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Index Nokia

Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. [1]

284 relations: Advertising slogan, Aktiebolag, Alcatel Mobile, Alcatel-Lucent, Alfaskop, Android (operating system), App Store (iOS), Apple Inc., Arqiva, Artificial intelligence, Barcelona, Bell Labs, Bell System, Björn Westerlund, BMW, Bourse de commerce (Paris), Boycott, Brand licensing, Brand valuation, Bruce Sewell, BT Group, Business partner, C. Lorenz AG, CAC 40, California, Camcorder, Camera phone, Capacitor, Carl Zeiss AG, Casimir Ehrnrooth, Chemical substance, China Mobile, China Pacific Insurance Company, Chipset, Cisco Systems, Clamshell design, Cold War, Common Interface, Consumer electronics, Corporate headquarters, Daimler AG, Dan Steinbock, Datasaab, Détente, Deep packet inspection, Digital health, Digital subscriber line, Digital terrestrial television, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dot-com bubble, ..., DVB-H, Early 1990s depression in Finland, Economy of Finland, Electrical cable, Electricity generation, Electronic visual display, Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution, Entrepreneurial network, EPOC (operating system), Ericsson, Espoo, Euro Stoxx 50, F-Secure, Financial capital, Financial Times, Finland, Finlux, Finnish Defence Forces, Finns, Flat organization, Fortune Global 500, Foxconn, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Fredrik Idestam, Fujitsu Siemens Computers, Game Boy, Google, Grand Duchy of Finland, Gross domestic product, GSM, Handheld game console, Harri Holkeri, Hämeenlinna, Helsinki, Helsinki Stock Exchange, Here (company), History of Nokia, HMD Global, Huawei, Hydropower, IBM PC compatible, Intel, Interbrand, International Computers Limited, International Semi Tech Microsystems, Internet of things, IOS, IPhone, IPod, Iran, ITT Inc., ITV Digital, James Bond (literary character), Japan, John Wiley & Sons, Jolla, Jorma Ollila, Kaapelitehdas, Kari Kairamo, Lauri Kivekäs, Leo Mechelin, Linux, List of Nokia products, London Stock Exchange, Los Angeles, LTE (telecommunication), Luxor AB, M61 gas mask, Macintosh, Maemo, Martti Häikiö, McGraw-Hill Education, MeeGo, Microsoft, Microsoft Mobile, Mika Tiivola, MikroMikko, Minicomputer, Mining engineering, MixRadio, Mobile game, Mobile phone, Mobile technology, Mobile telephony, Mobile television, Mobile World Congress, Mobira Cityman 900, Moblin, Motorola, Mountain View, California, Multinational corporation, N-Gage (device), Natural rubber, Networking hardware, New York Stock Exchange, Nintendo, Nokia, Nokia 1011, Nokia 1100, Nokia 3, Nokia 3310, Nokia 3310 (2017), Nokia 3650, Nokia 5, Nokia 5800 XpressMusic, Nokia 6 (2017), Nokia 7650, Nokia 770 Internet Tablet, Nokia 7710, Nokia 808 PureView, Nokia Asha series, Nokia Booklet 3G, Nokia Lumia 800, Nokia Lumia 920, Nokia N1, Nokia N8, Nokia N82, Nokia N9, Nokia N93, Nokia N95, Nokia N97, Nokia Networks, Nokia Nseries, Nokia OZO, Nokia, Finland, Nokian Footwear, Nokian Tyres, Nordic Mobile Telephone, NTT DoCoMo, O2 (UK), Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo, Omnidirectional camera, Open-source model, Organizational culture, Original design manufacturer, Oulu, Ovi (Nokia), Oxford University Press, Patriotism, Personal digital assistant, Philips, Prentice Hall, Procter & Gamble, Professional mobile radio, Psion (company), Public limited company, Pulp mill, PureView, Radiolinja, Rajeev Suri, Respirator, Richard Perle, Risto Siilasmaa, Roaming, Robotics, Rocket Fuel Inc., Russian Empire, S60 (software platform), Saab Group, Sailfish OS, Salo, Finland, Salora (Finnish company), Samsung, Samsung Electronics, Sanomalaite M/90, Satellite television, SD-WAN, Siemens, Simo Vuorilehto, Smartphone, SMS, Snake (video game genre), Software-defined networking, Solidium, Sony Mobile, Soviet Union, Stephen Elop, Stereophonic sound, Steve Ballmer, Stock market index, Stockholm Stock Exchange, Subcontractor, Subwoofer, Surround sound, Surveillance, Swedish language, Swedish-speaking population of Finland, Symbian, Symbian Foundation, Symbian Ltd., Tablet computer, Tampere, Tax Deducted at Source, TCL Corporation, Technicolor SA, Technology company, Telecommunication, Telecommunications equipment, Telefónica, Telephone exchange, Television, The Decline and Fall of Nokia, The Pentagon, The Wall Street Journal, Tieto Keilalahti Campus, Transfer pricing, Turku, Twig Com, Typewriter, UCWeb, United Kingdom, United States, United States District Court for the District of Delaware, United States International Trade Commission, Verizon Communications, ViewSonic, Virtual reality, Vodafone, Volkswagen Group, VR photography, WiMAX, Windows Phone, Wireless LAN, Withings, Xenon, Xiaomi, Yle, Yves Doz, ZTE, 2009 Iranian presidential election protests, 2K resolution, 3D film, 3G, 5G. Expand index (234 more) »

