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A Doll's House (Et dukkehjem; also translated as A Doll House) is a three-act play written by Norway's Henrik Ibsen.
A-ha (usually stylized as a-ha) is a Norwegian band formed in Oslo in 1982.
Aalborg, is Denmark's fourth largest city with an urban population of 136,000, including 22,000 in the twin city Nørresundby 600 meters across the Limfjord.
Aarhus (officially spelled Århus from 1948 until 31 December 2010) is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality.
Aarhus County or Århus County (Århus Amt) is a former county of Denmark (Danish: amt) on the Jutland peninsula.
Aasiaat or Ausiait, formerly Egedesminde, is a town in the Qeqertalik municipality in western Greenland, located in the heart of Aasiaat Archipelago at the southern end of Disko Bay.
ABBA are a Swedish pop group, formed in Stockholm in 1972 by Agnetha Fältskog, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson, and Anni-Frid Lyngstad.
Ace of Base was a Swedish pop group, originally consisting of Ulf Ekberg and three siblings: Jonas Berggren, Linn Berggren and Jenny Berggren.
The Community acquis or acquis communautaire, sometimes called the EU acquis and often shortened to acquis, is the accumulated legislation, legal acts, and court decisions which constitute the body of European Union law.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Akkala Sami is a Sami language that was spoken in the Sami villages of A´kkel (Russian Бабинский, Finnish Akkala), Ču´kksuâl (Russian Экостровский) and Sââ´rvesjäu´rr (Russian Гирвасозеро, Finnish Hirvasjärvi), in the inland parts of the Kola Peninsula in Russia.
Akranes is a port town and municipality on the west coast of Iceland, around north of the capital Reykjavík.
Aksel Vilhelmsson Johannesen (born 8 November 1972 in Klaksvík) is a Faroese lawyer and politician for the Social Democratic Party (Javnaðarflokkurin) and a former footballer.
Akureyri is a town in northern Iceland.
In prosody, alliterative verse is a form of verse that uses alliteration as the principal ornamental device to help indicate the underlying metrical structure, as opposed to other devices such as rhyme.
The Alþingi (parliament (Icelandic) and anglicised as Althingi or Althing) is the national parliament of Iceland.
Amon Amarth is a Swedish melodic death metal band from Tumba, formed in 1992.
Ann-Kristin Olsen (born 29 March 1945) is a Norwegian jurist and civil servant.
Anne Enger, formerly Anne Enger Lahnstein (born 9 December 1949), is a Norwegian politician who is now out of politics, as she is County Governor of Østfold.
Anneli Maria Hulthén (born 27 July 1960) is a Swedish politician who has been the Governor of Skåne since August 2016.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Antti Juhani Rinne (born 3 November 1962) is a Finnish politician.
Aqua is a Danish-Norwegian eurodance group, best known for their 1997 breakthrough single "Barbie Girl".
The Archipelago Sea (Finnish: Saaristomeri, Swedish: Skärgårdshavet) is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Sea of Åland, within Finnish territorial waters.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.
Arendal is a city in Aust-Agder county, Norway.
Argir (Arge) is a village in the Faroe Islands.
Arkhangelsk Oblast (Арха́нгельская о́бласть, Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren (born Ericsson;; 14 November 1907 – 28 January 2002) was a Swedish writer of fiction and screenplays.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Johan August Strindberg (22 January 184914 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter.
Avannaata is a new municipality of Greenland created January 1, 2018 from the bulk of the former Qaasuitsup municipality.
Älvdalen Municipality (Älvdalens kommun) is a municipality in Dalarna County in central Sweden.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
Ísafjörður (pronounced, meaning ice fjord or fjord of ice, ice in plural genitive) is a town in the northwest of Iceland.
Örebro is a city with 117,543 inhabitants, the seat of Örebro Municipality and the capital of Örebro County in Sweden.
Örebro County (Örebro län) is a county or län in central Sweden.
Östergötland County (Östergötlands län) is a county or län in southeastern Sweden.
Östersund (Staare) is an urban area (city) in Jämtland in the middle of Sweden.
Øystein Kåre Djupedal (born 5 May 1960) is a Norwegian politician.
Þórarinn Benedikt Þorláksson (February 14, 1867 – July 10, 1924Kunst Index Danmark:. URL last accessed August 13, 2007.) was one of Iceland's first contemporary painters, the first Icelander to exhibit paintings in Iceland, and recipient of the first public grant that country made to a painter.
Þingvellir, anglicised as Thingvellir,The spelling Pingvellir is incorrect, as the letter “p” should never be used to represent the letter “þ” (thorn), which is pronounced as "th".
The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated B.O.P. or BoP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year).
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic Shield (or Fennoscandian Shield) is a segment of the Earth's crust belonging to the East European Craton, representing a large part of Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and the northern Baltic Sea.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Baltoscandian Confederation or Baltoscandia is a geopolitical concept of a Baltic–Scandinavian union (consisting of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania).
The Barents Region is a name given, by advocates of establishing international cooperation after the fall of the Soviet Union, to the land along the coast of the Barents Sea, from Nordland in Norway to the Kola Peninsula in Russia and beyond all the way to the Ural Mountains and Novaya Zemlya, and south to the Gulf of Bothnia of the Baltic Sea and the great lakes Ladoga and Onega.
