86 relations: Active noise control, Additive white Gaussian noise, Admittance, Analog-to-digital converter, Antenna (radio), Band-stop filter, Bit error rate, Capacitive coupling, Carrier-to-noise ratio, Colors of noise, Communications system, Corona discharge, Crosstalk, DBm0, DBrn, Decibel, Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation, Distortion, Dither, Eb/N0, Electric current, Electrical conductor, Electromagnetic interference, Electron, Equivalent input, Error detection and correction, Faraday cage, Fluctuation-dissipation theorem, Fluorescent lamp, Frequency, Generation–recombination noise, Ground loop (electricity), Inductive coupling, Integrated circuit, Interference (communication), Intermodulation, Johnson–Nyquist noise, Lightning, Line (electrical engineering), Matched filter, Mean squared error, Noise figure, Noise floor, Noise reduction, Noise spectral density, Normal distribution, Operational amplifier, Peak signal-to-noise ratio, Phonon noise, Pink noise, ..., Power (physics), Probability distribution, Quantization (signal processing), Radiation, Radio jamming, Radio receiver, Random number generation, Resistor, Root mean square, Semiconductor, Shielded cable, Shot noise, Signal, Signal-to-interference ratio, Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, Signal-to-noise ratio, Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio, SINAD, Space charge, Spectral density, Standard deviation, Stochastic process, Stochastic resonance, Sun, Sunspot, Thermalisation, Total harmonic distortion, Transistor, Twisted pair, Vacuum tube, Variance, Very high frequency, Volt, Voltage, Watt, White noise. Expand index (36 more) »

## Active noise control

Active noise control (ANC), also known as noise cancellation, or active noise reduction (ANR), is a method for reducing unwanted sound by the addition of a second sound specifically designed to cancel the first.

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## Additive white Gaussian noise

Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is a basic noise model used in Information theory to mimic the effect of many random processes that occur in nature.

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## Admittance

In electrical engineering, admittance is a measure of how easily a circuit or device will allow a current to flow.

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## Analog-to-digital converter

In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.

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## Antenna (radio)

In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.

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## Band-stop filter

In signal processing, a band-stop filter or band-rejection filter is a filter that passes most frequencies unaltered, but attenuates those in a specific range to very low levels.

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## Bit error rate

In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.

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## Capacitive coupling

Capacitive coupling is the transfer of energy within an electrical network or between distant networks by means of displacement current between circuit(s) nodes, induced by the electric field.

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## Carrier-to-noise ratio

In telecommunications, the carrier-to-noise ratio, often written CNR or C/N, is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a modulated signal.

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## Colors of noise

In audio engineering, electronics, physics, and many other fields, the color of noise refers to the power spectrum of a noise signal (a signal produced by a stochastic process).

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## Communications system

In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole.

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## Corona discharge

A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged.

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## Crosstalk

In electronics, crosstalk is any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates an undesired effect in another circuit or channel.

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## DBm0

dBm0 is an abbreviation for the power in dBm measured at a zero transmission level point.

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## DBrn

The symbol dBrn or dB(rn) is an abbreviation for decibels above reference noise.

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## Decibel

The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.

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## Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation

The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation constitutes a major development in modern physical cosmology.

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## Distortion

Distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of something.

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## Dither

Dither is an intentionally applied form of noise used to randomize quantization error, preventing large-scale patterns such as color banding in images.

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## Eb/N0

Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) is an important parameter in digital communication or data transmission.

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## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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## Electrical conductor

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.

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## Electromagnetic interference

Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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## Equivalent input

Equivalent input (also input-referred or input-related), is a method of referring to the signal or noise level at the output of a system as if it were an input to the same system.

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## Error detection and correction

In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.

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## Faraday cage

A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure used to block electromagnetic fields.

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## Fluctuation-dissipation theorem

The fluctuation–dissipation theorem (FDT) or fluctuation–dissipation relation (FDR) is a powerful tool in statistical physics for predicting the behavior of systems that obey detailed balance.

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## Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

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## Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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## Generation–recombination noise

Generation–recombination noise, or g–r noise, is a type of electrical signal noise caused statistically by the fluctuation of the generation and recombination of electrons in semiconductor-based photon detectors.

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## Ground loop (electricity)

In an electrical system, a ground loop or earth loop occurs when two points of a circuit both intended to be at ground reference potential have a potential between them.

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## Inductive coupling

In electrical engineering, two conductors are referred to as inductively coupled or magnetically coupled when they are configured such that a change in current through one wire induces a voltage across the ends of the other wire through electromagnetic induction.

