra Pound, Fields Medal, Fineness, Fischer Black, Foreign Policy, François Englert, Franz Hillenkamp, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Frédéric Passy, Frederick Sanger, Frits Zernike, Fritz Strassmann, Gaston Ramon, Gautama Buddha, George de Hevesy, George Paget Thomson, Gerald Guralnik, Gerard 't Hooft, Gerhard Domagk, German occupation of Norway, Gerty Cori, Giovanni Jona-Lasinio, Goethe University Frankfurt, Grand Hotel (Oslo), Gunnar Öquist, Gunnar Jahn, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans von Euler-Chelpin, Henry Dunant, Henry Kissinger, Henry Richardson Labouisse Jr., Herta Müller, Ig Nobel Prize, Imperial College Press, In Search of Schrödinger's Cat, Institute of Commercial Management, Insulin, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Investment company, Irène Joliot-Curie, J. J. Thomson, J. R. R. Tolkien, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, James Franck, James Joyce, Jan Tinbergen, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jimmy Carter, Johannes Fibiger, John Bardeen, John Fenn (chemist), John O'Keefe (neuroscientist), John Updike, Jorge Luis Borges, Kai Siegbahn, Karel Čapek, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Kenneth Arrow, Knut Ahnlund, Kofi Annan, Koichi Tanaka, Lawrence Bragg, Lê Đức Thọ, Left-wing politics, Leo Tolstoy, Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, Linus Pauling, Lise Meitner, List of female Nobel laureates, List of Nobel laureates, List of Nobel laureates by country, List of Nobel laureates by Secondary School affiliation, List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation, List of science and technology awards, Literature, Liu Xiaobo, Lobotomy, Los Angeles Times, Ludvig Nobel, Mahatma Gandhi, Manne Siegbahn, Manufacturing, Marcel Proust, Marie Curie, Mark Twain, Martti Ahtisaari, Mass spectrometry, Max von Laue, May-Britt Moser, Medical ethics, Medicine, Michael Karas, Monarchy of Norway, Monarchy of Sweden, Muhammad, Myanmar, Myntverket, Myron Scholes, Nature (journal), Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, New World, Niels Bohr, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute, Nobel Chor, Nobel Committee, Nobel Conference, Nobel family, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Library, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel Museum, Nobel Peace Center, Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Prize effect, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nobel Son, North Vietnam, Norway, Norwegian Nobel Committee, Norwegian Nobel Institute, Obverse and reverse, Oil refinery, Oregon State University, Oscar II of Sweden, Oslo, Oslo Accords, Oslo City Hall, Otto Hahn, Otto Stern, Paris Peace Accords, Paul Samuelson, Peace, Peter Englund, Peter Higgs, Philipp Lenard, Philippe-Joseph Salazar, Physics, Physiology, Pierre Curie, Pierre Paul Émile Roux, President of the United States, Privy Council of Sweden, Protein, Radioactive decay, Radium, Ragnar Frisch, Ragnar Sohlman, Ralph M. Steinman, Richard Kuhn, Robert C. Merton, Robert Nobel, Roger D. 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Expand index (244 more) »

Aage Bohr

Aage Niels Bohr (19 June 1922 – 8 September 2009) was a Danish nuclear physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1975 with Ben Mottelson and James Rainwater "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection".

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Adam Kirsch

Adam Kirsch (born 1976) is an American poet and literary critic.

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Adolf Butenandt

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Al Gore

Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Alfred Nobel

Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist.

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Alva Myrdal

Alva Myrdal (née Reimer; 31 January 1902 – 1 February 1986) was a Swedish sociologist, diplomat and politician.

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António Egas Moniz

António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 November 1874 – 13 December 1955), known as Egas Moniz, was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography.

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Antitoxin

An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin.

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Anton Chekhov

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (ɐnˈton ˈpavɫəvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history.

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Aqua regia

Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.

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Arnold Sommerfeld

Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.

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Arthur Kornberg

Arthur Kornberg (March 3, 1918 – October 26, 2007) was an American biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his discovery of "the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)" together with Dr.

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Arthur Miller

Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright, essayist, and figure in twentieth-century American theater.

