184 relations: Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, African National Congress, African Union, Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organisation, Algiers, Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, Andrés Pastrana Arango, Arab League, Arab Socialist Union (Egypt), Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Azerbaijan, Bandung Conference, BBC News, Belarus, Belgrade, Borisav Jović, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Branko Kostić, Breakup of Yugoslavia, Brijuni, Cairo, Cartagena, Colombia, CBC News, China–India relations, Cold War, Colombian Conservative Party, Colombian Liberal Party, Colombo, Colonialism, Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor, Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Secretariat, Communist Party of Cuba, Conditionality, Croatian Democratic Union, Debt of developing countries, Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro, Developed country, Developing country, Disarmament, Dobrica Ćosić, Dual loyalty, Durban, Eastern Bloc, Ernesto Samper, European Union, Fidel Castro, Five Precepts, Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, Freedom and Justice Party (Egypt), ..., Gamal Abdel Nasser, Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, Golkar, Government of Pakistan, Great power, Group of 77, Hans Köchler, Harare, Hassan Rouhani, Havana, Hegemony, Ho Chi Minh, Hosni Mubarak, Hostosian National Independence Movement, Houari Boumédiène, Ideology, Imperialism, Independent politician, India, India and the Non-Aligned Movement, Indian National Congress, Indira Gandhi, Indonesia, Institutionalisation, Internal resistance to apartheid, International Affairs (journal), Iran, J. R. Jayewardene, Jakarta, Janata Party, Janez Drnovšek, Jawaharlal Nehru, Josip Broz Tito, Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front, Kenneth Kaunda, Kim Yong-nam, Kuala Lumpur, Kwame Nkrumah, League of Communists of Yugoslavia, Lusaka, Mahathir Mohamad, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mehr News Agency, Military occupation, Millennium Development Goals, Moderation and Development Party, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Mohamed Morsi, Muslim world, NAM News Network, National Democratic Party (Egypt), Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, Nelson Mandela, Neocolonialism, Neutral country, New Delhi, New International Economic Order, New World Information and Communication Order, New York (state), New York City, Nicolás Maduro, Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, Norodom Sihanouk, North Korea, North–South divide, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Oxford University Press, PDF, People's Daily, Policy of deliberate ambiguity, Political status of Puerto Rico, Porlamar, Power (international relations), Press TV, Raúl Castro, Racism, Radio Cooperativa, Reform of the United Nations, Rejaul Karim Laskar, Reuters, Revolutionary Council (Algeria), Rhodesia, Robert Mugabe, Rowman & Littlefield, Sahrawi people, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Serbia, Sharm El Sheikh, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Party of Serbia, South Centre (organization), South Sudan, South–South cooperation, Sovereignty, Soviet–Afghan War, Stjepan Mesić, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Suharto, Sukarno, Superpower, Suspension (punishment), Sustainable development, Tehran, Thabo Mbeki, The Independent, Third World, Trade justice, Underdevelopment, United Malays National Organisation, United National Independence Party, United National Party, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Security Council, United Nations System, United Socialist Party of Venezuela, United States, V. K. Krishna Menon, War on Terror, Western Bloc, Western Sahara, Western Sahara conflict, William Gopallawa, World peace, World Peace Council, Yemeni unification, Yugoslavia, Zail Singh, ZANU–PF, Zhou Enlai, 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 2006–2008 Cuban transfer of presidential duties. Expand index (134 more) » « Shrink index
Tun Dato' Seri Haji Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi (Jawi: عبد الله بن حاج احمد بداوي; born 26 November 1939) is a Malaysian politician who served as Prime Minister of Malaysia from 2003 to 2009.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
The Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organisation (AAPSO) is an international non-governmental organization dedicated to the ideals of national liberation and Third World solidarity.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Alliance of Builders or Developers of Islamic Iran (ائتلاف آبادگران ایران اسلامی; E'telāf-e Ābādgarān-e Īrān-e Eslāmī), usually shortened to Abadgaran (آبادگران), was an Iranian conservative political federation of parties and organizations.