Bathory were an extreme metal band formed in Vällingby, Sweden, in 1983 named after Hungarian countess Elizabeth Báthory.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.
Berit Andnor (born 20 November 1954) is a Swedish Social Democratic politician.
Björk Guðmundsdóttir (born 21 November 1965) is an Icelandic singer, songwriter, actress, record producer, and DJ.
Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music.
Blekinge County (Blekinge län) is a county or län in the south of Sweden.
Bodø (Bådåddjo) is a town and a municipality in Nordland county, Norway.
A border checkpoint is a place, generally between two countries, where travelers or goods are inspected.
Borgarnes is a town located on a peninsula at the shore of Borgarfjörður in Iceland and is the largest town in the Borgarbyggð municipality with a population of about 2,000 residents.
Bornholm (Burgundaholmr) is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland.
The Bothnian Bay or Bay of Bothnia is the northernmost part of the Gulf of Bothnia, which is in turn the northern part of the Baltic Sea.
Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at, thus putting it north of and outside the Antarctic Treaty System.
Burzum was a Norwegian music project founded by Varg Vikernes in 1991.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Cap of the North (Nordkalotten in Norwegian and Swedish, or Pohjoiskalotti in Finnish) consists of the counties Finnmark, Nordland and Troms in Norway, Norrbotten County in Sweden, Lapland/Lappi Region in Finland and Murmansk Oblast in Russia.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Greater Reykjavík (Höfuðborgarsvæðið, meaning "The Capital Region") is a region in southwestern Iceland that comprises the national capital Reykjavík and six municipalities around it.
The Capital Region of Denmark (Region Hovedstaden) is the easternmost administrative region of Denmark, established on January 1, 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform, which abolished the traditional counties (Danish plural: amter, singular: amt) and set up five regions.
Carl August Nielsen (9 June 18653 October 1931) was a Danish musician, conductor and violinist, widely recognized as his country's most prominent composer.
Carl XVI Gustaf (full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the King of Sweden.
Cecilia Schelin Seidegård (born 18May 1954, in Stockholm as Irene Cecilia Schelin), is a Swedish biochemist and since 1January 2010, Governor of Gotland County.
Central Denmark Region (Region Midtjylland), commonly referred to as Central Jutland Region and sometimes simply Mid Jutland, is an administrative region of Denmark established on 1 January 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform.
Central Finland (Keski-Suomi; Mellersta Finland) is a region (maakunta / landskap) in Finland.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Central Ostrobothnia (Keski-Pohjanmaa; Mellersta Österbotten) is a region in Finland.
The Central Swedish lowland (Mellansvenska sänkan, Mellansvenska låglandet) is a large region of low relief and altitude in Sweden spanning from the Swedish West Coast at Bohuslän to Stockholm archipelago and Roslagen at the Baltic Sea.
The Centre Party of Finland (Suomen Keskusta, Kesk; Centern i Finland) is a centrist, liberal, and agrarian political party in Finland.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
Children of Bodom is a Finnish extreme metal band from Espoo.
Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children.
Chris Heister (born Gun Christina Heister 18 September 1950 in Östhammar) is a Swedish Moderate Party politician and Leader of the Opposition on Stockholm County Council.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark or National Church, sometimes called Church of Denmark (Den Danske Folkekirke or Folkekirken, literally: "the People's Church" or "the National Church"), is the established, state-supported church in Denmark.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland (Hin evangelíska lúterska kirkja), also called the National Church (Þjóðkirkjan), is the officially established Christian church in Iceland.
The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke in Bokmål and Den norske kyrkja in Nynorsk) is a Lutheran denomination of Protestant Christianity that serves as the people's church of Norway, as set forth in the Constitution of Norway.
The Church of Sweden (Svenska kyrkan) is an Evangelical Lutheran national church in Sweden.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
The climate of the Nordic countries is that of a region in Northern Europe that consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories, which include the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
This article is a comparison of the Nordic countries.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Københavns Amt is a former county (Danish, amt) on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark.
Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Dalarna County (Kopparbergs län) is a county or län in middle Sweden.
Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.
General elections were held in the Kingdom of Denmark on 18 June 2015 to elect the 179 members of the Folketing.
The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish Sign Language (Dansk tegnsprog, DTS) is the sign language used in Denmark.
Darkthrone is a heavy metal band from Kolbotn, Norway.
Díðrikur á Skarvanesi also called Díðrikur í Kárastovu (25 July 1802 - 8 October 1865), was born in Dímun and was the first known painter in the Faroe Islands that art historians know of.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
During most of World War II, Denmark was first a protectorate, then an occupied territory under Germany.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.
A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.
The dissolution of the union (Unionsoppløsningen; Unionsoppløysinga; Landsmål: Unionsoppløysingi; Unionsupplösningen) between the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden under the House of Bernadotte, was set in motion by a resolution of the Norwegian Parliament (the Storting) on 7 June 1905.
The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.
Drammen is a city in Buskerud, Norway.
A driver's license is an official document permitting a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles, such as a motorcycle, car, truck, or bus on a public road.
Eastern Region (Austurland, also known as Austfirðir: "Eastfjords") is a region in eastern Iceland.
