184 relations: Acid, Actinide, Albertus Magnus, Alkali, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Allotropes of boron, Allotropes of phosphorus, Allotropy, Alpha particle, Aluminium, Amphoterism, Ancient Egypt, André-Marie Ampère, Anesthesia, Antimony, Antoine Jérôme Balard, Antoine Lavoisier, Antozonite, Argon, Argon compounds, Argyrodite, Arsenic, Arsenic trisulfide, Astatine, Atomic mass, Ångström, Base (chemistry), Bernard Courtois, Biosphere, Bismuth-209, Block (periodic table), Blood–brain barrier, Boiling point, Borate minerals, Boron, Boron group, Borospherene, Brine, Brittleness, Bromine, Bronze, Buckminsterfullerene, Calaverite, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon group, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Chalcogen, Charcoal, ..., Chemical Abstracts Service, Chemical element, Chemical oxygen iodine laser, Chlorine, CHON, Classical antiquity, Clemens Winkler, Cleveite, Coordination number, Copernicium, Copper, Cyclotron, Dale R. Corson, Dark energy, Dark matter, Density, Diamond, Dibromine pentoxide, Diphosphorus, Dividing line between metals and nonmetals, Dorn, Ductility, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electronegativity, Emilio Segrè, Environmental chemistry, Ferrocene, Fluorine, Fluorite, Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, Freiberg, Germanene, Germanium, Germanium dioxide, Gold, Graphene, Halogen, Heat, Helium, Helium compounds, Hennig Brand, Henri Moissan, Henry Cavendish, Humphry Davy, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen fluoride laser, Intermolecular force, Iodine, Iodine pentoxide, Ionization energy, Iron, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Johan Gottlieb Gahn, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Joseph Priestley, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Krypton, Lanthanide, Lead, Leopold Gmelin, Louvre, Lustre (mineralogy), Magnesium, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Melting point, Mercury(II) oxide, Metal, Metalloid, Mineral, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Molybdenite, Moon, Nagybörzsöny, Neon, Neon compounds, Nickel, Nitrate, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Noble metal, Norman Lockyer, Oganesson, Oxide, Oxygen, Ozone, Paracelsus, Pál Kitaibel, Period (periodic table), Phosphorus, Pierre Janssen, Plasma display, Pnictogen, Post-transition metal, Potassium, Proton, Radon, Reactivity (chemistry), Relativistic quantum chemistry, Robert Boyle, Robert Whytlaw-Gray, Rutherford (surname), Selenium, Selenium trioxide, Silicene, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Silver, Sodium, Solution, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stibnite, Sulfur, Sulfur lamp, Sulfur trioxide, Sumer, Tellurium, Tellurium dioxide, Tennessine, Tetrahedrite, Tetranitrogen, Tetraxenonogold(II), Tin, Toxicity, Transition metal, University of Edinburgh, Water, Widget (beer), William Ramsay, Xenon, Xenon dioxide, Xenon trioxide, Zinc. Expand index (134 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Boron can be prepared in several crystalline and amorphous forms.
Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, the most common of which are white and red solids.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
André-Marie Ampère (20 January 177510 June 1836) was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics".
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antoine Jérôme Balard (30 September 180230 April 1876) was a French chemist and one of the discoverers of bromine.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Antozonite (historically known as Stinkspat, Stinkfluss, Stinkstein, Stinkspar and fetid fluorite) is a radioactive fluorite variety first found in Wölsendorf, Bavaria, in 1841, and named in 1862.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Argon compounds, the chemical compounds that contain the element argon, are rarely encountered due to the inertness of the argon atom.
Argyrodite is an uncommon silver germanium sulfide mineral with formula Ag8GeS6.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Arsenic trisulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula As2S3.
Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Bernard Courtois, also spelled Barnard Courtois, (8 February 1777 – 27 September 1838) was a French chemist credited with first isolating iodine and morphine.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Bismuth-209 is the "quasi-stable" isotope of bismuth with the longest known half-life of any radioisotope that undergoes α-decay (alpha decay).
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
The borate minerals are minerals which contain a borate anion group.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).
Borospherene (B40) is a cluster molecule containing 40 boron atoms.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C60.