Andrés Pastrana Arango (born August 17, 1954) was the 30th President of Colombia from 1998 to 2002, following in the footsteps of his father, Misael Pastrana Borrero, who was president from 1970 to 1974.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Socialist Union (الاتحاد الاشتراكى العربى) was an Egyptian political party based on the principles of Nasserist Arab socialism.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Konferensi Asia-Afrika)—was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on April 18–24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Borisav Jović (Борисав Јовић,; born 19 October 1928) is a former Serbian communist politician, who served as the Serbian member of the collective presidency of Yugoslavia during the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Branko Kostić (Serbian Cyrillic: Бранко Костић, born 28 August 1939) is a retired Montenegrin Serb politician.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
The Brijuni or the Brijuni Islands (also known as the Brionian Islands; Brioni) are a group of fourteen small islands in the Croatian part of the northern Adriatic Sea, separated from the west coast of the Istrian peninsula by the narrow Fažana Strait.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena de Indias), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
China–India relations, also called Sino-Indian relations or Indo-China relations, refers to the bilateral relationship between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of India.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano) is a conservative political party in Colombia.
The Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano; PLC) is a centrist and social liberal political party in Colombia.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym CAVR: Comissão de Acolhimento, Verdade e Reconciliação de Timor Leste) was an independent truth commission established in East Timor in 2001 under the UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) and charged to “inquire into human rights violations committed on all sides, between April 1974 and October 1999, and facilitate community reconciliation with justice for those who committed less serious offenses.” The idea of a truth commission in East Timor was first agreed by the National Council of Timorese Resistance in 2000.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Commonwealth Secretariat is the main intergovernmental agency and central institution of the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Communist Party of Cuba is the political party that rules in Republic of Cuba, although others exist without legal recognition or incorporation.
In political economy and international relations, conditionality is the use of conditions attached to the provision of benefits such as a loan, debt relief or bilateral aid.
The Croatian Democratic Union (Hrvatska demokratska zajednica or HDZ, literally translated: Croatian Democratic Community) is a conservative political party and the main centre-right political party in Croatia.
The debt of developing countries refers to the external debt incurred by governments of developing countries, generally in quantities beyond the governments' ability to repay.
The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (Demokratska partija socijalista Crne Gore / Демократска партија социјалиста Црне Горе, DPS) is the ruling political party in Montenegro, which has been in power since the introduction of multi-party system in 1990.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons.
Dobrica Ćosić (Добрица Ћосић,; 29 December 1921 – 18 May 2014) was a Serbian politician, writer, and political theorist.
In politics, dual loyalty is loyalty to two separate interests that potentially conflict with each other.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Ernesto Samper Pizano (born 3 August 1950) is a Colombian politician.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The five precepts (pañcasīlāni; pañcaśīlāni)) constitute the basic code of ethics undertaken by upāsaka and upāsikā (lay followers) of Buddhism. The precepts in all the traditions are essentially identical and are commitments to abstain from harming living beings, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and intoxication. Undertaking the five precepts is part of both lay Buddhist initiation and regular lay Buddhist devotional practices. They are not formulated as imperatives, but as training rules that lay people undertake voluntarily to facilitate practice. Additionally, in the Theravāda school of Buddhism, the bhikkhuni lineage died out, and women renunciates practicing Theravadin Buddhism have developed unofficial options for their own practice, dedicating their life to religion, vowing celibacy, living an ascetic life and holding eight or ten precepts.
The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, known as the Panchsheel Treaty: Non-interference in others internal affairs and respect for each other's territorial unity integrity and sovereignty (from Sanskrit, panch: five, sheel: virtues), are a set of principles to govern relations between states.
The Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) (Ḥizb al-Ḥurriya wa al-’Adala) is an Egyptian Islamist political party.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations is an academic quarterly journal published by Lynne Rienner Publishers.
The Party of the Functional Groups (Partai Golongan Karya) is a political party in Indonesia.
The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
Hans Köchler (born 18 October 1948) is a retired professor of philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, and president of the International Progress Organization, a non-governmental organization in consultative status with the United Nations.
Harare (officially named Salisbury until 1982) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.
Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
The Hostosian National Independence Movement (Movimiento Independentista Nacional Hostosiano, MINH) is a leftist and pro-independence organization (and unregistered political party) in Puerto Rico.
Houari Boumédiène, also transcribed Boumediene, Boumedienne etc., (هواري بومدين; ALA-LC: Hawārī Bū-Madyan; 23 August 1932 – 27 December 1978) served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death on 27 December 1978.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that wanted into the Non-Aligned Movement.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Institutionalisation (or institutionalization) refers to the process of embedding some conception (for example a belief, norm, social role, particular value or mode of behavior) within an organization, social system, or society as a whole.
Internal resistance to apartheid in South Africa originated from several independent sectors of South African society and alternatively took the form of social movements, passive resistance, or guerrilla warfare.
International Affairs is a leading peer-reviewed academic journal of international relations.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Junius Richard Jayewardene (ජුනියස් රිචඩ් ජයවර්ධන,ஜூனியஸ் ரிச்சட் ஜயவர்தனா; 17 September 1906 – 1 November 1996), commonly abbreviated in Sri Lanka as J. R., was the leader of Sri Lanka from 1977 to 1989, serving as Prime Minister from 1977 to 1978 and as the second President of Sri Lanka from 1978 till 1989.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
The Janata Party (JP or JNP) (translation: People's Party) was an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the State of Emergency that was imposed between 1975 and 1977 by the Government of India under the Prime Ministership of Indira Gandhi and her party, the Indian National Congress (R).
Janez Drnovšek (17 May 1950 – 23 February 2008) was a Slovenian liberal politician, President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia (1989–1990), Prime Minister of Slovenia (1992–2002) and President of Slovenia (2002–2007).
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
The Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale Kanak et Socialiste, FLNKS) is a militant pro-independence alliance of political parties in New Caledonia.
Kenneth David Buchizya Kaunda (born 28 April 1924), also known as KK, is a Zambian former politician who served as the first President of Zambia from 1964 to 1991.
Kim Yong-nam (born 4 February 1928) is the President of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly of North Korea, a position he has held since 1998.
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the country's largest communist party, and the ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia.
Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia.
Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (Jawi:محضير بن محمد; IPA:; born 10 July 1925) is a Malaysian politician currently serving as the Prime Minister of Malaysia for the second time.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
The Mehr News Agency (MNA; Xabâr-gozâri Mehr; "Affection News Agency") is an Iranian news agency headquartered in Tehran, owned by the Islamic Ideology Dissemination Organization (IIDO).
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Moderation and Development Party (Hezb-e E'tedāl va Towse'eh) is a political party in Iran.
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Soliman (محمد حسين طنطاوى سليمان,; born 31 October 1935) is an Egyptian field marshal and former politician.
Mohamed MorsiThe spellings of his first and last names vary.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
The NAM News Network (NNN) is a news agency established by countries of the Non-Aligned Movement to disseminate news which is not prejudicial to the third-world countries.
The National Democratic Party (الحزب الوطني الديمقراطي Al-Ḥizb Al-Waṭanī Ad-Dīmūqrāṭī), often simply called in الحزب الوطني Al-Ḥizb al-Waṭaniy – the "National Party", was an Egyptian political party.
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (19 May 1913 – 1 June 1996) was the sixth President of India, serving from 1977 to 1982.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The New International Economic Order (NIEO) was a set of proposals put forward during the 1970s by some developing countries through the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development to promote their interests by improving their terms of trade, increasing development assistance, developed-country tariff reductions, and other means.
The New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO or NWIO) aka the MacBride Commission is a term that was coined in a debate over media representations of the developing world in UNESCO in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
The Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP) was a cooperation system among news agencies of Non-Aligned countries, which lasted from 1975 to mid-1990s.
Norodom Sihanouk (នរោត្តម សីហនុ; 31 October 192215 October 2012) was a Cambodian royal politician and the King of Cambodia.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The North–South divide is broadly considered a socio-economic and political divide.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
A policy of deliberate ambiguity (also known as a policy of strategic ambiguity, strategic uncertainty) is the practice by a country of being intentionally ambiguous on certain aspects of its foreign policy or whether it possesses certain weapons of mass destruction.