Education in Finland is an education system with fully subsidised meals served to full-time students. The present education system in Finland consists of daycare programmes (for babies and toddlers) and a one-year "pre-school" (or kindergarten for six-year-olds); a nine-year compulsory basic comprehensive school (starting at age seven and ending at the age of sixteen); post-compulsory secondary general academic and vocational education; higher education (University and University of applied sciences); and adult (lifelong, continuing) education. The Finnish strategy for achieving equality and excellence in education has been based on constructing a publicly funded comprehensive school system with selecting, tracking, or streaming students during their common basic education. Part of the strategy has been to spread the school network so that pupils have a school near their homes whenever possible or, if this is not feasible, e.g. in rural areas, to provide free transportation to more widely dispersed schools. Inclusive special education within the classroom and instructional efforts to minimize low achievement are also typical of Nordic educational systems. After their nine-year basic education in a comprehensive school, students at the age of 16 may choose to continue their secondary education in either an academic track (lukio) or a vocational track (ammattikoulu), both of which usually take three years and give a qualification to continue to tertiary education. Tertiary education is divided into university and polytechnic (ammattikorkeakoulu, also known as "university of applied sciences") systems. Universities award licentiate- and doctoral-level degrees. Formerly, only university graduates could obtain higher (postgraduate) degrees, however, since the implementation of the Bologna process, all bachelor's degree holders can now qualify for further academic studies. There are 17 universities and 27 universities of applied sciences in the country. The Education Index, published with the UN's Human Development Index in 2008, based on data from 2006, lists Finland as 0.993, amongst the highest in the world, tied for first with Denmark, Australia and New Zealand. The Finnish Ministry of Education attributes its success to "the education system (uniform basic education for the whole age group), highly competent teachers, and the autonomy given to schools." Finland has consistently ranked high in the PISA study, which compares national educational systems internationally, although in the recent years Finland has been displaced from the very top. In the 2012 study, Finland ranked sixth in reading, twelfth in mathematics and fifth in science, while back in the 2003 study Finland was first in both science and reading and second in mathematics. Finland's tertiary Education has moreover been ranked first by the World Economic Forum. While celebrated for its overall success, Finland's gender gap on the 2012 PISA reading examinations was identified in a 2015 Brookings Institution report, however this can be put down to many factors such as the choice of the field of work in which each respective genders go into. The performance of 15-year-old boys on that reading examination was not significantly different from OECD averages and 0.66 standard deviations behind that of girls the same age. Governments of Jyrki Katainen, Alexander Stubb and Juha Sipilä cut education funds in Finland during 2011-2018 with €1.5 billion. University and college employees were cut more than 7500 persons.
Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 18434 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist.
Edvard Munch (12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter and printmaker whose intensely evocative treatment of psychological themes built upon some of the main tenets of late 19th-century Symbolism and greatly influenced German Expressionism in the early 20th century.
Egger Island (Eggers Ø; Itilleq, old spelling: Itivdleq) is Greenland's southernmost island.
Egilsstaðir is a town in east Iceland on the banks of the Lagarfljót river.
Einherjer is a Viking metal band from Haugesund, Norway, founded in 1993.
Emperor is a Norwegian black metal band formed in 1991, regarded as highly influential by critics and emerging black metal bands.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enslaved is a Norwegian extreme metal band formed by Ivar Bjørnson and Grutle Kjellson in Haugesund in June 1991.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
Erik Axel Karlfeldt (20 July 1864 – 8 April 1931) was a Swedish poet whose highly symbolist poetry masquerading as regionalism was popular and won him the Nobel Prize in Literature posthumously in 1931 after he had been nominated by Nathan Söderblom, member of the Swedish Academy.
Erling Lae (born 16 March 1947) is a Norwegian politician for the Conservative Party.
Erna Solberg (born 24 February 1961) is a Norwegian politician serving as Prime Minister of Norway since October 2013 and Leader of the Conservative Party since May 2004.
Esa-Pekka Salonen (born 30 June 1958) is a Finnish orchestral conductor and composer.
Esbjerg is a seaport town and seat of Esbjerg Municipality on the west coast of the Jutland peninsula in southwest Denmark.
The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Europe is a Swedish rock band formed in Upplands Väsby in 1979,http://www.dn.se/arkiv/teater/hardrock-tog-priset-enkopingsband-vann-rock-sm/ by vocalist Joey Tempest, guitarist John Norum, bass guitarist Peter Olsson, and drummer Tony Reno.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
The European migrant crisis, or the European refugee crisis, is a term given to a period beginning in 2015 when rising numbers of people arrived in the European Union (EU), travelling across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (Suomen evankelis-luterilainen kirkko; Evangelisk-lutherska kyrkan i Finland) is a national church of Finland.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The term export means sending of goods or services produced in one country to another country.
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors, complemented by internal debt owed to domestic lenders.
Eyvind Johnson (29 July 1900 – 25 August 1976) was a Swedish novelist and short story writer.
Falster is an island in south-eastern Denmark with an area of and 43,398 inhabitants as of 1 January 2010.
Falun is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden, with 37,291 inhabitants in 2010.
Faroese people (føroyingar) are an ethnic group and nation native to the Faroe Islands.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
The króna (plural: krónur; sign: kr) is the currency of the Faroe Islands.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Fennoscandia (Fennoskandia; Fennoskandien; Fennoskandia; Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finlandization (suomettuminen; finlandisering; Finnlandisierung) is the process by which one powerful country makes a smaller neighboring country abide by the former's foreign policy rules, while allowing it to keep its nominal independence and its own political system.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
The Finnish Declaration of Independence (Suomen itsenäisyysjulistus; Finlands självständighetsförklaring; Провозглашение независимости Финляндии) was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917.