Advertising slogan

Advertising slogans are short phrases used in advertising campaigns to generate publicity and unify a company’s marketing strategy.

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Aktiebolag ("stock company") is the Swedish term for "limited company" or "corporation".

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Alcatel Mobile

Alcatel (formerly Alcatel OneTouch) is a French brand of mobile handsets owned by Finnish consumer electronics company Nokia and used under license by Chinese electronics company TCL Corporation.

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Alcatel-Lucent S.A. was a French global telecommunications equipment company, headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

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Alfaskop was a brand, developed in Sweden by Standard Radio & Telefon AB (SRT) and applied to data terminals and later IBM-compatible PCs.

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Android (operating system)

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.

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App Store (iOS)

The App Store is a digital distribution platform, developed and maintained by Apple Inc., for mobile apps on its iOS operating system.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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Arqiva is a British telecommunications company which provides infrastructure and broadcast transmission facilities in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, along with commercial WiFi and smart meter facilities for Scotland and the north of England.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Barcelona is a city in Spain.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Bell System

The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly.

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Björn Westerlund

Björn Georg Wilhelm Westerlund, titled Vuorineuvos (27 January 1912 in Hanover, Germany – 11 March 2009 in Helsinki, Finland), was a Finnish businessman and a short-time minister in the government of Finland.

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BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.

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Bourse de commerce (Paris)

The Bourse de commerce (Commodities Exchange) is a building in Paris, France, originally used as a place to negotiate the trade of grain and other commodities, now used to provide services to businesses by the Paris Chamber of Commerce.

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A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for moral, social, political, or environmental reasons.

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Brand licensing

Licensing means renting or leasing of an intangible asset.

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Brand valuation

Brand valuation is the job of estimating the total financial value of the brand.

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Bruce Sewell

Bruce Sewell was Apple’s general counsel and senior vice president of Legal and Government Affairs, reporting to CEO Tim Cook.

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BT Group

BT Group plc (trading as BT and formerly British Telecom) is a British multinational telecommunications holding company with head offices in London, United Kingdom.

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Business partner

A business partner is a commercial entity with which another commercial entity has some form of alliance.

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C. Lorenz AG


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CAC 40

The CAC 40 (CAC quarante) (Cotation Assistée en Continu) is a benchmark French stock market index.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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A camcorder is an electronic device originally combining a video camera and a videocassette recorder.

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Camera phone

A camera phone is a mobile phone which is able to capture photographs and often record video using one or more built-in digital cameras.

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A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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Carl Zeiss AG

Carl Zeiss, branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss.

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Casimir Ehrnrooth

Göran Albert Casimir "Casse" Ehrnrooth, titled Vuorineuvos (April 6, 1931 – July 8, 2015), was a Finnish magnate and former chairman of the Nokia Corporation.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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China Mobile

China Mobile, officially China Mobile Communications Corporation is a Chinese state-owned telecommunication corporation that provides mobile voice and multimedia services CMCC Official Site through its nationwide mobile telecommunications network across mainland China.

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China Pacific Insurance Company

China Pacific Insurance (Group) Co., Ltd. (CPIC) known as Pacific Insurance, is a Chinese insurance company.

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In a computer system, a chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit known as a "Data Flow Management System" that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals.

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Cisco Systems

Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley, that develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products.

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Clamshell design

The flip or clamshell is a form factor of a smartphone or other device which is in two or more sections that fold via a hinge.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Common Interface

In Digital Video Broadcasting, the Common Interface (also called DVB-CI) is a technology which allows decryption of pay TV channels.

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Consumer electronics

Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.

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Corporate headquarters

Corporate headquarters is a building or group of buildings that serve as the main base of operations and serve as the corporation's main offices for administrative and managerial staff, including strategic planners, corporate communications, accountants, lawyers, marketing staff, financial service staff, the Human Resources Department, and information technology (research) division.