The political status of Puerto Rico is that of an unincorporated territory of the United States.
Porlamar is the largest city on Isla Margarita, Nueva Esparta State in Venezuela.
Power in international relations is defined in several different ways.
Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician and leader who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Radio Cooperativa is a radio station in Chile, based in Santiago.
Since the late 1990s there have been many calls for reform of the United Nations (UN).
Rejaul Karim Laskar is an Indian politician from the Indian state of Assam belonging to Indian National Congress.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Revolutionary Council was the body that ruled Algeria after the coup d'état in June 1965.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people (صحراويون; Berber: ⵉⵙⴻⵃⵔⴰⵡⵉⵢⴻⵏ; Moroccan Arabic: صحراوة; Saharaui), are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara (claimed by the Polisario and mostly controlled by Morocco), other parts of southern Morocco not claimed by the Polisario, most of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Sharm El Sheikh (شرم الشيخ) is a city on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Party of Serbia (Социјалистичка партија Србије/Socijalistička partija Srbije or СПС/SPS) is a political party in Serbia that identifies itself as a democratic socialist and social democratic party.
The South Centre is an intergovernmental organisation of developing nations, established by an intergovernmental Agreement (Treaty), which came into force on 31 July 1995, with its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
South–South Cooperation is a term historically used by policymakers and academics to describe the exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between developing countries, also known as countries of the Global South.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Stjepan "Stipe" Mesić (born 24 December 1934) is a Croatian politician who served as the President of Croatia from 2000 to 2010.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
Muhammad Suharto (also written Soeharto;, or Muhammad Soeharto; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
Suspension is either paid or unpaid time away from the workplace as ordered by the employer in order for a workplace investigation to take place.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served as the second President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Trade justice is a campaign by non-governmental organisations, plus efforts by other actors, to change the rules and practices of world trade in order to promote fairness.
Underdevelopment, relating to international development, reflects a broad condition or phenomena defined and critiqued by theorists in fields such as economics, development studies, and postcolonial studies.
The United Malays National Organisation (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu; Jawi: ڤرتوبوهن کبڠساءن ملايو برساتو, abbreviated UMNO or lesser known as PEKEMBAR) is Malaysia's main opposition political party.
The United National Independence Party (UNIP) is a political party in Zambia.
The United National Party, often abbreviated as UNP (translit, translit), is a political party in Sri Lanka.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United Nations System consists of the United Nations, and the six principal organs of the United Nations: the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice (ICJ), and the UN Secretariat, specialized agencies, and affiliated organizations.
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV) is a socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by the late President Hugo Chávez.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon (3 May 1896 – 6 October 1974) was an Indian nationalist, diplomat, and politician, described by some as the second most powerful man in India, after his ally, 1st Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
William Gopallawa, MBE (Sinhala: විලියම් ගොපල්ලව, வில்லியம் கோபள்ளவா) (17 September 1896 – 31 January 1981) was the last Governor-General of Ceylon from 1962 to 1972 and became the first (non-executive) President of Sri Lanka when Ceylon declared itself a republic in 1972 and changed its name to Sri Lanka.
World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal state of happiness, freedom and peace within and among all people and nations on earth.
The World Peace Council (WPC) is an international organization that advocates universal disarmament, sovereignty and independence and peaceful co-existence, and campaigns against imperialism, weapons of mass destruction and all forms of discrimination.
Yemeni unification took place on May 22, 1990, when the area of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (also known as South Yemen) was united with the Yemen Arab Republic (also known as North Yemen), forming the Republic of Yemen (known as simply Yemen).
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Gyani Zail Singh (born Jarnail Singh, 5 May 1916 – 25 December 1994) was the seventh President of India serving from 1982 to 1987.
The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
The 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement was held from 26 to 31 August 2012 in Tehran, Iran.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
With the 2006–2008 Cuban transfer of presidential duties, the Cuban presidential powers and duties were passed on from President Fidel Castro to the first vice president, his brother Raúl Castro, following Fidel's operation and recovery from an undisclosed digestive illness believed to be diverticulitis.
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