86 relations: Active noise control, Additive white Gaussian noise, Admittance, Analog-to-digital converter, Antenna (radio), Band-stop filter, Bit error rate, Capacitive coupling, Carrier-to-noise ratio, Colors of noise, Communications system, Corona discharge, Crosstalk, DBm0, DBrn, Decibel, Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation, Distortion, Dither, Eb/N0, Electric current, Electrical conductor, Electromagnetic interference, Electron, Equivalent input, Error detection and correction, Faraday cage, Fluctuation-dissipation theorem, Fluorescent lamp, Frequency, Generation–recombination noise, Ground loop (electricity), Inductive coupling, Integrated circuit, Interference (communication), Intermodulation, Johnson–Nyquist noise, Lightning, Line (electrical engineering), Matched filter, Mean squared error, Noise figure, Noise floor, Noise reduction, Noise spectral density, Normal distribution, Operational amplifier, Peak signal-to-noise ratio, Phonon noise, Pink noise, ..., Power (physics), Probability distribution, Quantization (signal processing), Radiation, Radio jamming, Radio receiver, Random number generation, Resistor, Root mean square, Semiconductor, Shielded cable, Shot noise, Signal, Signal-to-interference ratio, Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, Signal-to-noise ratio, Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio, SINAD, Space charge, Spectral density, Standard deviation, Stochastic process, Stochastic resonance, Sun, Sunspot, Thermalisation, Total harmonic distortion, Transistor, Twisted pair, Vacuum tube, Variance, Very high frequency, Volt, Voltage, Watt, White noise. Expand index (36 more) » « Shrink index
Active noise control (ANC), also known as noise cancellation, or active noise reduction (ANR), is a method for reducing unwanted sound by the addition of a second sound specifically designed to cancel the first.
Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is a basic noise model used in Information theory to mimic the effect of many random processes that occur in nature.
In electrical engineering, admittance is a measure of how easily a circuit or device will allow a current to flow.
In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.
In signal processing, a band-stop filter or band-rejection filter is a filter that passes most frequencies unaltered, but attenuates those in a specific range to very low levels.
In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.
Capacitive coupling is the transfer of energy within an electrical network or between distant networks by means of displacement current between circuit(s) nodes, induced by the electric field.
In telecommunications, the carrier-to-noise ratio, often written CNR or C/N, is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a modulated signal.
In audio engineering, electronics, physics, and many other fields, the color of noise refers to the power spectrum of a noise signal (a signal produced by a stochastic process).
In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole.
A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged.
In electronics, crosstalk is any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates an undesired effect in another circuit or channel.
dBm0 is an abbreviation for the power in dBm measured at a zero transmission level point.
The symbol dBrn or dB(rn) is an abbreviation for decibels above reference noise.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation constitutes a major development in modern physical cosmology.
Distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of something.
Dither is an intentionally applied form of noise used to randomize quantization error, preventing large-scale patterns such as color banding in images.
Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) is an important parameter in digital communication or data transmission.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Equivalent input (also input-referred or input-related), is a method of referring to the signal or noise level at the output of a system as if it were an input to the same system.
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.
A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure used to block electromagnetic fields.
The fluctuation–dissipation theorem (FDT) or fluctuation–dissipation relation (FDR) is a powerful tool in statistical physics for predicting the behavior of systems that obey detailed balance.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Generation–recombination noise, or g–r noise, is a type of electrical signal noise caused statistically by the fluctuation of the generation and recombination of electrons in semiconductor-based photon detectors.
In an electrical system, a ground loop or earth loop occurs when two points of a circuit both intended to be at ground reference potential have a potential between them.
In electrical engineering, two conductors are referred to as inductively coupled or magnetically coupled when they are configured such that a change in current through one wire induces a voltage across the ends of the other wire through electromagnetic induction.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
In communications and electronics, especially in telecommunications, interference is anything which modifies, or disrupts a signal as it travels along a channel between a source and a receiver.
Intermodulation (IM) or intermodulation distortion (IMD) is the amplitude modulation of signals containing two or more different frequencies, caused by nonlinearities in a system.
Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
In electrical engineering, a line is, more generally, any circuit (or loop) of an electrical system.
In signal processing, a matched filter is obtained by correlating a known signal, or template, with an unknown signal to detect the presence of the template in the unknown signal.
In statistics, the mean squared error (MSE) or mean squared deviation (MSD) of an estimator (of a procedure for estimating an unobserved quantity) measures the average of the squares of the errors—that is, the average squared difference between the estimated values and what is estimated.
Noise figure (NF) and noise factor (F) are measures of degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), caused by components in a signal chain.
In signal theory, the noise floor is the measure of the signal created from the sum of all the noise sources and unwanted signals within a measurement system, where noise is defined as any signal other than the one being monitored.
Noise reduction is the process of removing noise from a signal.
In communications, noise spectral density, noise power density, or simply noise density (N0) is the power spectral density of noise or the noise power per unit of bandwidth.
In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.
An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.
Peak signal-to-noise ratio, often abbreviated PSNR, is an engineering term for the ratio between the maximum possible power of a signal and the power of corrupting noise that affects the fidelity of its representation.
Phonon noise, also known as thermal fluctuation noise, arises from the random exchange of energy between a thermal mass and its surrounding environment.
Pink noise or noise is a signal or process with a frequency spectrum such that the power spectral density (energy or power per frequency interval) is inversely proportional to the frequency of the signal.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.
Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radio jamming is the deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications.
In radio communications, a radio receiver (receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form.
Random number generation is the generation of a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by a random chance, usually through a hardware random-number generator (RNG).
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
In statistics and its applications, the root mean square (abbreviated RMS or rms) is defined as the square root of the mean square (the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers).
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
A shielded cable is an electrical cable of one or more insulated conductors enclosed by a common conductive layer.
Shot noise or Poisson noise is a type of electronic noise which can be modeled by a Poisson process.
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
The signal-to-interference ratio (SIR or S/I), also known as the carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR or C/I), is the quotient between the average received modulated carrier power S or C and the average received co-channel interference power I, i.e. cross-talk, from other transmitters than the useful signal.
In information theory and telecommunication engineering, the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) (also known as the signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SNIR)) is a quantity used to give theoretical upper bounds on channel capacity (or the rate of information transfer) in wireless communication systems such as networks.
Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.
Signal-to-Quantization-Noise Ratio (SQNR or SNqR) is widely used quality measure in analysing digitizing schemes such as PCM (pulse code modulation) and multimedia codecs.
Signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SINAD) is a measure of the quality of a signal from a communications device, often defined as \mathrm.
Space charge is a concept in which excess electric charge is treated as a continuum of charge distributed over a region of space (either a volume or an area) rather than distinct point-like charges.
The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.
Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon where a signal that is normally too weak to be detected by a sensor, can be boosted by adding white noise to the signal, which contains a wide spectrum of frequencies.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.
In physics, thermalisation (in American English thermalization) is the process of physical bodies reaching thermal equilibrium through mutual interaction.
The total harmonic distortion (THD) is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present in a signal and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.
Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.