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Ateshgah of Baku

The Baku Ateshgah (from آتشگاه, Atashgāh, Atəşgah), often called the "Fire Temple of Baku" is a castle-like religious temple in Surakhani town (in Suraxanı raion), a suburb in Baku, Azerbaijan.

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Audit

An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern.

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Auditorium

An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres.

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August Strindberg

Johan August Strindberg (22 January 184914 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter.

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Aula Magna (Stockholm University)

Aula Magna is the largest auditorium at Stockholm University in Sweden, completed in 1998.

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Aung San Suu Kyi

Aung San Suu Kyi (born 19 June 1945) is a Burmese politician, diplomat, and author, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1991).

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Azerbaijan International

Azerbaijan International is a magazine that discusses issues related to Azerbaijanis around the world.

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Émile Zola

Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.

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Baku

Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.

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Ballistite

Ballistite is a smokeless propellant made from two high explosives, nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine.

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Blue Hall

The Blue Hall (Blå hallen) is the main hall of the Stockholm City Hall best known as the banquet hall for the annual Nobel Banquet, and also used for state visits, student balls, jubilees and other large events.

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Board of directors

A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.

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Bofors

Bofors AB is a Swedish arms manufacturer.

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Boris Pasternak

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (|p|æ|s|t|ər|ˌ|n|æ|k) (29 January 1890 - 30 May 1960) was a Soviet Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator.

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Brahma

Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.

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Burton Feldman

Burton Edward Feldman (May 3, 1926 - January 10, 2003 was an American professor of English. He was born in Albany, New York. He spent much of his early life in Troy, New York before enlisting in the Army in 1945.achieving the rank of Second Lieutenant while serving as a Field Artillery Commander. Feldman received a B.A. from Union College in Schenectady, New York in 1949, and then a M.A. in English from Columbia University in 1954. While working on his master's degree at Columbia University, he married Margaret (Peggy) Mary Gildea in 1953. Feldman worked for a brief period in 1956 for United Productions of America, helping writwg episodes of Gerald McBoing Boing, and was also employed to conduct research on storylines in the public domain that could potentially be adopted into cartoons. He then moved on to the University of Chicago to both teach and work on his Ph.D., which he received in 1965. During his time in Chicago, Feldman studied under Leo Strauss, a political philosophy professor, and became friends with Mircea Eliade, a Romanian author and scholar of religion. After leaving the University of Chicago, Feldman and his wife spent two years in Europe and Turkey teaching for the University of Maryland. After returning to the U.S., Feldman arrived at the University of Denver in 1965. During his time at the University, Feldman acted as Director of Undergraduate Honors in English (1968–1974), Editor of the Denver Quarterly (1970–1975), and Director of Graduate Studies in English (1980–1984). While teaching at the University of Denver, Feldman undertook his professional scholarship in earnest. Working with Professor Robert D. Richardson, Jr., Feldman published The Rise of Modern Mythology: 1680 - 1860 in 1972. The book explored the use of myth in the western world and how it was used in literature and society from 1680-1860. Richards and Feldman continued to work together from 1979–1984, and published a 50 volume compendium of rare and important mythological texts used by Romantic poets. The anthology is entitled Myth and Romanticism. Feldman wanted to write a sequel to The Rise of Modern Mythology: 1680 - 1860 that would update it to modern day, but the project was never completed or published. In 2000, Feldman published a history of the Nobel Prizes entitled The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige. Feldman worked on a book tentatively entitled Fame and Glory explored the idea of notoriety and the seeking of recognition in literary figures, both authors and characters. Feldman was also a poet, amateur novelist, and an artist. His poetry was published in a number of different journals over the course of his life, but was unsuccessful in getting a book of poetry published. He was also unsuccessful in publishing any of his several novels during his lifetime. Feldman retired from the University of Denver in 1998 and died from cancer in Denver, Colorado on January 10, 2003. At the time of his death, Burton Feldman had been working on a book that was part fact and part historical fiction that chronicled the friendship of Albert Einstein, Wolfgang Pauli, Bertrand Russell, and Kurt Godel in their declining years. Feldman had tentatively entitled the work Einstein and Friends. Two books were published in 2007, under the supervision of Peggy Feldman and Katherine Williams, with the titles 112 Mercer St.: Einstein, Russell, Godel, Pauli, and the End of Innocence in Science, and Einstein's Genius Club: The True Story of a Group of Scientists Who Changed the World. Open Access- Public Domain - NOT under copyright.