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Daimler AG

Daimler AG is a German multinational automotive corporation.

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Dan Steinbock

Dan Steinbock (born 1954) is a global economic and policy analyst.

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Datasaab was the computer division of, and later a separate company spun off from, aircraft manufacturer Saab in Linköping, Sweden.

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Détente (meaning "relaxation") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.

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Deep packet inspection

Deep packet inspection is a type of data processing that inspects in detail the data being sent over a computer network, and usually takes action by blocking, re-routing, or logging it accordingly.

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Digital health

Digital health is the convergence of digital and genomic technologies with health, healthcare, living, and society to enhance the efficiency of healthcare delivery and make medicines more personalized and precise.

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Digital subscriber line

Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.

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Digital terrestrial television

Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT) is a technology for broadcast television in which land-based (terrestrial) television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format.

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

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Dot-com bubble

The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.

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DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld) is one of three prevalent mobile TV formats.

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Early 1990s depression in Finland

The early 1990s depression in Finland was one of the worst economic crises in Finland's history, even worse there than the depression of the 1930s.

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Economy of Finland

Finland has a highly industrialised, mixed economy with a per capita output similar to that of other western European economies such as France, Germany and United Kingdom but slightly lower than Sweden.

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Electrical cable

An electrical cable is an assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current.

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Electricity generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.

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Electronic visual display

An electronic visual display, informally a screen, is a display device for presentation of images, text, or video transmitted electronically, without producing a permanent record.

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Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) (also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC), or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM.

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Entrepreneurial network

In business, entrepreneurial networks are social organizations offering different types of resources to start or improve entrepreneurial projects.

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EPOC (operating system)

EPOC is a mobile operating system developed by Psion, a British company founded in 1980.

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Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm.

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Espoo (Esbo) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland.

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Euro Stoxx 50

The EURO STOXX 50 is a stock index of Eurozone stocks designed by STOXX, an index provider owned by Deutsche Börse Group.

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F-Secure Corporation (formerly Data Fellows) is a Finnish cyber security and privacy company based in Helsinki, Finland.

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Financial capital

Financial capital is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finlux is a brand name used by Turkish manufacturer Vestel for a line of consumer electronic related products, including flatscreen LED TVs and home cinema audio products.

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Finnish Defence Forces

The Finnish Defence Forces (Puolustusvoimat, Försvarsmakten) are responsible for the defence of Finland.

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Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.

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Flat organization

A flat organization (also known as horizontal organization) has an organizational structure with few or no levels of middle management between staff and executives.

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Fortune Global 500

The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue and the list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine.

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Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., trading as Foxconn Technology Group, is a multinational electronics contract manufacturing company with its headquarters in Tucheng, New Taipei, Taiwan.

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Frankfurt Stock Exchange

The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse, FWB) is the world's 10th largest stock exchange by market capitalization.

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Fredrik Idestam

Knut Fredrik Idestam (28 October 1838, Tyrväntö, Grand Duchy of Finland – 8 April 1916, Helsinki, Grand Duchy of Finland) was a Finnish mining engineer and businessman, best known as a founder of Nokia.

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Fujitsu Siemens Computers

Fujitsu Siemens Computers GmbH was a Japanese and German vendor of Information technology.

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Game Boy

The is an 8-bit handheld game console which was developed and manufactured by Nintendo and first released on the 100th anniversary of Nintendo in Japan on, in North America on and in Europe on.

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Grand Duchy of Finland

The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.

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Handheld game console

A handheld game console is a small, portable self-contained video game console with a built-in screen, game controls, and speakers.

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Harri Holkeri

Harri Hermanni Holkeri KBE (6 January 1937 – 7 August 2011) was a Finnish statesman representing the National Coalition Party of Finland (Kokoomus / Samlingspartiet).

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Hämeenlinna (Tavastehus) is a city and municipality of about inhabitants in the heart of the historical province of Häme in the south of Finland.

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Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.

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Helsinki Stock Exchange

The Helsinki Stock Exchange (Helsingin Pörssi, Helsingforsbörsen) is a stock exchange located in Helsinki, Finland.

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Here (company)

HERE Technologies is a company that provides mapping and location data and related services to individuals and companies.

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History of Nokia

Nokia is a Finnish multinational corporation founded on the 12 May 1865 as a single paper mill operation.

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HMD Global

HMD Global Oy, branded as HMD, is a Finnish mobile phone company, made up of the mobile phone business that Nokia had sold to Microsoft in 2014, then bought back in 2015.

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Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. is a Chinese multinational networking, telecommunications equipment, and services company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong.

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Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.