The Finnish Kale (Kàlo; Kalé; Kaale, also Suomen romanit "Finnish Romani") are a group of the Romani people who live primarily in Finland and Sweden.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The Finnish Orthodox Church (Suomen ortodoksinen kirkko; Finska Ortodoxa Kyrkan), or Orthodox Church of Finland, is an autonomous Eastern Orthodox archdiocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
The 2015 Finnish parliamentary election was held on 19 April 2015, with advance voting from 8 to 14 April.
Presidential elections were held in Finland in January and February 2012.
Finnish Sign Language (suomalainen viittomakieli in Finnish) is the sign language most commonly used in Finland.
The Finnish War (Finska kriget, Финляндская война, Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809.
Finnmark (italic; Finnmark; Фи́ннмарк, Fínnmark) is a county ("fylke") in the extreme northeastern part of Norway.
The Finno-Samic languages (also Finno-Saamic, Finno-Lappic, Saamic–Fennic) are a hypothetical subgroup of the Uralic family, and are made up of 22 languages classified into either the Sami languages, which are spoken by the Sami people who inhabit the Sápmi region of northern Fennoscandia, or Finnic languages, which include the major languages Finnish and Estonian.
Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
Finström is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland.
A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colors.
The flag of Denmark (Dannebrog) is red with a white Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side.
The flag of Greenland was designed by Greenland native Thue Christiansen.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament (legislature) of the Kingdom of Denmark.
Foreningen Norden (Norwegian and Danish), Föreningen Norden (Swedish), Norræna félagið (Icelandic), Norrøna Felagið (Faroese), Peqatigiiffik Norden (Greenlandic) and Pohjola-Norden (Finnish), The Nordic Associations, sometimes referred to as The Norden Associations are non-governmental organisations in the Nordic countries promoting civil cooperation between the Nordic countries.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frank Josef Jenssen (born 11 August 1969) is a Norwegian politician for the Conservative Party.
Frans Eemil Sillanpää (16 September 1888 – 3 June 1964) was one of the most famous Finnish writers and in 1939 became the first Finnish writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize for literature "for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature".
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark.
Frederiksborg Amt (Frederiksborg County) is a former county (Danish: amt) in the north of the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Fuglafjørður (Fuglefjord) is a village on Eysturoy's east coast in the Faroe Islands.
Fyns Amt (English: Funen County) is a former county (Danish, amt) in central Denmark, comprising the islands of Funen, Langeland, Tåsinge, Ærø, and approximately 90 other islands, of which only 25 are inhabited.
Gävle is a city in Sweden, the seat of Gävle Municipality and the capital of Gävleborg County.
Gävleborg County (Gävleborgs län) is a county or län on the Baltic Sea coast of Sweden.
Göran Enander, born in Gällstad, Älvsborg County on 1 September 1955, is the County Governor (landshövding) of Uppsala County, Sweden, since 1 November 2016.
Gedser is a town at the southern tip of the Danish island of Falster in the Guldborgsund Municipality in Sjælland region.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
The geology of Iceland is unique and of particular interest to geologists.
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German occupation of Norway began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.
The Good Country Index measures how much each of the 163 countries on the list contribute to the planet, and to the human race, through their policies and behaviors.
Gothenburg (abbreviated Gbg; Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
Gotland County (Gotlands län) is a county or län of Sweden.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Landskapsregering is the government of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Greenlandic Inuit (kalaallit) are the most populous ethnic group in Greenland.
Greenlandic is an Eskimo–Aleut language spoken by about 56,000 Greenlandic Inuit in Greenland.
Guðni Thorlacius Jóhannesson (born 26 June 1968) is an Icelandic politician serving as the 6th and current President of Iceland since 2016.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Gunnar Peder Kjønnøy (born 1947) is a Norwegian economist and civil servant.
Gutnish, or Gotlandic (Gotländska, Gutniska or Gutamål) refers to the dialects of the Swedish language spoken on the islands of Gotland and Fårö.
Halland County (Hallands län) is a county (län) on the western coast of Sweden.
Halldór Kiljan Laxness (born Halldór Guðjónsson; 23 April 1902 – 8 February 1998) was an Icelandic writer.
Halmstad (Halmsted) is a port, university, industrial and recreational city at the mouth of Nissan in the province of Halland on the Swedish west coast.
Hamar is a town in Hamar Municipality in Hedmark county, Norway.
Hanoi Rocks was a Finnish rock band formed in 1979.
Hans Christian Andersen (2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author.
Harald V (born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway, having ascended the throne following the death of his father on 17 January 1991.
Harry Martinson (6May 190411February 1978) was a Swedish author, poet and former sailor.
Hämeenlinna (Tavastehus) is a city and municipality of about inhabitants in the heart of the historical province of Häme in the south of Finland.
Härjedalen (Herjedalen) is a historical province or landskap in the centre of Sweden.
Härnösand is a locality and the seat of Härnösand Municipality in Västernorrland County, Sweden with 17,556 inhabitants in 2010.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Helene Schjerfbeck (July 10, 1862 – January 23, 1946, pronounced in Standard Swedish and in Finland Swedish) was a Finnish painter.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Henrik Johan Ibsen (20 March 1828 – 23 May 1906) was a Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet.
