257 relations: Accounts of Chemical Research, Air sensitivity, Air separation, Alpha decay, American Physical Society, Anesthetic, Angioplasty, Antibonding molecular orbital, Arc welding, Argon, Argon fluorohydride, Asthma, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric pressure, Atom, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atomic radius, Atomic theory, Balloon, Bar (unit), Base metal, Beta decay, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Blimp, Blood, Boiling point, Bravais lattice, Breathing gas, Bromine, Bubble chamber, Calcium, Californium, Cambridge University Press, Carbon, Carbon group, Cell membrane, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical reaction, Chemical Society Reviews, Chemical stability, Chemical synthesis, Chromosphere, Clathrate compound, Cleveite, CliffsNotes, ..., Color temperature, Continuous spectrum, Coordination complex, Covalent bond, Crust (geology), Cryogenics, Current density, Density, Dmitri Mendeleev, Dry suit, Dubna, Electric field, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron affinity, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Encarta, Encyclopædia Britannica, Enthalpy of vaporization, Excimer, Excimer laser, Excited state, Eye surgery, First principle, Flerovium, Fluoride, Fluorine, Fractional distillation, Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Friedrich Ernst Dorn, Fullerene, Gas, Gas balloon, Gas chromatography, Gas separation, Gas-discharge lamp, Geiger counter, German language, Gilbert N. Lewis, Gravitational field, Half-life, Halogen lamp, Halogenation, Heliox, Helium, Helium hydride ion, Henri Moissan, Henry Cavendish, Hindenburg disaster, HOMO/LUMO, Hugo Erdmann, Hydrogen, Hydroquinone, Hypervalent molecule, Ideal gas, Ideal gas law, Incandescent light bulb, Industrial gas, Inert gas, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Integrated circuit, Intermolecular force, Interstellar medium, Iodine, Ion, Ionization energy, Isotope, Isotopes of argon, Isotopes of radon, Isotropy, John Lennard-Jones, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Journal of the American Chemical Society, K–Ar dating, Kinetic theory of gases, Krypton, Krypton difluoride, Laser surgery, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lead, Lennard-Jones potential, Lifting gas, Lighting, Linus Pauling, Lipid, Liquefaction of gases, Liquid air, Liquid helium, Lithography, Lithosphere, Litre, London, Lung cancer, Macroscopic scale, Magnetic resonance imaging, Matrix isolation, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Melting point, Methuen Publishing, Microfabrication, Molecular orbital, Molecule, Monatomic gas, Nanometre, National Weather Service, Natural gas, Natural gas field, Nature (journal), Neil Bartlett (chemist), Neon, Neon lighting, Neutronium, Niels Bohr, Nitrogen, Nitrogen narcosis, Nitrous oxide, Nobel Prize, Noble gas (data page), Noble gas compound, Noble gas configuration, Noble metal, Non-covalent interactions, Norman Lockyer, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Octet rule, Oganesson, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Oxygen toxicity, Parts-per notation, Period (periodic table), Periodic table, Perxenate, Phosphor, Phosphorus, Physical property, Physical Review, Picometre, Pierre Janssen, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Platinum hexafluoride, Plutonium, Polarizability, Polonium, Polyatomic ion, Potassium-40, Primordial nuclide, Proceedings of the Chemical Society, Quantum mechanics, Quartz, Radiation therapy, Radioactive decay, Radium, Radon, Radon difluoride, Reactive intermediate, Reactivity (chemistry), Refrigerant, Relativistic quantum chemistry, Royal Society of Chemistry, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Russia, Science (journal), Scuba diving, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Solar System, Solubility, Stable isotope ratio, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Sun, Superconducting magnet, Superfluidity, Texas A&M University, The Astrophysical Journal, The New York Times, Thermometer, Thorium, Three-center four-electron bond, Tissue (biology), Transactinide element, Transition metal, Trimix (breathing gas), Ultraviolet, United States dollar, Universe, University College London, Uranium, Valence (chemistry), Valence electron, Van der Waals force, Wavelength, William Ramsay, Xenic acid, Xenon, Xenon arc lamp, Xenon difluoride, Xenon dioxide, Xenon hexafluoride, Xenon hexafluoroplatinate, Xenon tetrafluoride, Xenon tetroxide. Expand index (207 more) » « Shrink index
Accounts of Chemical Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society containing overviews of basic research and applications in chemistry and biochemistry.
Air sensitivity is a term used, particularly in chemistry, to denote the reactivity of chemical compounds with some constituent of air.
An air separation plant separates atmospheric air into its primary components, typically nitrogen and oxygen, and sometimes also argon and other rare inert gases.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.
In chemical bonding theory, an antibonding orbital is a type of molecular orbital (MO) that weakens the bond between two atoms and helps to raise the energy of the molecule relative to the separated atoms.
Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Argon fluorohydride (systematically named fluoridohydridoargon) or argon hydrofluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula HArF (also written ArHF).
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, air or water.