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IBM PC compatible

IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.

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Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Interbrand, a division of Omnicom, is a brand consultancy, specializing in areas such as brand strategy, brand analytics, brand valuation, corporate design, digital brand management, packaging design, and naming.

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International Computers Limited

International Computers Limited (ICL) was a large British computer hardware, computer software and computer services company that operated from 1968 until 2002.

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International Semi Tech Microsystems

International Semi Tech Microsystems or Semi-Tech Microsystems was a Canadian-based household and consumer products firm in Markham, Ontario.

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Internet of things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity which enables these things to connect and exchange data, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

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iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.

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iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software.

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The iPod is a line of portable media players and multi-purpose pocket computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first version was released on October 23, 2001, about months after the Macintosh version of iTunes was released.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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ITT Inc.

ITT Inc., formerly ITT Corporation, is an American worldwide manufacturing company based in White Plains, New York.

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ITV Digital

ITV Digital was a British digital terrestrial television broadcaster which launched a pay-TV service on the world's first digital terrestrial television network.

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James Bond (literary character)

Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR, is a fictional character created by the British journalist and novelist Ian Fleming in 1953.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Jolla Oy (sometimes referred to as Jolla Ltd.) is a Finnish technology company; a vendor of mobile devices and the developer of Sailfish OS. Headquartered in Helsinki, Finland, Jolla has its own research and development offices in Helsinki, Tampere and Cyberport, Hong Kong. Jolla was founded in 2011 by former Nokia staff of the MeeGo project team to use the MeeGo opportunities and its "endless possibilities". Pronounced 'yolla', the company name is Finnish for dinghy (a small agile boat or life rescue boat). It was intended as an ironic joke about the "burning platform memo" which contained the metaphor to "jump into the cold sea water" or "burn with burning platform" used in context of the Nokia business activities, in the memo leaked by then-Nokia CEO Stephen Elop in February 2011, with Osborne effect-like consequences.

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Jorma Ollila

Jorma Jaakko Ollila (born 15 August 1950) is a Finnish businessman who was chairman of Royal Dutch Shell from 1 June 2006 to May 2015.

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Kaapelitehdas (Finnish for "the Cable Factory", also called simply Kaapeli, Kabelfabriken) is a famous building in Ruoholahti, Helsinki, near the bridge to Lauttasaari.

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Kari Kairamo

Kari Antero Oswald Kairamo, titled Vuorineuvos (31 December 1932 Helsinki in Finland, – 11 December 1988 in Espoo, Finland), was a Chairman and CEO of Nokia Corporation and a significant and popular person in the industry, who was also actively involved in Finland's foreign policy.

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Lauri Kivekäs

Lauri Jaakko Kivekäs, titled Vuorineuvos (7 July 1903, Muuruvesi, Finland – 12 February 1998; surname until 1926 Stenbäck), was a Finnish businessman.

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Leo Mechelin

Leopold (Leo) Henrik Stanislaus Mechelin (born 24 November 1839, Hamina, Finland – 26 January 1914, Helsinki, Finland) was a Finnish professor, statesman, senator and liberal reformer.

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Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

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List of Nokia products

The following is a list of products branded by Nokia.

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London Stock Exchange

The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.

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Los Angeles

Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.

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LTE (telecommunication)

In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies.

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Luxor AB

Luxor was a Swedish home electronics and computer manufacturer located in Motala, established in 1923 and acquired by Nokia in 1985.

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M61 gas mask

The M-61 is a Finnish gas mask manufactured by Nokia since the 1960s up to the 1980s.

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The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

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Maemo is a software platform developed by Nokia for smartphones and Internet tablets.

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Martti Häikiö

Martti Johannes Häikiö (b. 1 October 1949 in Mikkeli), is a Finnish historian and writer.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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MeeGo is a discontinued Linux distribution hosted by the Linux Foundation, using source code from the operating systems Moblin (produced by Intel) and Maemo (produced by Nokia).

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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Microsoft Mobile

Microsoft Mobile was a subsidiary of Microsoft involved in the development and manufacturing of mobile phones.

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Mika Tiivola

Carl Mikael Augustinus ”Mika” Tiivola (30 November 1922 – 13 April 1994) was a Finnish businessman.

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MikroMikko was a Finnish line of microcomputers released by Nokia Corporation's computer division Nokia Data from 1981 through 1987.

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A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.

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Mining engineering

Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that applies science and technology to the extraction of minerals from the earth.

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MixRadio was an online music streaming service owned by Line Corporation.

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Mobile game

A mobile game is a video game played on a feature phone, smartphone/tablet, smartwatch, PDA, portable media player or graphing calculator.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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Mobile technology

Mobile technology is the technology used for cellular communication.

