148 relations: Adolf Hitler, Aeneid, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Albert Sabin, Albert Schatz (scientist), Alex Stokes, Alfred Nobel, Andrew Huxley, António Egas Moniz, Antiserum, AstraZeneca, Barbara McClintock, Behavioural sciences, Blood plasma, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Carol W. Greider, Cervical cancer, Charles Best (medical scientist), Chemistry, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Chromosome, Citation, Cushing's syndrome, Digestion, Diphtheria, Diploma, DNA, Dynamite, Elizabeth Blackburn, Embryonic stem cell, Emil von Behring, Encyclopædia Britannica, Erwin Chargaff, Euro, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Francis Crick, Francis Peyton Rous, Frederick Banting, Frederick Chapman Robbins, G protein, Gene targeting, Genetic recombination, Gerhard Domagk, Germany, Gertrude B. Elion, Gerty Cori, Glucose, Gold medal, Harald zur Hausen, Harvey Cushing, ..., Herbert Wilson, HIV, Homologous recombination, Human papillomavirus infection, Imperial College Press, Insulin, Italy, Ivan Pavlov, Jack W. Szostak, James Collip, James Watson, Jürgen Schmidhuber, Jeffrey C. Hall, John Eccles (neurophysiologist), John F. Kennedy, John Franklin Enders, John Macleod (physiologist), Jonas Salk, Joseph P. Kennedy Sr., Karl von Frisch, Karolinska Institute, Knockout mouse, Konrad Lorenz, Light therapy, Linda B. Buck, List of life sciences, Literature, Lobotomy, Luc Montagnier, Ludvig Nobel, Lupus vulgaris, Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, Maurice Wilkins, May-Britt Moser, Medical ethics, Medicine, Metabolism, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young, Monarchy of Sweden, Myntverket, Nazi Germany, Nerve growth factor, Neurology, Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Nicolae Paulescu, Niels Ryberg Finsen, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize, Oliver Smithies, Oscar II of Sweden, Oswald Avery, Peace, Physics, Physiology, Polio vaccine, Psychoanalysis, Ralph M. Steinman, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Robert Gallo, Romanians, Ronald Ross, Rosalind Franklin, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, Rosemary Kennedy, Second messenger system, Selman Waksman, Sigmund Freud, Signal transduction, Stanley Cohen (biochemist), Statute, Stockholm, Stockholm Concert Hall, Storting, Streptomycin, Swedish krona, Telomerase, Telomere, The Double Helix, The Local, The New York Times, The Sunday Times, Thomas Huckle Weller, Time (magazine), Transposable element, Tu Youyou, United States, United States dollar, University of Toronto, Vaccine, World Scientific, World War I, World War II, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (98 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (5 February 1914 – 20 December 1998) was an English physiologist and biophysicist, who shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew Huxley and John Eccles.
Albert Bruce Sabin (born Albert Saperstein; August 26, 1906 – March 3, 1993) was a Polish American medical researcher, best known for developing the oral polio vaccine which has played a key role in nearly eradicating the disease.
Albert Israel Schatz (2 February 1920 – 17 January 2005) was an American microbiologist and science educator, best known as the discoverer of the antibiotic streptomycin.
Alexander (Alec) Rawson Stokes (27 June 1919 – 5 February 2003) was a co-author of the second of the three papers published sequentially in Nature on 25 April 1953 announcing the presumed molecular structure of DNA.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist.
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 191730 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.
António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 November 1874 – 13 December 1955), known as Egas Moniz, was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography.
Antiserum (plural: antisera) is human or nonhuman blood serum containing polyclonal antibodies and is used to pass on passive immunity to many diseases.
AstraZeneca plc is an Anglo–Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.
Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Universitatea de Medicină și Farmacie „Carol Davila”, or UMF București) is a public health sciences University in Bucharest, Romania.
Carolyn Widney "Carol" Greider (born April 15, 1961) is an American molecular biologist.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
Charles Herbert Best (February 27, 1899 – March 31, 1978) was a Canadian medical scientist and one of the co-discoverers of insulin.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (born 20 October 1942) is a German developmental biologist and 1995 Nobel Prize-winner.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers.