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, arch(a)eonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and pal(a)eonucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe.
A blimp, or non-rigid airship, is an airship (dirigible) or barrage balloon without an internal structural framework or a keel.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for respiration.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Californium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Cf and atomic number 98.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemical Society Reviews is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society of Chemistry, for review articles on topics of current interest in chemistry.
Chemical stability when used in the technical sense in chemistry, means thermodynamic stability of a chemical system.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
The chromosphere (literally, "sphere of color") is the second of the three main layers in the Sun's atmosphere and is roughly 3,000 to 5,000 kilometers deep.
A clathrate is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice that traps or contains molecules.
Cleveite is an impure radioactive variety of uraninite containing uranium and found in Norway.
CliffsNotes (formerly Cliffs Notes, originally Cliff's Notes and often, erroneously, CliffNotes) are a series of student study guides available primarily in the United States.
The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.
In physics, a continuous spectrum usually means a set of attainable values for some physical quantity (such as energy or wavelength) that is best described as an interval of real numbers, as opposed to a discrete spectrum, a set of attainable values that is discrete in the mathematical sense, where there is a positive gap between each value and the next one.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
In electromagnetism, current density is the electric current per unit area of cross section.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
A dry suit or drysuit provides the wearer with environmental protection by way of thermal insulation and exclusion of water, and is worn by divers, boaters, water sports enthusiasts, and others who work or play in or near cold or contaminated water.
Dubna (p) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
An excimer (originally short for excited dimer) is a short-lived dimeric or heterodimeric molecule formed from two species, at least one of which has completely filled valence shell by electrons (for example, noble gases).
An excimer laser, sometimes more correctly called an exciplex laser, is a form of ultraviolet laser which is commonly used in the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor based integrated circuits or "chips", eye surgery, and micromachining.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
Eye surgery, also known as ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.
A first principle is a basic, foundational, self-evident proposition or assumption that cannot be deduced from any other proposition or assumption.
Flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element with symbol Fl and atomic number 114.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
The Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (usually translated from German as Freiberg University of Mining and Technology or Freiberg Mining Academy, University of Technology) is a German university of technology with about 4300 students in the city of Freiberg, Saxony.
Friedrich Ernst Dorn (27 July 1848 – 16 December 1916) was a German physicist who was the first to discover that a radioactive substance, later named radon, is emitted from radium.
A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A gas balloon is a balloon that flies in the air because it is filled with a gas less dense than air or lighter than air (such as helium or hydrogen).
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Gas separation can refer to any of a number of techniques used to separate gases, either to give multiple products or to purify a single product.
Gas-discharge lamps are a family of artificial light sources that generate light by sending an electric discharge through an ionized gas, a plasma.
The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halogen lamp, also known as a tungsten halogen, quartz-halogen or quartz iodine lamp, is an incandescent lamp consisting of a tungsten filament sealed into a compact transparent envelope that is filled with a mixture of an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine.
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
Heliox is a breathing gas composed of a mixture of helium (He) and oxygen (O2).
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
The hydrohelium(1+) cation, HeH+, also known as the helium hydride ion or helium-hydride molecular ion, is a positively charged ion formed by the reaction of a proton with a helium atom in the gas phase, first produced in the laboratory in 1925.
Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (28 September 1852 – 20 February 1907) was a French chemist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds.
Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.
The Hindenburg disaster occurred on May 6, 1937, in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States.
In chemistry, HOMO and LUMO are types of molecular orbitals.
Hugo Wilhelm Traugott Erdmann (8 May 1862 – 25 June 1910) was the German chemist who discovered, together with his doctoral advisor Jacob Volhard, the Volhard-Erdmann cyclization.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.
A hypervalent molecule (the phenomenon is sometimes colloquially known as expanded octet) is a molecule that contains one or more main group elements apparently bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
Industrial gases are gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in Industry.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Argon (18Ar) has 24 known isotopes, from 30Ar to 53Ar and 1 isomer (32mAr), three of which are stable, 36Ar, 38Ar, and 40Ar.
There are 35 known isotopes of radon (86Rn) from 195Rn to 229Rn; all are radioactive.
Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").
Sir John Edward Lennard-Jones KBE, FRS (27 October 1894 – 1 November 1954) was an English mathematician who was a professor of theoretical physics at University of Bristol, and then of theoretical science at the University of Cambridge.
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.
The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ), in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (110 km north of Moscow), Russia, is an international research center for nuclear sciences, with 5500 staff members, 1200 researchers including 1000 Ph.Ds from eighteen member states (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus and Kazakhstan).
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
Krypton difluoride, KrF2 is a chemical compound of krypton and fluorine.
Laser surgery is a type of surgery that uses a laser (in contrast to using a scalpel) to cut tissue.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The Lennard-Jones potential (also termed the L-J potential, 6-12 potential, or 12-6 potential) is a mathematically simple model that approximates the interaction between a pair of neutral atoms or molecules.