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C. R. Hagen

Carl Richard Hagen (born 2 February 1937) is a professor of particle physics at the University of Rochester.

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C. V. Raman

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (7 November 188821 November 1970) was an Indian physicist born in the former Madras Province in India presently the state of Tamil Nadu, who carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl Ferdinand Cori

Carl Ferdinand Cori, ForMemRS (December 5, 1896 – October 20, 1984) was a Czech-American biochemist and pharmacologist born in Prague (then in Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic) who, together with his wife Gerty Cori and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, received a Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of how glycogen (animal starch) – a derivative of glucose – is broken down and resynthesized in the body, for use as a store and source of energy.

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Cathode ray

Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.

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CBC News

CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.

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Chairman

The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Chemical structure

A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.

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Chemical thermodynamics

Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.

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Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chinua Achebe

Chinua Achebe (born Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe, 16 November 1930 – 21 March 2013) was a Nigerian novelist, poet, professor, and critic.

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CNN

Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Corazon Aquino

Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office.

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Cordite

* Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom since 1889 to replace gunpowder as a military propellant.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.

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Curie family

The Curie family is a French family with a number of illustrious scientists.

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Dag Hammarskjöld

Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations.

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Dagens Nyheter

Dagens Nyheter (lit. "the day's news"), abbreviated DN, is a daily newspaper in Sweden.

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Diphtheria

Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

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Diploma

A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study.

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Dynamite

Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers.

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Edvard Moser

Edvard Ingjald Moser (born 27 April 1962) is a Norwegian psychologist and neuroscientist, who is a scientific member of the Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology near Munich, Germany.

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Eleanor Roosevelt

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat and activist.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electrum

Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals.

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Elfriede Jelinek

Elfriede Jelinek (born 20 October 1946) is an Austrian playwright and novelist.

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Emil von Behring

Emil von Behring (Emil Adolf von Behring), born as Emil Adolf Behring (15 March 1854 – 31 March 1917), was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin.

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Enrico Fermi Award

The Enrico Fermi Award is an award honoring scientists of international stature for their lifetime achievement in the development, use, or production of energy.

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Erik Axel Karlfeldt

Erik Axel Karlfeldt (20 July 1864 – 8 April 1931) was a Swedish poet whose highly symbolist poetry masquerading as regionalism was popular and won him the Nobel Prize in Literature posthumously in 1931 after he had been nominated by Nathan Söderblom, member of the Swedish Academy.

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Eurocentrism

Eurocentrism (also Western-centrism) is a worldview centered on and biased towards Western civilization.

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Executive director

An executive director is a chief executive officer (CEO) or managing director of an organization, company, or corporation.

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Ezra Pound

Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an expatriate American poet and critic, as well as a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement.

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Fields Medal

The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.

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Fineness

The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.

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Fischer Black

Fischer Sheffey Black (January 11, 1938 – August 30, 1995) was an American economist, best known as one of the authors of the famous Black–Scholes equation.

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Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.

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François Englert

François Baron Englert (born 6 November 1932) is a Belgian theoretical physicist and 2013 Nobel prize laureate (shared with Peter Higgs).

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Franz Hillenkamp

Franz Hillenkamp (March 18, 1936 – August 22, 2014) was a German scientist known for his development of the laser microprobe mass analyzer and, with Michael Karas, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI).

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Frédéric Joliot-Curie

Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie (19 March 1900 – 14 August 1958), born Jean Frédéric Joliot, was a French physicist, husband of Irène Joliot-Curie with whom he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Frédéric Passy

Frédéric Passy (May 20, 1822 – June 12, 1912) was a French economist and a joint winner (together with Henry Dunant) of the first Nobel Peace Prize awarded in 1901.

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Frederick Sanger

Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.

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Frits Zernike

Frits Zernike (16 July 1888 – 10 March 1966) was a Dutch physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize for physics in 1953 for his invention of the phase-contrast microscope.