Henrik Pontoppidan (24 July 1857 – 21 August 1943) was a Danish realist writer who shared with Karl Gjellerup the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1917 for "his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark." Pontoppidan's novels and short stories — informed with a desire for social progress but despairing, later in his life, of its realization — present an unusually comprehensive picture of his country and his epoch.
Hermansverk or Leikanger is a large village in the municipality of Leikanger in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.
The High Coast (Höga kusten) is a part of the coast of Sweden on the Gulf of Bothnia, in the municipalities of Kramfors, Härnösand and Örnsköldsvik, notable as an area for research on post-glacial rebound and eustacy, in which the land rises as the covering glaciers melt, a phenomenon first recognised and studied there.
Hillerød is a Danish town with a population of 32,689 (2018) located in the centre of North Zealand some 30 km to the north of Copenhagen, Denmark.
The history of Scandinavia is the history of the geographical region of Scandinavia and its peoples.
The Early Vasa era is a period that in Swedish and Finnish history lasted between 1523–1611.
Church records at Stockholm Cathedral record several Jewish families entering Sweden and being baptised into the Lutheran Church, a condition at that time imposed upon any Jew who desired to settle in Sweden.
Hordaland is a county in Norway, bordering Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud, Telemark, and Rogaland counties.
Hoyvík (Højvig) is the third largest town in the Faroe Islands.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Icelanders (Íslendingar) are a Germanic ethnic group and nation, native to Iceland, mostly speaking the Germanic language Icelandic.
The Icelandic Commonwealth, Icelandic Free State, or Republic of Iceland (þjóðveldið or, less commonly, goðaveldið) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Alþingi (Althing) in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king with the Old Covenant in 1262.
A referendum was held in Iceland between 20 and 23 May 1944.
The króna (plural krónur) (sign: kr; code: ISK) is the currency of Iceland.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Icelandic literature refers to literature written in Iceland or by Icelandic people.
Parliamentary elections were held in Iceland on 28 October 2017.
Presidential elections took place in Iceland on 25 June 2016.
Icelandic Sign Language (íslenskt táknmál) is the sign language of the deaf community in Iceland.
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.
Ilulissat, formerly Jakobshavn or Jacobshaven, is the municipal seat and largest town of the Avannaata municipality in western Greenland, located approximately north of the Arctic Circle.
Immortal is a black metal band from Bergen, Norway, founded in 1991 by frontman and guitarist Abbath Doom Occulta (Olve Eikemo) and guitarist Demonaz Doom Occulta (Harald Nævdal).
In Flames is a Swedish heavy metal band, which was formed by guitarist Jesper Strömblad in 1990 in Gothenburg, Sweden.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Ingrid Burman (born 1952) is a Swedish Left Party politician.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Inuit describes the various groups of indigenous peoples who live throughout Inuit Nunangat, that is the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut of Northern Canada, Nunavik in Quebec and Nunatsiavut in Labrador, as well as in Greenland.
Inuit religion is the shared spiritual beliefs and practices of Inuit, an indigenous people from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.
According to Finland's Population Information System, in 2010 the number of persons with no religious affiliation exceeded one million.
Irreligion is prevalent in Iceland, with approximately 10% of the population identifying as "convinced atheists" and a further 30% identifying as non-religious.
Norway is a comparatively secular nation which no longer has a state religion, though 72.7% of the 5.2 million population belong to the Church of Norway.
Sweden is one of the world's most secular and irreligious nations, partly because many Swedish people define themselves as irreligious but spiritual people.
Islam in Denmark being the country's largest minority religion plays a role in shaping its social and religious landscape.
Islam in Norway is a minority religion and the second largest religion in Norway after Christianity.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
ISO 3166-2:GL is the entry for Greenland in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
ISO 3166-2:IS is the entry for Iceland in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Jan Mayen is a Norwegian volcanic island situated in the Arctic Ocean.
Jämtland (Norwegian: Jemtland,; Latin: Iemptia) or Jamtland is a historical province (landskap) in the centre of Sweden in northern Europe.
Jämtland County (Jämtlands län) is a county or län in the middle of Sweden consisting of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, along with minor parts of Hälsingland and Ångermanland, plus two small uninhabited strips of Lapland and Dalarna.
Jönköping is a city in southern Sweden with 93,797 inhabitants (2015).
Jönköping County (Jönköpings län) is a county or län in southern Sweden.
Jöran Hägglund (born July 29, 1959) is a Swedish politician.
Jean Sibelius, born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius (8 December 186520 September 1957), was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods.
Joensuu is a city and municipality in North Karelia in the province of Eastern Finland.
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (commonly known as Johannes V. Jensen; 20 January 1873 – 25 November 1950) was a Danish author, often considered the first great Danish writer of the 20th century.
Jomala is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland.
Jonas Gahr Støre (born 25 August 1960) is a Norwegian politician and the leader of the Labour Party and the Leader of the Opposition.
Juha Petri Sipilä (born in Veteli, 25 April 1961) is the current Prime Minister of Finland.
Jyväskylä is a city and municipality in Finland and in the western part of the Finnish Lakeland.
Kaffeklubben Island or Coffee Club Island (Kaffeklubben Ø; Inuit Qeqertaat) is a small island lying off the northern tip of Greenland.