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Mobile telephony

Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location.

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Mobile television

Mobile television is television watched on a small handheld or mobile device.

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Mobile World Congress

The GSMA Mobile World Congress is the world's largest exhibition for the mobile industry, incorporating a thought-leadership conference that features prominent executives representing mobile operators, device manufacturers, technology providers, vendors and content owners from across the world.

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Mobira Cityman 900

The Mobira Cityman 900 was released in 1987 by Nokia-Mobira.

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Moblin, short for 'mobile Linux', is a discontinued open source operating system and application stack for Mobile Internet Devices (MIDs), netbooks, nettops and embedded devices.

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Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.

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Mountain View, California

Mountain View is a city located in Santa Clara County, California, United States, named for its views of the Santa Cruz Mountains.

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Multinational corporation

A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.

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N-Gage (device)

The N-Gage (a pun on the word “engage”) is a PDA combining features of a telephone and a handheld game system developed by Nokia, announced on 4 November 2002 and released on 7 October 2003.

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Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.

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Networking hardware

Networking hardware, also known as network equipment or computer networking devices, are physical devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network.

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New York Stock Exchange

The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.

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Nintendo Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto.

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Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865.

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Nokia 1011

The Nokia 1011 (NHE-2X5, NHE-2XN) was the first mass-produced GSM phone.

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Nokia 1100

The Nokia 1100 (and closely related variants, the Nokia 1101 and the Nokia 1108) is a basic GSM mobile phone produced by Nokia.

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Nokia 3

The Nokia 3 is a Nokia-branded budget Android smartphone from the Finnish company, HMD Global.

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Nokia 3310

The Nokia 3310 is a GSM mobile phone announced on 1 September 2000, and released in the fourth quarter of the year, replacing the popular Nokia 3210.

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Nokia 3310 (2017)

Nokia 3310 (2017) is a Nokia-branded mobile phone developed by HMD Global.

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Nokia 3650

The Nokia 3650, sold in North American markets as the Nokia 3600 (triband GSM 850/1800/1900 MHz), is a smartphone announced on September 6, 2002.

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Nokia 5

The Nokia 5 is a mid-range Android smartphone from Finnish company HMD Global.

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Nokia 5800 XpressMusic

Nokia 5800 XpressMusic is a smartphone part of the XpressMusic line, announced by Nokia on 2 October 2008 and started shipping in November of that year.

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Nokia 6 (2017)

The Nokia 6 is a Nokia-branded upper-mid-range smartphone running the Android operating system.

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Nokia 7650

The Nokia 7650 is a smartphone belonging to the fashion and experimental (7xxx) series.

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Nokia 770 Internet Tablet

The Nokia 770 Internet Tablet is a wireless Internet appliance from Nokia, originally announced at the LinuxWorld Summit in New York City on 25 May 2005.

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Nokia 7710

The Nokia 7710 is a smartphone developed by Nokia and announced on 2 November 2004.

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Nokia 808 PureView

The Nokia 808 PureView is a Symbian-powered smartphone first unveiled on 27 February 2012 at the Mobile World Congress.

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Nokia Asha series

The Nokia Asha series was a range of low-end feature phones produced and marketed by Nokia.

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Nokia Booklet 3G

The Nokia Booklet 3G was a netbook produced by the Finnish company Nokia.

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Nokia Lumia 800

Nokia Lumia 800 (codenamed 'Sea Ray') is a smartphone from Nokia, first unveiled on 26 October 2011 at the Nokia World 2011 event.

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Nokia Lumia 920

Nokia Lumia 920 is a smartphone developed by Nokia that runs the Windows Phone 8 operating system.

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Nokia N1

The Nokia N1 is an Android-powered tablet developed by Nokia.

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Nokia N8

The Nokia N8 is a touchscreen-based smartphone developed by Nokia.

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Nokia N82

The Nokia N82 is a high-end smartphone produced by Nokia, and announced on 14 November 2007 as part of the company's Nseries line.

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Nokia N9

The Nokia N9 (codename Lankku) is a smartphone developed by Nokia, running on the Linux-based MeeGo "Harmattan" mobile operating system.

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Nokia N93

Nokia N93 is a smartphone from Nokia, part of the multimedia Nseries.

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Nokia N95

The Nokia N95 (N95-1, internally known as RM-159) was a smartphone produced by Nokia as part of their Nseries line of portable devices and released in March 2007.

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Nokia N97

Nokia N97 was a high-end smartphone part of the Nseries multimedia smartphones from Nokia, announced on 2 December 2008 and released in June 2009 as the successor of the Nokia N96.