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Fritz Strassmann

Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.

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Gaston Ramon

Gaston Ramon (September 30, 1886 - June 8, 1963) was a French veterinarian and biologist best known for his role in the treatment of diphtheria and tetanus.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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George de Hevesy

George Charles de Hevesy (Georg Karl von Hevesy; 1 August 1885 – 5 July 1966) was a Hungarian radiochemist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate, recognized in 1943 for his key role in the development of radioactive tracers to study chemical processes such as in the metabolism of animals.

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George Paget Thomson

Sir George Paget Thomson, FRS (3 May 1892 – 10 September 1975) was an English physicist and Nobel laureate in physics recognised for his discovery of the wave properties of the electron by electron diffraction.

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Gerald Guralnik

Gerald Stanford "Gerry" Guralnik (September 17, 1936 – April 26, 2014) was the Chancellor’s Professor of Physics at Brown University.

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Gerard 't Hooft

Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft (born July 5, 1946) is a Dutch theoretical physicist and professor at Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

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Gerhard Domagk

Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (30 October 1895 – 24 April 1964) was a German pathologist and bacteriologist.

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German occupation of Norway

The German occupation of Norway began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway.

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Gerty Cori

Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz; August 15, 1896 – October 26, 1957) was a Jewish Czech-American biochemist who became the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

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Giovanni Jona-Lasinio

Giovanni Jona-Lasinio (born 1932), sometimes called Gianni Jona, is an Italian theoretical physicist, best known for his works on quantum field theory and statistical mechanics.

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Goethe University Frankfurt

Goethe University Frankfurt (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main) is a university located in Frankfurt, Germany.

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Grand Hotel (Oslo)

Grand Hotel is a hotel in Oslo, Norway.

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Gunnar Öquist

Gunnar Öquist (born 1941) is a Swedish biologist and professor of plant physiology at Umeå University, and served as the permanent secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 2003 to 2010.

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Gunnar Jahn

Gunnar Jahn (10 January 1883 – 31 January 1971) was a Norwegian jurist, economist, statistician, politician for the Liberal Party and resistance member.

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Gunnar Myrdal

Karl Gunnar Myrdal (6 December 1898 – 17 May 1987) was a Swedish economist and sociologist.

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Hans von Euler-Chelpin

Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (15 February 1873 – 6 November 1964) was a German-born Swedish biochemist.

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Henry Dunant

Henry Dunant (born Jean-Henri Dunant; 8 May 1828 – 30 October 1910), also known as Henri Dunant, was a Swiss businessman and social activist, the founder of the Red Cross, and the first recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.

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Henry Kissinger

Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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Henry Richardson Labouisse Jr.

Henry Richardson Labouisse Jr. (February 11, 1904 – March 25, 1987) was an American diplomat and statesman.

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Herta Müller

Herta Müller (born 17 August 1953) is a Romanian-born German novelist, poet, essayist and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Ig Nobel Prize

The Ig Nobel Prize is a parody of the Nobel Prize, which is awarded every autumn to celebrate ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research.

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Imperial College Press

Imperial College Press (ICP) was formed in 1995 as a partnership between Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine in London and World Scientific publishing.

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In Search of Schrödinger's Cat

In Search of Schrödinger's Cat: Quantum Physics and Reality is a 1984 book on quantum theory by physicist John Gribbin, discussing in layman's terms its logic and many interpretations.

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Institute of Commercial Management

The Institute of Commercial Management (ICM), founded in 1979, is a professional body for Commercial and Business Development Managers and an examining and awarding body for business and management students.

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Insulin

Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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International Committee of the Red Cross

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.

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International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

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Intracerebral hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.

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Investment company

An investment company is a company whose main business is holding and managing securities for investment purposes.

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Irène Joliot-Curie

Irène Joliot-Curie (12 September 1897 – 17 March 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie.

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J. J. Thomson

Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.

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J. R. R. Tolkien

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

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Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Jr. (30 August 1852 – 1 March 1911) was a Dutch physical chemist.

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James Franck

James Franck (26 August 1882 – 21 May 1964) was a German physicist who won the 1925 Nobel Prize for Physics with Gustav Hertz "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom".