Because of Archimedes' principle, a lifting gas is required for aerostats to create buoyancy.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Liquefaction of gases is physical conversion of a gas into a liquid state (condensation).
Liquid air is air that has been cooled to very low temperatures (cryogenic temperatures), so that it has condensed into a pale blue mobile liquid.
At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Matrix isolation is an experimental technique used in chemistry and physics which generally involves a material being trapped within an unreactive matrix.
The Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute) is a Max Planck Institute whose research is aimed at investigating Einstein’s theory of relativity and beyond: Mathematics, quantum gravity, astrophysical relativity, and gravitational wave astronomy.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Methuen Publishing Ltd is an English publishing house.
Microfabrication is the process of fabricating miniature structures of micrometre scales and smaller.
In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic", and means "single atom".
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States Federal Government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural gas originates by the same geological thermal cracking process that converts kerogen to petroleum.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neil Bartlett (15 September 1932 – 5 August 2008) was a chemist who specialized in fluorine and compounds containing fluorine, and became famous for creating the first noble gas compounds.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neon lighting consists of brightly glowing, electrified glass tubes or bulbs that contain rarefied neon or other gases.
Neutronium (sometimes shortened to neutrium, also referred to as neutrite) is a hypothetical substance composed purely of neutrons.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Narcosis while diving (also known as nitrogen narcosis, inert gas narcosis, raptures of the deep, Martini effect) is a reversible alteration in consciousness that occurs while diving at depth.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
This page provides supplementary data about the noble gases, which were excluded from the main article to conserve space and preserve focus.
Noble gas compounds are chemical compounds that include an element from the noble gases, group 18 of the periodic table.
Noble gas configuration is the electron configuration of noble gases.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
A non-covalent interaction differs from a covalent bond in that it does not involve the sharing of electrons, but rather involves more dispersed variations of electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule.
Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, KCB FRS (17 May 1836 – 16 August 1920), known simply as Norman Lockyer, was an English scientist and astronomer.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
Oganesson is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Og and atomic number 118.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen at increased partial pressures.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
In chemistry, perxenates are salts of the yellow xenon-containing anion.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Pierre Jules César Janssen (22 February 1824 – 23 December 1907), also known as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gaseous nature of the solar chromosphere, and with some justification the element helium.
The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, also known simply as the "PG", is the largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.
Platinum hexafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula PtF6.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Polarizability is the ability to form instantaneous dipoles.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
The Proceedings of the Chemical Society was a scientific journal published at various times in the life of the Chemical Society, a scientific society in the United Kingdom that combined with other societies to form the Royal Society of Chemistry in 1980.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Radon difluoride is a compound of radon, a noble gas.
In chemistry, a reactive intermediate or an intermediate is a short-lived, high-energy, highly reactive molecule.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) is the oldest Anglican mission organisation, and the leading publisher of Christian books in the United Kingdom.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A superconducting magnet is an electromagnet made from coils of superconducting wire.
Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.
Texas A&M University (Texas A&M or A&M) is a coeducational public research university in College Station, Texas, United States.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
The 3-center 4-electron (3c–4e−) bond is a model used to explain bonding in certain hypervalent molecules such as tetratomic and hexatomic interhalogen compounds, sulfur tetrafluoride, the xenon fluorides, and the bifluoride ion.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
In chemistry, transactinide elements (also, transactinides, or super-heavy elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers from 104 to 120.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Trimix is a breathing gas consisting of oxygen, helium and nitrogen and is often used in deep commercial diving, during the deep phase of dives carried out using technical diving techniques, and in advanced recreational diving.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Sir William Ramsay (2 October 1852 – 23 July 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 "in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air" (along with his collaborator, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for their discovery of argon).
Xenic acid is a noble gas compound formed by the dissolution of xenon trioxide in water.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
A xenon arc lamp is a highly specialized type of gas discharge lamp, an electric light that produces light by passing electricity through ionized xenon gas at high pressure.
Xenon difluoride is a powerful fluorinating agent with the chemical formula, and one of the most stable xenon compounds.
Xenon dioxide, or xenon(IV) oxide, is a compound of xenon and oxygen with formula XeO2, which was synthesized in 2011.
Xenon hexafluoride is a noble gas compound with the formula XeF6 and the highest of the three known binary fluorides of xenon, the other two being XeF2 and XeF4.
Xenon hexafluoroplatinate is the product of the reaction of platinum hexafluoride and xenon, in an experiment that proved the chemical reactivity of the noble gases.
Xenon tetrafluoride is a chemical compound with chemical formula.
Xenon tetroxide is a chemical compound of xenon and oxygen with molecular formula XeO4, remarkable for being a relatively stable compound of a noble gas.
Aerogen, Aerogens, Group 0, Group 0 element, Group 18, Group 18 element, Group 18 elements, Helium family, Helium family (p6), Helium family 1, Neon family, Nobel gas, Nobel gases, Noble Gas, Noble Gases, Noble gas notation, Noble gases, Rare gas, Rare gases, The noble gases.