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Nokia Networks

Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia Corporation. It started as a joint venture between Nokia of Finland and Siemens of Germany known as Nokia Siemens Networks. Nokia Networks has operations in around 120 countries. In 2013, Nokia acquired 100% of Nokia Networks, buying all of Siemens' shares. In April 2014, NSN name was phased out as part of rebranding process.

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Nokia Nseries

Nokia Nseries was a multimedia smartphone and tablet product family engineered and marketed by the Nokia Corporation.

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Nokia OZO

Nokia OZO is an advanced camera, by Nokia which is able to record stereoscopic (3D) 360-degree video.

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Nokia, Finland

Nokia is a town and a municipality on the banks of the Nokianvirta River (Kokemäenjoki) in the region of Pirkanmaa, some west of Tampere.

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Nokian Footwear

Nokian Footwear (Nokian Jalkineet) is a Finnish manufacturer of boots, today part of the Finnish company Berner.

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Nokian Tyres

Nokian Tyres Oyj (Nokian Renkaat Oyj), headquartered in Nokia, Finland, produces tyres for cars, trucks, buses, and heavy-duty equipment.

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Nordic Mobile Telephone

NMT (Nordisk MobilTelefoni or Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen, Nordic Mobile Telephony in English) is the first fully automatic cellular phone system.

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is the predominant mobile phone operator in Japan.

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O2 (UK)

Telefónica UK Limited (trading as O2 – stylised as O2) is a telecommunications services provider in the United Kingdom, owned by the Spanish multinational Telefónica, and is headquartered in Slough.

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Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo

Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo (born 13 July 1953) chaired the committee for World Design Capital Helsinki 2012, and is the former Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President of Nokia, as well as a former board member of Nokia Siemens Networks.

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Omnidirectional camera

In photography, an omnidirectional camera (from "omni", meaning all) is a camera with a 360-degree field of view in the horizontal plane, or with a visual field that covers (approximately) the entire sphere.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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Organizational culture

Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviours that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization".

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Original design manufacturer

An original design manufacturer (ODM) is a company that designs and manufactures a product, as specified, that is eventually rebranded by another firm for sale.

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Oulu (Uleåborg) is a city and municipality of inhabitants in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland.

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Ovi (Nokia)

Ovi by Nokia (ovi "door") was the brand for Nokia's Internet services.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.

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Personal digital assistant

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.

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Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.

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Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

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Procter & Gamble

Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1837 by British American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble.

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Professional mobile radio

Professional mobile radio (also known as private mobile radio (PMR) in the UK and land mobile radio (LMR) in North America) are field radio communications systems which use portable, mobile, base station, and dispatch console radios.

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Psion (company)

Psion was a designer and manufacturer of mobile handheld computers for commercial and industrial applications.

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Public limited company

A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland.

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Pulp mill

A pulp mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips or other plant fibre source into a thick fibre board which can be shipped to a paper mill for further processing.

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PureView (previously Nokia PureView) is a range of premium smartphone cameras developed by Microsoft Mobile (originally by Nokia) for exclusive use in Microsoft Lumia (formerly Nokia Lumia Series) range of smartphones.

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Radiolinja was a Finnish GSM operator founded on September 19, 1988.

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Rajeev Suri

Rajeev Suri (born 10 October 1967) is a Singaporean Indian business executive and the chief executive officer of Nokia.

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A respirator is a device designed to protect the wearer from inhaling particulate matter, including airborne microorganisms, fumes, vapours and gases.

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Richard Perle

Richard Norman Perle (born September 16, 1941) is an American statesman who served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for Global Strategic Affairs under President Ronald Reagan.

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Risto Siilasmaa

Risto Kalevi Siilasmaa (born 17 April 1966 in Finland) is the chairman, founder and former CEO of F-Secure Corporation (formerly Data Fellows), an anti-virus and computer security software company based in Helsinki, Finland.

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Roaming is a wireless telecommunication term typically used with mobile devices (like mobile phones).

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Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.

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Rocket Fuel Inc.

Rocket Fuel is an ad technology company based in Redwood City, California.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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S60 (software platform)

The S60 Platform (formerly Series 60 User Interface) was a software platform for smartphones that runs on the Symbian operating system.

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Saab Group

Saab Group (originally Svenska Aeroplan AB, later SAAB and Saab AB) is a Swedish aerospace and defence company, founded in 1937.

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Sailfish OS

Sailfish OS (also styled as SailfishOS or abbreviated to SFOS) is a general purpose Linux distribution used commonly as a mobile operating system combining the Linux kernel for a particular hardware platform, the open-source Mer core stack of middleware, a proprietary UI contributed by Jolla or an open source UI, and other third-party components.