Elizabeth Helen Blackburn, (born 26 November 1948) is an Australian-American Nobel laureate who is currently the President of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells or ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo.
Emil von Behring (Emil Adolf von Behring), born as Emil Adolf Behring (15 March 1854 – 31 March 1917), was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Erwin Chargaff (11 August 1905 – 20 June 2002) was an Austro-Hungarian biochemist who immigrated to the United States during the Nazi era and was a professor of biochemistry at Columbia University medical school.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (born 30 July 1947) is a French virologist and Director of the Regulation of Retroviral Infections Division (Unité de Régulation des Infections Rétrovirales) and Professor at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Francis Peyton Rous (October 5, 1879 – February 16, 1970) was an American Nobel Prize-winning virologist.
Sir Frederick Grant Banting (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, physician, painter, and Nobel laureate noted as the co-discoverer of insulin and its therapeutic potential.
Frederick Chapman Robbins (August 25, 1916 – August 4, 2003) was an American pediatrician and virologist.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
Gene targeting (also, replacement strategy based on homologous recombination) is a genetic technique that uses homologous recombination to modify an endogenous gene.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (30 October 1895 – 24 April 1964) was a German pathologist and bacteriologist.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gertrude Belle Elion (January 23, 1918 – February 21, 1999) was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with George H. Hitchings and Sir James Black.
Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz; August 15, 1896 – October 26, 1957) was a Jewish Czech-American biochemist who became the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.
Harald zur Hausen (born 11 March 1936) is a German virologist and professor emeritus.
Harvey Williams Cushing (April 8, 1869 – October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon, pathologist, writer and draftsman.
Herbert Rees Wilson FRSE (20 March 1929 – 22 May 2008) was a physicist, who was one of the team who worked on the structure of DNA at King's College London, under the direction of Sir John Randall.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
Imperial College Press (ICP) was formed in 1995 as a partnership between Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine in London and World Scientific publishing.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.
Jack William Szostak (born November 9, 1952) is a Canadian American biologist of Polish British descent, Nobel Prize laureate, Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School, and Alexander Rich Distinguished Investigator at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
James Bertram Collip, (November 20, 1892 – June 19, 1965) was a Candadian biochemist who was part of the Toronto group which isolated insulin.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 17 January 1963) is a computer scientist who works in the field of artificial intelligence.
Jeffrey Connor Hall (born May 3, 1945) is an American geneticist and chronobiologist.
Sir John Carew Eccles (27 January 1903 – 2 May 1997) was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Franklin Enders (February 10, 1897 – September 8, 1985) was an American biomedical scientist and Nobel Laureate.
Prof John James Rickard Macleod, FRS FRSE LLD (6 September 1876 – 16 March 1935) was a Scottish biochemist and physiologist.
Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist.
Joseph Patrick Kennedy Sr. (September 6, 1888 – November 18, 1969) was an American businessman, investor, and politician known for his high-profile positions in United States politics.
Karl Ritter von Frisch, (20 November 1886 – 12 June 1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz.
The Karolinska Institute (KI; Karolinska Institutet; sometimes known as the (Royal) Caroline Institute in English) is a medical university in Solna within the Stockholm urban area of Sweden.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (7 November 1903 – 27 February 1989) was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist.
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
Linda Brown Buck (born January 29, 1947) is an American biologist best known for her work on the olfactory system.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.
Luc Antoine Montagnier (born 18 August 1932) is a French virologist and joint recipient with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Ludvig Immanuel Nobel (Russian: Лю́двиг Эммануи́лович Нобе́ль; Swedish: Ludvig Emmanuel Nobel; 27 July 1831, Stockholm – 12 April 1888, Cannes) was a Swedish-Russian engineer, a noted businessman and a humanitarian.
Lupus vulgaris (also known as tuberculosis luposa) are painful cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears and neck.
Mario Ramberg Capecchi (Verona, Italy, 6 October 1937) is an Italian-born American molecular geneticist and a co-winner of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering a method to create mice in which a specific gene is turned off, known as knockout mice.