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James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.

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Jan Tinbergen

Jan Tinbergen (April 12, 1903June 9, 1994) was an important Dutch economist.

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Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.

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Jimmy Carter

James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.

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Johannes Fibiger

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger (23 April 1867 – 30 January 1928) was a Danish physician and professor of anatomical pathology at the University of Copenhagen.

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John Bardeen

John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer.

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John Fenn (chemist)

John Bennett Fenn (June 15, 1917December 10, 2010) was an American research professor of analytical chemistry who was awarded a share of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002.

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John O'Keefe (neuroscientist)

John O'Keefe, (born November 18, 1939) is an American-British neuroscientist and a professor at the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour and the Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at University College London.

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John Updike

John Hoyer Updike (March 18, 1932 – January 27, 2009) was an American novelist, poet, short story writer, art critic, and literary critic.

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Jorge Luis Borges

Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.

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Kai Siegbahn

Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn (20 April 1918 – 20 July 2007) was a Swedish physicist.

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Karel Čapek

Karel Čapek (9 January 1890 – 25 December 1938) was a Czech writer of the early 20th century.

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Ken Saro-Wiwa

Kenule Beeson "Ken" Saro-Wiwa (10 October 1941 – 10 November 1995) was a Nigerian writer, television producer, environmental activist, and winner of the Right Livelihood Award and the Goldman Environmental Prize.

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Kenneth Arrow

Kenneth Joseph "Ken" Arrow (23 August 1921 – 21 February 2017) was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist.

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Knut Ahnlund

Knut Emil Ahnlund (24 May 1923 – 28 November 2012) was a Swedish literary historian, writer, and member of the Swedish Academy.

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Kofi Annan

Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.

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Koichi Tanaka

is a Japanese engineer who shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002 for developing a novel method for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules with John Bennett Fenn and Kurt Wüthrich (the latter for work in NMR spectroscopy).

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Lawrence Bragg

Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.

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Lê Đức Thọ

Lê Đức Thọ (14 October 1911 – 13 October 1990), born Phan Đình Khải in Nam Dinh Province, was a Vietnamese revolutionary, general, diplomat, and politician.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings are annual, scientific conferences held in Lindau, Bavaria, Germany since 1951.

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Linus Pauling

Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.

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Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.

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List of female Nobel laureates

As of 2017, Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 844 men, 48 women (Marie Curie won it twice), and 27 organizations.

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List of Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of Nobel laureates by country

This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates by country.

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List of Nobel laureates by Secondary School affiliation

The following is a list of Nobel Prize laureates by secondary school affiliation.

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List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation

This list of Nobel laureates by university affiliation shows comprehensively the university affiliations of individual winners of the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences since 1901 (as of 2017, 892 individual laureates in total).

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List of science and technology awards

A list of medals, prizes, and other awards in the fields of science, technology, engineering and social science.

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Literature

Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.

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Liu Xiaobo

Liu Xiaobo (刘晓波, 28 December 1955 – 13 July 2017) was a Chinese writer, literary critic, human rights activist, philosopher and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who called for political reforms and was involved in campaigns to end communist one-party rule in China.

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Lobotomy

Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Ludvig Nobel

Ludvig Immanuel Nobel (Russian: Лю́двиг Эммануи́лович Нобе́ль; Swedish: Ludvig Emmanuel Nobel; 27 July 1831, Stockholm – 12 April 1888, Cannes) was a Swedish-Russian engineer, a noted businessman and a humanitarian.

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Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.

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Manne Siegbahn

Prof Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn FRS(For) HFRSE (3 December 1886 – 26 September 1978) was a Swedish physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1924 "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy".

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Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

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Marcel Proust

Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (10 July 1871 – 18 November 1922), known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; earlier rendered as Remembrance of Things Past), published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927.

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Marie Curie

Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.

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Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.

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Martti Ahtisaari

Martti Ahtisaari (officially Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari; born 23 June 1937) is a Finnish politician, the tenth President of Finland (1994–2000), a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, and a United Nations diplomat and mediator noted for his international peace work.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Max von Laue

Max Theodor Felix von Laue (9 October 1879 – 24 April 1960) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.