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Salo, Finland

Salo is a town and municipality of Finland.

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Salora (Finnish company)

Salora Oy was a Finnish electronics company headquartered in Salo.

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Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.

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Samsung Electronics

Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (Korean: 삼성전자; Hanja: 三星電子 (Literally "tristar electronics")) is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Suwon, South Korea. Through having an extremely complicated ownership structure with some circular ownership, it is the flagship company of the Samsung Group, accounting for 70% of the group's revenue in 2012. Samsung Electronics has assembly plants and sales networks in 80 countries and employs around 308,745 people. It is the world's largest information technology company, consumer electronics maker and chipmaker by revenue. As of October 2017, Samsung Electronics' market cap stood at US$372.0 billion. Samsung has long been a major manufacturer of electronic components such as lithium-ion batteries, semiconductors, chips, flash memory and hard drive devices for clients such as Apple, Sony, HTC and Nokia. It is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones and smartphones, started with the original Samsung Solstice and later fueled by the popularity of its Samsung Galaxy line of devices. The company is also a major vendor of tablet computers, particularly its Android-powered Samsung Galaxy Tab collection, and is generally regarded as pioneering the phablet market through the Samsung Galaxy Note family of devices. Samsung has been the world's largest television manufacturer since 2006, and the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones since 2011. It is also the world's largest memory chips manufacturer. In July 2017, Samsung Electronics overtook Intel as the largest semiconductor chip maker in the world. Samsung, like many other South Korean family-run chaebols, has been criticized for low dividend payouts and other governance practices that favor controlling shareholders at the expense of ordinary investors. In 2012, Kwon Oh-hyun was appointed the company's CEO but announced in October 2017 that he would resign in March 2018, citing an "unprecedented crisis".

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Sanomalaite M/90

Sanomalaite M/90 (SANLA) (Literally "Message device M/90") is a digital, portable and encrypted text-based communications device developed by Nokia and used by all branches of Finnish Defence Forces.

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Satellite television

Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.

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SD-WAN is an acronym for software-defined networking in a wide area network (WAN).

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Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Simo Vuorilehto

Simo Vuorilehto, titled Vuorineuvos (born August 8, 1930, in Savonlinna, Finland), is a Finnish businessman and the former chairman and CEO of Nokia Corporation.

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A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.

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SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.

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Snake (video game genre)

Snake is the common name for a video game concept where the player maneuvers a line which grows in length, with the line itself being a primary obstacle.

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Software-defined networking

Software-defined networking (SDN) technology is an approach to cloud computing that facilitates network management and enables programmatically efficient network configuration in order to improve network performance and monitoring.

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Solidium Oy is Finnish state-owned investment company.

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Sony Mobile

Sony Mobile Communications Inc. is a multinational telecommunications company founded on October 1, 2001 as a joint venture between Sony and Ericsson, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan and wholly owned by Sony.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Stephen Elop

Stephen Elop (born 31 December 1963) is a Canadian businessman who has worked at Australian telecom company Telstra since April 2016.

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Stereophonic sound

Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective.

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Steve Ballmer

Steven Anthony Ballmer (born March 24, 1956) is an American businessman, investor and philanthropist who was the chief executive officer of Microsoft from January 2000 to February 2014, and is the current owner of the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).

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Stock market index

A stock index or stock market index is a measurement of a section of the stock market.

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Stockholm Stock Exchange

The Stockholm Stock Exchange (Stockholmsbörsen), operating under the name Nasdaq Stockholm, is a stock exchange located in Frihamnen, Stockholm, Sweden.

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A subcontractor is an individual or in many cases a business that signs a contract to perform part or all of the obligations of another's contract.

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A subwoofer (or sub) is a woofer, or a complete loudspeaker, which is dedicated to the reproduction of low-pitched audio frequencies known as bass and sub-bass.

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Surround sound

Surround sound is a technique for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with additional audio channels from speakers that surround the listener (surround channels).

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Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Swedish-speaking population of Finland

The Swedish-speaking population of Finland (whose members are often called Swedish-speaking Finns, Finland-Swedes, Finland Swedes, Finnish Swedes, or Swedes of Finland—see below; finlandssvenskar; suomenruotsalaiset; the term Swedo-Finnish—finlandssvensk; suomenruotsalainen—can be used as an attribute) is a linguistic minority in Finland.

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Symbian is a discontinued mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones.

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Symbian Foundation

The Symbian Foundation was a non-profit organisation that stewarded the Symbian operating system for mobile phones which previously had been owned and licensed by Symbian Ltd..

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Symbian Ltd.

Symbian Ltd. was a software development and licensing company, known for the Symbian OS, a smartphone operating system, and other related technologies.