Calaverite, or gold telluride, is an uncommon telluride of gold, a metallic mineral with the chemical formula AuTe2, with approximately 3% of the gold replaced by silver.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemical oxygen iodine laser, or COIL, is an infrared chemical laser.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
CHON is a mnemonic acronym for the four most common elements in living organisms: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Clemens Alexander Winkler (December 26, 1838 – October 8, 1904) was a German chemist who discovered the element germanium in 1886, solidifying Dmitri Mendeleev's theory of periodicity.
Cleveite is an impure radioactive variety of uraninite containing uranium and found in Norway.
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.
Copernicium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Cn and atomic number 112.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
Dale Raymond Corson (April 5, 1914 – March 31, 2012) was the eighth president of Cornell University.
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Dibromine pentoxide is the chemical compound composed of bromine and oxygen with the formula Br2O5.
Diphosphorus is an inorganic chemical with the chemical formula.
The dividing line between metals and nonmetals can be found, in varying configurations, on some representations of the periodic table of the elements (see mini-example, right).
Dorn (German for thorn) is a German/Austrian and Dutch/Flemish surname.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
Ferrocene is an organometallic compound with the formula Fe(C5H5)2.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
Franz-Joseph Müller, Freiherr von Reichenstein or Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein (1 July 1740 or 4 October 1742 – 12 October 1825 or 1826) was an Austrian mineralogist and mining engineer. Müller held several positions in the Habsburg Empire administration of mines and coinage in the Banat, Transylvania, and Tyrol. During his time in Transylvania he discovered tellurium in 1782. In his later career he became a member of the imperial council in Vienna and was knighted and elevated to the rank Freiherr in 1820.
Freiberg is a university and mining town in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Germanene is a material made up of a single layer of germanium atoms.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Helium is the most unreactive element, so it was commonly believed that helium compounds do not exist at all.
Hennig Brand (c. 1630c. 1692 or c. 1710) was a merchant and alchemist in Hamburg.
Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (28 September 1852 – 20 February 1907) was a French chemist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds.
Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The hydrogen fluoride laser is an infrared chemical laser.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iodine pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula I2O5.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Johan Gottlieb Gahn (19 August 1745 – 8 December 1818) was a Swedish chemist and metallurgist who discovered manganese in 1774.
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
Kenneth Ross MacKenzie (June 15, 1912 – July 4, 2002) together with Dale R. Corson and Emilio Segrè, synthesized the element astatine, in 1940.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Leopold Gmelin (2 August 1788 – 13 April 1853) was a German chemist.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide or simply mercury oxide, has a formula of HgO.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Molybdenite is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Nagybörzsöny (Deutsch Pilsen, Deutschpilsen) is a village in Pest county, Hungary.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neon compounds were long believed not to exist.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, KCB FRS (17 May 1836 – 16 August 1920), known simply as Norman Lockyer, was an English scientist and astronomer.
Oganesson is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Og and atomic number 118.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
Pál Kitaibel (3 February 1757 – 13 December 1817) was a Hungarian botanist and chemist.
A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Pierre Jules César Janssen (22 February 1824 – 23 December 1907), also known as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gaseous nature of the solar chromosphere, and with some justification the element helium.
A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays or larger.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Robert H. Whytlaw-Gray, FRS (1877 – 1958) was an English chemist, born in London.
The surname Rutherford, also Rutherfurd, is a Scottish and Northern English habitational surname deriving from a place in the Scottish borders region near Roxburgh.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Selenium trioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula SeO3.
Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon, with a hexagonal honeycomb structure similar to that of graphene.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the formula Sb2S3.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The sulfur lamp (also sulphur lamp) is a highly efficient full-spectrum electrodeless lighting system whose light is generated by sulfur plasma that has been excited by microwave radiation.
Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Tellurium dioxide (TeO2) is a solid oxide of tellurium.
Tennessine is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ts and atomic number 117.
Tetrahedrite is a copper antimony sulfosalt mineral with formula:.
Tetranitrogen is a neutrally charged polynitrogen allotrope of the chemical formula and consists of four nitrogen atoms.
Tetraxenonogold(II), gold tetraxenide(II) or AuXe is a cationic complex with a square planar configuration of atoms.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
A widget is a device placed in a container of beer to manage the characteristics of the beer's head.
Sir William Ramsay (2 October 1852 – 23 July 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 "in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air" (along with his collaborator, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for their discovery of argon).
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Xenon dioxide, or xenon(IV) oxide, is a compound of xenon and oxygen with formula XeO2, which was synthesized in 2011.
Xenon trioxide is an unstable compound of xenon in its +6 oxidation state.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.