Kaija Anneli Saariaho (née Laakkonen, born 14 October 1952) is a Finnish composer based in Paris, France.
Kainuu (Kajanaland) is one of the 19 regions of Finland (maakunta / landskap).
Kaizers Orchestra was a Norwegian alternative rock band formed on 1 January 2000.
Kajaani (Kajana) is a town and municipality in Finland.
The Kalevala (Finnish Kalevala) is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology.
Kalmar is a city in the southeast of Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea.
Kalmar County (Kalmar län) is a county or län in southern Sweden.
The Kalmar Union or Union of Kalmaris (Danish, Norwegian and Kalmarunionen; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of Finland's populated areas), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas dependencies (then including Iceland, Greenland,Nominal possession, there was no European contact with the island during the Kalmar Union period the Faroe Islands and the Northern Isles).
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia.
Kari Nordheim-Larsen (born 23 June 1948) is a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party.
Karl Adolph Gjellerup (2 June 1857 – 13 October 1919) was a Danish poet and novelist who together with his compatriot Henrik Pontoppidan won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1917.
The Karlevi Runestone, designated as Öl 1 by Rundata, is commonly dated to the late 10th century and located near the Kalmarsund straight in Karlevi on the island of Öland, Sweden.
Karlskrona is a locality and the seat of Karlskrona Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 35,212 inhabitants in 2010.
Karlstad is a city, the seat of Karlstad Municipality, the capital of Värmland County, and the largest city in the province Värmland in Sweden.
Katrín Jakobsdóttir (pronounced; born 1 February 1976) is an Icelandic politician serving as the 28th and current Prime Minister of Iceland since 2017.
Katrin Sjögren (born 2 February 1966) is a Finnish politician from the Åland Islands.
Keflavík (pronounced, meaning Driftwood Bay) is a town in the Reykjanes region in southwest Iceland.
Kenneth Johansson (born 2 May 1956) is a Swedish Centre Party politician who is the current Governor of Värmland County, in office since 2012.
Kim Kielsen (born 30 November 1966) is a Greenlandic politician, and current leader of the Siumut party, and Prime Minister of Greenland.
The terms Norwegian Empire,A Short History of Norway https://archive.is/mU1jM Hereditary Kingdom of Norway (Old Norse: Norégveldi, Bokmål: Norgesveldet, Nynorsk: Noregsveldet) and Norwegian Realm refer to the Kingdom of Norway's peak of power at the 13th century after a long period of civil war before 1240.
Kirsti Kolle Grøndahl (born 1 September 1943) is a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party, former County Governor of Buskerud.
Klaksvík is the second largest town of the Faroe Islands.
Knut Hamsun (August 4, 1859 – February 19, 1952) was a major Norwegian writer, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920.
Kokkola (Karleby) is a town and municipality of Finland.
The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.
The Komi Republic (r; Komi Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
Kotka is a city and municipality of Finland.
Kouvola is a city and municipality in southeastern Finland.
Kristiansand, historically Christianssand and Christiansand, is a city and municipality in Norway.
Kristin Hille Valla (born 31 December 1944 in Årdal) is a Norwegian politician for the Centre Party.
Kronoberg County (Kronobergs län) is a county or län in southern Sweden.
Kujalleq (Greenlandic: The South) is a new municipality in the southern tip of Greenland, operational from 1 January 2009.
Kuopio is a city and municipality located in Northern Savonia, Finland.
The Kven language (kvääni or kväänin kieli; kainu or kainun kieli) is a Finnish dialect spoken in northern Norway by the Kven people.
Kymenlaakso (literally Kymi Valley) (Kymmenedalen) is a region in Finland.
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
The Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet, A/Ap), formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway.
Lahti (Lahtis) is a city and municipality in Finland.
Lake Päijänne is the second largest lake in Finland.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Lapland (Lappi; Sápmi; Lappland) is the largest and northernmost region of Finland.
Lappland, often Anglicized as Lapland (Latin: Lapponia, Northern Sami: Sápmi), is a province in northernmost Sweden.
Lappeenranta (Villmanstrand) is a city and municipality situated on the shore of the lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland, about from the Russian border.
Lars Christer Bäckström (born March 16, 1953 in Uddevalla) is a Swedish Left Party politician.
Lars Løkke Rasmussen (born 15 May 1964) is a Danish politician serving as the 25th and current Prime Minister of Denmark since 2015, previously holding the position from 2009 to 2011, and as Leader of the centre-right liberal Venstre party since 2009.
Lars Sponheim (born 23 May 1957) is a Norwegian politician.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Løgting (pronounced (Faroese: Føroya Løgting or just Løgtingið, Danish: Færøernes Lagting/Lagtinget, both meaning The løgting of the Faroes) is the unicameral parliament of the Faroe Islands, an autonomous country within the Danish Realm. The name literally means "Law Thing"—that is, a law assembly—and derives from Old Norse lǫgþing, which was a name given to ancient assemblies. A ting or þing has existed on the Faroe Islands for over a millennium and the Løgting was the highest authority on the islands in the Viking era. From 1274 to 1816 it functioned primarily as a judicial body, whereas the modern Løgting established in 1852 is a parliamentary assembly, which gained legislative power when home rule was introduced in 1948. The Manx Tynwald and the Icelandic Alþing are the two other modern parliaments with ties back to the old Norse assemblies of Europe. Today, the Faroe Islands compromise one constituency, and the number of MPs is fixed at 33. The first election with this new system was held on 19 January 2008, after the Election law was changed in late 2007, prior to which the membership of the Løgting varied from 27 to 32. The 7 constituencies had 27 seats and up to 5 supplementary seats. That Election Act came into force in 1978, and the eight general elections between 1978 and 2004 all resulted in 32 members. The Løgting is elected for a period of four years. Election of the Løgting can take place before the end of an election period if the Løgting agrees on dissolving itself. The Løgmaður (Prime Minister) issues a proclamation of the forthcoming election and appoints the day of election, which must take place, at the earliest, six weeks after the proclamation.
The Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin – grænt framboð, also known by its abbreviation Vinstri Græn, VG) is a eco-socialist political party in Iceland.
Lemland is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland.
Lena Sommestad (born 3 April 1957 in Börje, Uppsala Municipality) is a Swedish Social Democratic politician and economic historian.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Lillehammer is a town and municipality in Oppland county, Norway.
Linköping (p) is a city in southern Sweden, with 153,000 inhabitants as of 2016.
Liselott Hagberg (born 1958) is a Swedish Liberal People's Party politician who was a member of the Riksdag from 2002 until 2012.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries by order of appearance in the Fragile States Index (formerly the Failed States Index) of the United States think tank Fund for Peace.
This is a list of countries by future population using the medium variant (which is the recommended one), ranging from 2020 to 2100 in decades or ten-year periods, as estimated by the 2015 revision of the World Population Prospects database by the United Nations Population Division.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This is a list of countries by size of the labour force mostly based on The World Factbook.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
This is a list of countries by past and future population or estimations from the beginning of the second half of the 20th century (cca. 1950) until the second half of the 21st century.
This article includes a list of countries and dependent territories sorted by their real gross domestic product growth rate; the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
This list of Norwegian fjords shows many of the fjords in Norway.
The position of President of the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) was created in 1814.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
The position of Speaker (Formand) of the Folketing (the Danish Parliament) was created in 1850.
This is a list of Speakers of the Althing, the Icelandic parliament.
This is a list of urban areas in the Nordic countries by population.
Lodve Solholm (born 14 March 1949 in Vestnes) is the county governor of Møre og Romsdal (since 2009).
Lule Sami (julevsámegiella) is a Uralic, Sami language spoken in Lule Lappmark, i.e. around the Lule River, Sweden and in the northern parts of Nordland county in Norway, especially Tysfjord municipality, where Lule Sami is an official language.
Luleå (Westrobothnian: Lul, Leul, or Leol; Luleju) is a city on the coast of northern Sweden, and the capital of Norrbotten County, the northernmost county in Sweden.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Magnhild Meltveit Kleppa (born 12 November 1948 in Fister) is a Norwegian politician for the Centre Party.
Magnus Gustaf Adolf Lindberg (born 27 June 1958) is a Finnish composer and pianist.
Mainland Finland (Manner-Suomi, Fasta Finland) is a term used in statistics and in other contexts to describe the continental parts of Finland, an area which excludes the Åland Islands.
Malmö (Malmø) is the capital and largest city of the Swedish county of Scania.
In Finland, Swedish is a mandatory school subject for Finnish-speaking pupils in the last three years of the primary education (grades 7 to 9).
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Margrethe II (Margrethe 2.,; Margreta 2.; Margrethe II; full name: Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid; born 16 April 1940) is the Queen of Denmark; as well as the supreme authority of the Church of Denmark and Commander-in-Chief of the Danish Defence.
Ingrid Maria Larsson (born 20 January 1956 in Långasjö) is Swedish former politician of the Christian Democrats who has been Governor of Örebo County since May 2015, appointed by the cabinet of Stefan Löfven.
Marianne Borgen (born 2 June 1951) is a Norwegian politician for the Socialist Left Party, the current Mayor of Oslo.
Mariehamn (Maarianhamina) is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finnish sovereignty.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Mayhem is a Norwegian black metal band formed in 1984 in Oslo.
Meänkieli (literally "our language") is a group of distinct Finnish dialects spoken in the northernmost part of Sweden along the valley of the Torne River.
Meshuggah is a Swedish progressive metal band from Umeå, formed in 1987.
Mette Frederiksen (born 19 November 1977) is a Danish Social Democrat politician.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikkeli (S:t Michel official writing, short for Sankt Michel) is a town and municipality in Finland.
A military budget (or military expenditure), also known as a defense budget, is the amount of financial resources dedicated by a state to raising and maintaining an armed forces or other methods essential for defense purposes.
Minoo Akhtarzand (مینو اختر زند; born December 1, 1956 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian-Swedish civil servant who was Governor of Jönköping County from 2010 to 2016 and is currently Governor of Västmanland County since 2016.
The Moderate Party (Moderata samlingspartiet, M: "Moderate Unity Party", commonly referred to in Swedish as Moderaterna: "Moderates") is a liberal-conservative political party in Sweden.
Molde is a town and municipality in Romsdal in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway.
The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
Moonsorrow is a Finnish pagan metal band formed in Helsinki in 1995.
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
Murmansk Oblast (r) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia, located in the northwestern part of the country.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
Nelly Sachs (10 December 1891 – 12 May 1970) was a Swedish poet and playwright of Jewish German birth.