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Tablet computer

A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.

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Tampere (Swedish: Tammerfors) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland.

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Tax Deducted at Source

Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) is a means of collecting income tax in India, under the Indian Income Tax Act of 1961.

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TCL Corporation

TCL Corporation (originally an abbreviation for Telephone Communication Limited) is a Chinese multinational electronics company headquartered in Huizhou, Guangdong Province.

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Technicolor SA

Technicolor SA, formerly Thomson SARL and Thomson Multimedia, is a French multinational corporation that provides services and products for the communication, media and entertainment industries.

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Technology company

A technology company (often tech company) is a type of business entity that focuses primarily on the development and manufacturing of technology.

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Telecommunications equipment

Telecommunications equipment (also telecoms equipment or communications equipment) is hardware used for the purposes of telecommunications.

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Telefónica, S.A. is a Spanish multinational broadband and telecommunications provider with operations in Europe, Asia, and North, Central and South America.

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Telephone exchange

A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.

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Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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The Decline and Fall of Nokia

The Decline and Fall of Nokia is a company profile book detailing the collapse of the mobile phone company Nokia.

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The Pentagon

The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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Tieto Keilalahti Campus

Tieto Keilalahti Campus (formerly named Nokia House then Microsoft Talo) is the head office building of Tieto, located in Keilaniemi, Espoo, just outside Helsinki, the capital of Finland.

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Transfer pricing

In taxation and accounting, transfer pricing refers to the rules and methods for pricing transactions within and between enterprises under common ownership or control.

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Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.

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Twig Com

Twig Com Ltd. (formerly Benefon) is a mobile telecommunications company founded in 2011 and headquartered in Salo, Finland.

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A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.

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UCWeb Inc. (also known as UC Mobile) is a Chinese mobile Internet company that offers products and services including mobile browser, UC News, search and so on.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States District Court for the District of Delaware

The United States District Court for the District of Delaware (in case citations, D. Del.) is the Federal district court having jurisdiction over the entire state of Delaware.

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United States International Trade Commission

The United States International Trade Commission (USITC, sometimes I.T.C.) is an independent, bipartisan, quasi-judicial, federal agency of the United States that provides trade expertise to both the legislative and executive branches.

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Verizon Communications

Verizon Communications Inc., or simply Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

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ViewSonic Corporation is a multinational electronics company specializing in visual display technology, specifically liquid-crystal displays, projectors, modern educational display technology and more.

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Virtual reality

Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.

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Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications conglomerate, with headquarters in London.

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Volkswagen Group

Volkswagen AG, known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany.

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VR photography

VR photography, or virtual reality photography, is the interactive viewing of wide-angle panoramic photographs, generally encompassing a 360-degree circle or a spherical view (hence also known as 360-degree photo and photo sphere).

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WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a family of wireless communication standards based on the IEEE 802.16 set of standards, which provide multiple physical layer (PHY) and Media Access Control (MAC) options.

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Windows Phone

Windows Phone (WP) is a family of discontinued mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune.

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Wireless LAN

A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building.

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Withings (pronounced "why-things") is a French consumer electronics company headquartered in Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, with offices in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and Hong Kong, distributing products worldwide.

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Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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Xiaomi Inc. is a Chinese electronics company headquartered in Beijing.

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Yleisradio Oy (Finnish), also known as Rundradion (Swedish) or the Finnish Broadcasting Company (English), abbreviated to Yle (pronounced /yle/; previously stylised as YLE before the 2012 corporate rebrand), is Finland's national public broadcasting company, founded in 1926.

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Yves Doz

Yves Doz is a French academic.

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ZTE Corporation is a Chinese multinational telecommunications equipment and systems company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

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2009 Iranian presidential election protests

Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.

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2K resolution

2K resolution is a generic term for display devices or content having horizontal resolution of approximately 2,000 pixels.

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3D film

A three-dimensional stereoscopic film (also known as three-dimensional sangu, 3D film or S3D film) is a motion picture that enhances the illusion of depth perception, hence adding a third dimension.

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3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.

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5G is a marketing term for some new mobile technologies.

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@nokia, Mobira, NGP Capital, NOKIA, Nokia Advanced Technologies, Nokia Aero, Nokia Corp., Nokia Corporation, Nokia Growth Partners, Nokia India, Nokia Information Systems, Nokia Oy, Nokia Oyj, Nokia Research, Nokia Research Center, Nokia Technologies, Nokia Technologies Oy, Nokia World 2011, Nokia corporation, Nokia, Inc., Nokia.com, NokiaLaptop, Nokialand, The Nokia Corporation, The Nokia Research Center.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nokia

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