Sir Martin John Evans (born 1 January 1941) is a British biologist who, with Matthew Kaufman, was the first to culture mice embryonic stem cells and cultivate them in a laboratory in 1981.
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar.
May-Britt Moser (born 4 January 1963) is a Norwegian psychologist, neuroscientist, and head of department of the Centre for Neural Computation at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Michael Morris Rosbash (born March 7, 1944) is an American geneticist and chronobiologist.
Michael Warren Young (born March 28, 1949) is an American biologist and geneticist.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
Myntverket (officially AB Myntverket) is a private Swedish company that produces coins and medals, most notably the Swedish national coins and the Nobel Prize medals.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
Nicolae Constantin Paulescu (30 October 1869 (O.S.) – 17 July 1931) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine, and politician, most famous for discovering insulin, who worked on pancreine (a pancreatic extract containing insulin).
Niels Ryberg Finsen (15 December 1860 – 24 September 1904) was a Danish physician and scientist of Icelandic descent.
Nikolaas "Niko" Tinbergen (15 April 1907 – 21 December 1988) was a Dutch biologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns in animals.
The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute is a body at Karolinska Institute which awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and it is headquartered in the Nobel Forum on the grounds of the Karolinska Institute campus.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Oliver Smithies (23 June 1925 – 10 January 2017) was a British-born American geneticist and physical biochemist.
Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik; 21 January 1829 – 8 December 1907) was King of Sweden from 1872 until his death, and the last Bernadotte King of Norway from 1872 until his dethronement in 1905.
Oswald Theodore Avery Jr. (October 21, 1877 – February 20, 1955) was a Canadian-American physician and medical researcher.
Peace is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Ralph Marvin Steinman (January 14, 1943 – September 30, 2011) was a Canadian physician and medical researcher at Rockefeller University, who in 1973 discovered and named dendritic cells while working as a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Zanvil A. Cohn, also at Rockefeller University.
Rita Levi-Montalcini, (22 April 1909 – 30 December 2012) was an Italian Nobel laureate, honored for her work in neurobiology.
Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is an American biomedical researcher.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sir Ronald Ross (13 May 1857 – 16 September 1932), was a British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on the transmission of malaria, becoming the first British Nobel laureate, and the first born outside Europe.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (July 19, 1921 – May 30, 2011) was an American medical physicist, and a co-winner of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (together with Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally) for development of the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique.
Rose Marie "Rosemary" Kennedy (September 13, 1918 – January 7, 2005) was the oldest daughter born to Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, and was a sister of President John F. Kennedy, and Senators Robert F. Kennedy and Ted Kennedy.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Selman Abraham Waksman (July 22, 1888 – August 16, 1973) was a Ukrainian-born, Jewish-American inventor, biochemist and microbiologist whose research into organic substances—largely into organisms that live in soil—and their decomposition promoted the discovery of streptomycin and several other antibiotics.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Stanley Cohen (born November 17, 1922) is an American biochemist who, along with Rita Levi-Montalcini, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1986 for the isolation of nerve growth factor and the discovery of epidermal growth factor.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The Stockholm Concert Hall (Stockholms konserthus) is the main hall for orchestral music in Stockholm, Sweden.
The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.
Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873.
Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA is an autobiographical account of the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA written by James D. Watson and published in 1968.
The Local is an English-language digital news publisher with local editions in Sweden, Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Austria and Italy.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category.
Thomas Huckle Weller (June 15, 1915 – August 23, 2008) was an American virologist.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Tu Youyou (born 30 December 1930) is a Chinese pharmaceutical chemist and educator.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine, Nobel Prize Laureate in Physiology or Medicine, Nobel Prize for Medicine, Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, Nobel Prize in Medicine, Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology, Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology, Nobel Prize in Physiology, Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, Nobel Prize in medicine, Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, Nobel Prize/Physiology or medicine, Nobel prize for physiology or medicine, Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nobel prize in medicine, Nobel prize in physiology or medicine, Nobel prizes in medicine, Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin, Physiology or Medicine.