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May-Britt Moser

May-Britt Moser (born 4 January 1963) is a Norwegian psychologist, neuroscientist, and head of department of the Centre for Neural Computation at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).

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Medical ethics

Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.

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Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Michael Karas

Michael Karas (born 1952) is a German physical chemistry scientist and Professor, known for his researches on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), a technique in mass spectrometry.

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Monarchy of Norway

The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system.

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Monarchy of Sweden

The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.

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Muhammad

MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Myanmar

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Myntverket

Myntverket (officially AB Myntverket) is a private Swedish company that produces coins and medals, most notably the Swedish national coins and the Nobel Prize medals.

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Myron Scholes

Myron Samuel Scholes (born July 1, 1941) is a Canadian-American financial economist.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nikolaas Tinbergen

Nikolaas "Niko" Tinbergen (15 April 1907 – 21 December 1988) was a Dutch biologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns in animals.

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Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute

The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute is a body at Karolinska Institute which awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and it is headquartered in the Nobel Forum on the grounds of the Karolinska Institute campus.

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Nobel Chor

Nobel Chor (নোবেল চোর) is a 2012 Bengali-language Indian film directed by Suman Ghosh, starring Mithun Chakraborty, Soumitra Chatterjee, Roopa Ganguly and Saswata Chatterjee.

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Nobel Committee

A Nobel Committee is a working body responsible for most of the work involved in selecting Nobel Prize laureates.

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Nobel Conference

The Nobel Conference is an academic conference held annually at Gustavus Adolphus College in St. Peter, Minnesota.

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Nobel family

The Nobel family is a prominent Swedish and Russian family closely related to the history both of Sweden and of Russia in the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

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Nobel Library

The Nobel Library (Nobelbiblioteket or, officially, Svenska Akademiens Nobelbibliotek, e.g. "Nobel Library of the Swedish Academy") is the public library of the Swedish Academy instituted to assist the evaluation of Nobel laureates to the Prize in Literature and other awards granted by the academy.

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Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.

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Nobel Museum

The Nobel Museum (Nobelmuseet) is located in the former Stock Exchange Building (Börshuset) on the north side of the square Stortorget in Gamla Stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden.

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Nobel Peace Center

The Nobel Peace Center (Nobels Fredssenter) in Oslo, Norway is a showcase for the Nobel Peace Prize and the ideals it represents.

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Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.

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Nobel Prize effect

The Nobel Prize effect is an observation about the adverse effects of winning the Nobel Prize on laureates and their careers.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nobel Son

Nobel Son is a 2007 American black comedy about a dysfunctional family dealing with the kidnapping of their son for ransom following the father's winning of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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North Vietnam

North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Norwegian Nobel Committee

The Norwegian Nobel Committee (Den norske Nobelkomité) selects the recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize each year on behalf of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel's estate, based on instructions of Nobel's will.

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Norwegian Nobel Institute

The Norwegian Nobel Institute (Det Norske Nobelinstitutt) is located in Oslo, Norway.

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Obverse and reverse

Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags, seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics.

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Oregon State University

Oregon State University (OSU) is an international, public research university in the northwest United States, located in Corvallis, Oregon.

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Oscar II of Sweden

Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik; 21 January 1829 – 8 December 1907) was King of Sweden from 1872 until his death, and the last Bernadotte King of Norway from 1872 until his dethronement in 1905.

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Oslo

Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Oslo Accords

The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; (DOP), 13 September 1993.

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Oslo City Hall

Oslo City Hall (Oslo rådhus) is a municipal building in Oslo, the capital of Norway.

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Otto Hahn

Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.

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Otto Stern

Otto Stern (17 February 1888 – 17 August 1969) was a German American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.

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Paris Peace Accords

The Paris Peace Accords, officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973, to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War.

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Paul Samuelson

Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.

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Peace

Peace is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility.

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Peter Englund

Peter Mikael Englund (born 4 April 1957) is a Swedish author and historian.

