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Non-covalent interactions

Index Non-covalent interactions

A non-covalent interaction differs from a covalent bond in that it does not involve the sharing of electrons, but rather involves more dispersed variations of electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule. [1]

80 relations: Acetone, Alkali metal, Amino acid, Aromaticity, Atom, Binding constant, Binding site, Boiling point, Carbon tetrachloride, Carbonyl group, Cation–pi interaction, Chaperone (protein), Chemical energy, Cofactor (biochemistry), Conjugate acid, Conjugated system, Coulomb's law, Covalent bond, Crystallinity, Diethyl ether, Dipole, Disulfide, DNA, Drug design, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electronegativity, Electrophile, Electrostatics, Enthalpy, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Fluorine, Formal charge, Gas, Halogen, Halogen bond, Hexane, Hydrogen bond, Hydrophobic collapse, Hydrophobic effect, Intermolecular force, Ion, Ionic bonding, Liquid, London dispersion force, Mole (unit), Molecular mass, Molecule, N-Butanol, ..., Nitrogen, Nucleic acid, Nucleophile, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Oxygen, Pi interaction, Point group, Polarizability, Potential energy, Protein, Protein folding, Protein quaternary structure, Protein secondary structure, Protein structure, Protein tertiary structure, Receptor (biochemistry), Ring strain, Self-assembly, Sodium, Sodium ethoxide, Sodium fluoride, Solvation, Solvent, Stacking (chemistry), Steric effects, Strain (chemistry), Sulfur, Van der Waals force, Vapor pressure. Expand index (30 more) »

Acetone

Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Aromaticity

In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Binding constant

The binding constant, or association constant, is a special case of the equilibrium constant K, and is the inverse of the dissociation constant.

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Binding site

In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.

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Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.

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Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

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Carbonyl group

In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.

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Cation–pi interaction

Cation–π interaction is a noncovalent molecular interaction between the face of an electron-rich π system (e.g. benzene, ethylene, acetylene) and an adjacent cation (e.g. Li+, Na+).

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Chaperone (protein)

In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures.

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Chemical energy

In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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Conjugate acid

A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.

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Conjugated system

In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.

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Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Crystallinity

Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.

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Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).

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Dipole

In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.

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Disulfide

In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Drug design

Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.

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Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electronegativity

Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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Electrophile

In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.

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Electrostatics

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.

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Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Enzyme inhibitor

4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Formal charge

In chemistry, a formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, assuming that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally between atoms, regardless of relative electronegativity.

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Gas

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Halogen

The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Halogen bond

A halogen bond occurs when there is evidence of a net attractive interaction between an electrophilic region associated with a halogen atom in a molecular entity and a nucleophilic region in another, or the same, molecular entity.

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Hexane

Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hydrophobic collapse

Hydrophobic collapse is a proposed process for the production of the 3-D conformation adopted by polypeptides in polar solvents.

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Hydrophobic effect

The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution and exclude water molecules.

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Intermolecular force

Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

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Liquid

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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London dispersion force

London dispersion forces (LDF, also known as dispersion forces, London forces, instantaneous dipole–induced dipole forces, or loosely van der Waals forces) are a type of force acting between atoms and molecules.

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Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

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Molecular mass

Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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N-Butanol

n-Butanol or n-butyl alcohol or normal butanol is a primary alcohol with a 4-carbon structure and the chemical formula C4H9OH.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Nucleophile

Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pi interaction

In chemistry, π-effects or π-interactions are a type of non-covalent interaction that involves π systems.

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Point group

In geometry, a point group is a group of geometric symmetries (isometries) that keep at least one point fixed.

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Polarizability

Polarizability is the ability to form instantaneous dipoles.

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Potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein folding

Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.

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Protein quaternary structure

Protein quaternary structure is the number and arrangement of multiple folded protein subunits in a multi-subunit complex.

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Protein secondary structure

Protein secondary structure is the three dimensional form of local segments of proteins.

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Protein structure

Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.

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Protein tertiary structure

Protein tertiary structure is the three dimensional shape of a protein.

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Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.

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Ring strain

In organic chemistry, ring strain is a type of instability that exists when bonds in a molecule form angles that are abnormal.

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Self-assembly

Self-assembly is a process in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction.

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Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium ethoxide

Sodium ethoxide (also is the organic compound with the formula C2H5ONa) is a white to yellowish powder that dissolves in polar solvents such as ethanol.

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Sodium fluoride

Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula NaF.

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Solvation

Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.

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Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Stacking (chemistry)

In chemistry, pi stacking (also called π–π stacking) refers to attractive, noncovalent interactions between aromatic rings, since they contain pi bonds.

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Steric effects

Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.

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Strain (chemistry)

In chemistry, a molecule experiences strain when its chemical structure undergoes some stress which raises its internal energy in comparison to a strain-free reference compound.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.

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Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-covalent_interactions

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