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## Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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## Interference (communication)

In communications and electronics, especially in telecommunications, interference is anything which modifies, or disrupts a signal as it travels along a channel between a source and a receiver.

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## Intermodulation

Intermodulation (IM) or intermodulation distortion (IMD) is the amplitude modulation of signals containing two or more different frequencies, caused by nonlinearities in a system.

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## Johnson–Nyquist noise

Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

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## Lightning

Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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## Line (electrical engineering)

In electrical engineering, a line is, more generally, any circuit (or loop) of an electrical system.

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## Matched filter

In signal processing, a matched filter is obtained by correlating a known signal, or template, with an unknown signal to detect the presence of the template in the unknown signal.

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## Mean squared error

In statistics, the mean squared error (MSE) or mean squared deviation (MSD) of an estimator (of a procedure for estimating an unobserved quantity) measures the average of the squares of the errors—that is, the average squared difference between the estimated values and what is estimated.

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## Noise figure

Noise figure (NF) and noise factor (F) are measures of degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), caused by components in a signal chain.

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## Noise floor

In signal theory, the noise floor is the measure of the signal created from the sum of all the noise sources and unwanted signals within a measurement system, where noise is defined as any signal other than the one being monitored.

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## Noise reduction

Noise reduction is the process of removing noise from a signal.

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## Noise spectral density

In communications, noise spectral density, noise power density, or simply noise density (N0) is the power spectral density of noise or the noise power per unit of bandwidth.

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## Normal distribution

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.

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## Operational amplifier

An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.

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## Peak signal-to-noise ratio

Peak signal-to-noise ratio, often abbreviated PSNR, is an engineering term for the ratio between the maximum possible power of a signal and the power of corrupting noise that affects the fidelity of its representation.

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## Phonon noise

Phonon noise, also known as thermal fluctuation noise, arises from the random exchange of energy between a thermal mass and its surrounding environment.

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## Pink noise

Pink noise or noise is a signal or process with a frequency spectrum such that the power spectral density (energy or power per frequency interval) is inversely proportional to the frequency of the signal.

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## Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

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## Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

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## Quantization (signal processing)

Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set.

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## Radiation

In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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## Radio jamming

Radio jamming is the deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications.

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## Radio receiver

In radio communications, a radio receiver (receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form.

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## Random number generation

Random number generation is the generation of a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by a random chance, usually through a hardware random-number generator (RNG).

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## Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

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## Root mean square

In statistics and its applications, the root mean square (abbreviated RMS or rms) is defined as the square root of the mean square (the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers).

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## Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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## Shielded cable

A shielded cable is an electrical cable of one or more insulated conductors enclosed by a common conductive layer.

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## Shot noise

Shot noise or Poisson noise is a type of electronic noise which can be modeled by a Poisson process.

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## Signal

A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

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## Signal-to-interference ratio

The signal-to-interference ratio (SIR or S/I), also known as the carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR or C/I), is the quotient between the average received modulated carrier power S or C and the average received co-channel interference power I, i.e. cross-talk, from other transmitters than the useful signal.

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## Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio

In information theory and telecommunication engineering, the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) (also known as the signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SNIR)) is a quantity used to give theoretical upper bounds on channel capacity (or the rate of information transfer) in wireless communication systems such as networks.

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## Signal-to-noise ratio

Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

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## Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio

Signal-to-Quantization-Noise Ratio (SQNR or SNqR) is widely used quality measure in analysing digitizing schemes such as PCM (pulse code modulation) and multimedia codecs.

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## SINAD

Signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SINAD) is a measure of the quality of a signal from a communications device, often defined as \mathrm.

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## Space charge

Space charge is a concept in which excess electric charge is treated as a continuum of charge distributed over a region of space (either a volume or an area) rather than distinct point-like charges.

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## Spectral density

The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.

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## Standard deviation

In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.

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## Stochastic process

--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.

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## Stochastic resonance

Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon where a signal that is normally too weak to be detected by a sensor, can be boosted by adding white noise to the signal, which contains a wide spectrum of frequencies.

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## Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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## Sunspot

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.

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## Thermalisation

In physics, thermalisation (in American English thermalization) is the process of physical bodies reaching thermal equilibrium through mutual interaction.

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## Total harmonic distortion

The total harmonic distortion (THD) is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present in a signal and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency.

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## Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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## Twisted pair

Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility.

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## Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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## Variance

In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.

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## Very high frequency

Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.

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## Volt

The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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## Watt

The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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## White noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.

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## Redirects here:

Electrical noise, Electronic noise, Line noise, Noise (electronic), Noise (physics), Noise (signal), Noise (telecommunications), Noise level, Random noise, Signal noise.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise_(electronics)