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Peter Higgs

Peter Ware Higgs (born 29 May 1929) is a British theoretical physicist, emeritus professor in the University of Edinburgh,Griggs, Jessica (Summer 2008) Edit the University of Edinburgh Alumni Magazine, p. 17 and Nobel Prize laureate for his work on the mass of subatomic particles.

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Philipp Lenard

Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (7 June 1862 – 20 May 1947) was a German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of many of their properties.

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Philippe-Joseph Salazar

Philippe-Joseph Salazar, a French rhetorician and philosopher, was born on February 10, 1955 in Casablanca, then part of French Morocco.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.

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Pierre Paul Émile Roux

Pierre Paul Émile Roux FRS (17 December 1853, Confolens, Charente – 3 November 1933, Paris) was a French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Privy Council of Sweden

The Council of the Realm, or simply The Council (Riksrådet: sometimes in Senatus Regni Sueciae) was a cabinet of medieval origin, consisting of magnates (stormän) which advised, and at times co-ruled with, the King of Sweden.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radium

Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.

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Ragnar Frisch

Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch (3 March 1895 – 31 January 1973) was a Norwegian economist and the co-recipient of the first Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1969 (with Jan Tinbergen).

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Ragnar Sohlman

Ragnar Sohlman (February 26, 1870 in Stockholm – July 9, 1948 at the Karolinska hospital, Solna) was a Swedish chemical engineer, manager, civil servant, and creator of the Nobel Foundation.

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Ralph M. Steinman

Ralph Marvin Steinman (January 14, 1943 – September 30, 2011) was a Canadian physician and medical researcher at Rockefeller University, who in 1973 discovered and named dendritic cells while working as a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Zanvil A. Cohn, also at Rockefeller University.

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Richard Kuhn

Richard Johann Kuhn (3 December 1900 – 1 August 1967) was an Austrian-German biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1938 "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins".

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Robert C. Merton

Robert Cox Merton (born July 31, 1944) is an American economist, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureate, and professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, known for his pioneering contributions to continuous-time finance, especially the first continuous-time option pricing model, the Black–Scholes formula.

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Robert Nobel

Robert Hjalmar Nobel (August 4, 1829 – August 7, 1896) was the oldest son of Immanuel Nobel and his wife Caroline Andrietta Ahlsell, brother of Ludvig and Alfred Nobel.

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Roger D. Kornberg

Roger David Kornberg (born April 24, 1947) is an American biochemist and professor of structural biology at Stanford University School of Medicine.

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Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.

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Sanremo

Sanremo or San Remo (Sanrému, locally date The name of the city is a phonetic contraction of Sant'Eremo di San Romolo, which refers to Romulus of Genoa, the successor to Syrus of Genoa. It is often stated in modern folk stories that Sanremo is a translation of "Saint Remus", a deceased Saint. In Ligurian, his name is San Rœmu. The spelling San Remo is on all ancient maps of Liguria, the ancient Republic of Genoa, Italy in the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Kingdom of Italy. It was used in 1924 in official documents under Mussolini. This form of the name appears still on some road signs and, more rarely, in unofficial tourist information. It has been the most widely used form of the name in English at least since the 19th century.

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Sari Nusseibeh

Sari Nusseibeh (سري نسيبة) (born in 1949) is a Palestinian Professor of Philosophy and former President of the Al-Quds University in Jerusalem.

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Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), previously Science, Math, Engineering, and Technology (SMET), is a term used to group together these academic disciplines.

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Secretary-General of the United Nations

The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.

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Shimon Peres

Shimon Peres (שמעון פרס,; born Szymon Perski; August 2, 1923 – September 28, 2016) was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth President of Israel (2007–2014), the Prime Minister of Israel (twice), and the Interim Prime Minister, in the 1970s to the 1990s.

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Simon Vestdijk

Simon Vestdijk (17 October 1898 – 23 March 1971) was a Dutch writer.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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Socrates

Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Statute

A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.

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Stockholm

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Stockholm City Hall

The Stockholm City Hall (Stockholms stadshus or Stadshuset locally) is the building of the Municipal Council for the City of Stockholm in Sweden.

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Stockholm Concert Hall

The Stockholm Concert Hall (Stockholms konserthus) is the main hall for orchestral music in Stockholm, Sweden.

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Storting

The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.

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Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar FRS (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an Indian American astrophysicist who spent his professional life in the United States.

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Sully Prudhomme

René François Armand (Sully) Prudhomme (16 March 1839 – 6 September 1907) was a French poet and essayist.

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Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Suraxanı raion

Suraxanı (also, Surakhany, Ssurachany and Surakhani) is a settlement and raion of Baku, Azerbaijan.

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Sveriges Riksbank

Sveriges Riksbank, or simply Riksbanken, is the central bank of Sweden.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedes

Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.

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Swedish Academy

The Swedish Academy (Svenska Akademien), founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.

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Swedish Institute

The Swedish Institute (Svenska Institutet, SI) is a Government agency in Sweden with the responsibility to spread information about Sweden outside the country.

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Swedish krona

The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Swedish royal family

The Swedish royal family (Svenska kungafamiljen) since 1818 has consisted of a number of persons in the Swedish Royal House of Bernadotte, closely related to the King of Sweden.

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The FASEB Journal

The FASEB Journal is a scientific journal related to experimental biosciences, promoting scientific progress and education.

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The Local

The Local is an English-language digital news publisher with local editions in Sweden, Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Austria and Italy.

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The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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The Prize (1963 film)

The Prize is a 1963 spy film starring Paul Newman, Elke Sommer and Edward G. Robinson.

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The Scientist (magazine)

The Scientist is a professional magazine intended for life scientists.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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The Valley Library

The Valley Library is the primary library of Oregon State University and is located at the school's main campus in Corvallis in the U.S. state of Oregon.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

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Thorbjørn Jagland

Thorbjørn Jagland (born Thorbjørn Johansen;, 5 November 1950) is a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party, currently serving as the Secretary General of the Council of Europe (since 2009).

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Tom Kibble

Sir Thomas Walter Bannerman Kibble, (23 December 1932 – 2 June 2016), was a British theoretical physicist, senior research investigator at the Blackett Laboratory and Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College London.

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Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Trustee

Trustee (or the holding of a trusteeship) is a legal term which, in its broadest sense, is a synonym for anyone in a position of trust and so can refer to any person who holds property, authority, or a position of trust or responsibility for the benefit of another.

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Turing Award

The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".

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U Thant

Thant (22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974), known honorifically as U Thant, was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1961 to 1971, the first non-European to hold the position.

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Ulf von Euler

Ulf Svante von Euler (7 February 1905 – 9 March 1983) was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist.

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UNICEF

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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Union between Sweden and Norway

Sweden and Norway or Sweden–Norway (Svensk-norska unionen; Den svensk-norske union), officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, or as the United Kingdoms, was a personal union of the separate kingdoms of Sweden and Norway under a common monarch and common foreign policy that lasted from 1814 until its amicable and peaceful dissolution in 1905.

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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.

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University of California

The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Oslo

The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.

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Václav Havel

Václav Havel (5 October 193618 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.

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Victorian literature

Victorian literature is literature, mainly written in English, during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901) (the Victorian era).

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Vladimir Nabokov

Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.

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Voice of America

Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.

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Walter Jackson Freeman II

Walter Jackson Freeman II, M.D. (November 14, 1895 – May 31, 1972) was an American physician who specialized in lobotomy.

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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Weapon

A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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Wilhelm Röntgen

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

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Will and testament

A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.

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William Henry Bragg

Sir William Henry Bragg (2 July 1862 – 12 March 1942) was a British physicist, chemist, mathematician and active sportsman who uniquelyThis is still a unique accomplishment, because no other parent-child combination has yet shared a Nobel Prize (in any field).

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William Vickrey

William Spencer Vickrey (21 June 1914 – 11 October 1996) was a Canadian-born professor of economics and Nobel Laureate.

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World Scientific

World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray spectroscopy

X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.

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Yasser Arafat

Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.

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Yitzhak Rabin

Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין,; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general.

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Yoichiro Nambu

was a Japanese-American physicist and professor at the University of Chicago.

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Zoroaster

Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.

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14th Dalai Lama

The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.

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2009 Nobel Peace Prize

The 2009 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to United States President Barack Obama for his "extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples".

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize

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