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг; Nenets: Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Arkhangelsk Oblast).
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
Nils Aage Jegstad (born 12 December 1950) is a Norwegian politician for the Conservative Party.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Nord-Trøndelag ("North Trøndelag") was a county constituting the northern part of the present-day Trøndelag county in Norway.
The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries.
The Nordic Council Literature Prize is awarded for a work of literature written in one of the languages of the Nordic countries, that meets "high literary and artistic standards".
The Nordic Cross flag is any of certain flags bearing the design of the Nordic or Scandinavian cross, a cross symbol in a rectangular field, with the center of the cross shifted towards the hoist.
Nordic identity in Estonia refers to opinions that Estonia is one of the Nordic countries or that it should/will be considered as such in the future.
The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden).
The Nordic Passport Union allows citizens of the Nordic countriesIceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finlandto travel and reside in another Nordic country (excluding Greenland and Svalbard) without any travel documentation (e.g. a passport or national identity card) or a residence permit.
Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8) is a regional co-operation format that includes Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden.
Nordland (Nordlánda) is a county in Norway in the Northern Norway region, bordering Troms in the north, Trøndelag in the south, Norrbotten County in Sweden to the east, Västerbotten County to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean (Norwegian Sea) to the west.
Norrbotten, known in English as North Bothnia, is a Swedish province (landskap) in northernmost Sweden.
Norrbotten County (Norrbottens län; Norrbottenin lääni) is the northernmost county or län of Sweden.
Norrland terrain (Norrlandsterräng) is a geomorphic unit covering the bulk of Norrland and the northwestern half Svealand.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
The North Jutland Region (Region Nordjylland), on one official website alterated to North Denmark Region, is an administrative region of Denmark established on 1 January 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform, which abolished the traditional counties ("amter") and set up five larger regions.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
North Jutland County (Nordjyllands Amt) is a former county (Danish: amt) in northern Denmark.
North Karelia (Pohjois-Karjala; Norra Karelen) is a region in eastern Finland.
Approximately 15,000 people in Denmark belong to an autochthonous ethnic German minority traditionally referred to as hjemmetyskere meaning "domestic Germans" in Danish, and as Nordschleswiger in German.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Northeastern Region (Norðurland eystra) is one of the traditional eight regions of Iceland, located in the north of the island.
The Northern Dimension is a joint policy between four equal partners - the European Union, Russia, Norway and Iceland - regarding the cross-border and external policies geographically covering North-West Russia, the Baltic Sea and the Arctic regions, including the Barents region.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Northern Ostrobothnia (Pohjois-Pohjanmaa; Norra Österbotten) is a region of Finland.
Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.
Northern Savonia (Pohjois-Savo; Norra Savolax) is a region in eastern Finland.
Northern Wars is a term used for a series of wars fought in northern and northeastern Europe in the 16th and 17th century.
Northwestern Region (Norðurland vestra) is one of the traditional eight regions of Iceland, located in the north of the island.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwegian, Finnish & Swedish Travellers (romanifolket, tatere, sigøynere; resande, zigenare, tattare; romanisæl, romanoar, rom(m)ani, tavringer/ar, tattare) are a group or branch of the Romani people who have been resident in Norway, Finland, and Sweden for some 500 years, as distinct from other Romanies who arrived starting in the late 19th century.
The krone (sign: kr; code: NOK), plural kroner, is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
A parliamentary election was held in Norway on 8 and 9 September 2013.
Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.
Nuuk (Godthåb) is the capital and largest city of Greenland and the municipality of Sermersooq.
Nyköping is a locality and the seat of Nyköping Municipality, Södermanland County, Sweden with 29,891 inhabitants as of 2010.
Odd Eriksen (born 11 March 1955) is a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party.
Odense is the third-largest city in Denmark.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Oeselians, Osilians, Esths, or Ests were a historical subdivision of Estonians inhabiting Saaremaa (Oesel or Osilia), an Estonian island in the Baltic Sea.
In 1999, the Minority Language Committee of Sweden formally declared five official minority languages: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meänkieli (Tornedal Finnish).
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Olaf Michael "Olemic" Thommessen (born 18 April 1956 in Lillehammer) is a Norwegian politician for the Conservative Party and the President of the Storting since 8 October 2013.
Opeth is a Swedish heavy metal band from Stockholm, formed in 1989.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Ostrobothnia (Österbotten; Pohjanmaa) is a region of Finland.
Oulu (Uleåborg) is a city and municipality of inhabitants in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland.
The paleic surface or palaeic surface (paleiske overflaten) is an erosion surface of gentle slopes that exist in South Norway.
The Lagting, or Lagtinget, is the parliament of Åland, an autonomous, demilitarised and unilingually Swedish-speaking territory of Finland.
The Parliament of Finland, is the unicameral supreme legislature of Finland, founded on 9 May 1906.
The Inatsisartut (Inatsisartut; thing of Greenland), also known as the Parliament of Greenland in English, is the unicameral parliament (legislative branch) of Greenland, the autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
Passport free zones are e.g..
Paula Risikko (born 4 June 1960, Ylihärmä) is a Finnish politician and the current Speaker of the Parliament.
Päijänne Tavastia (Päijät-Häme; Päijänne-Tavastland) is a region in Southern Finland south of the lake Päijänne.
Pär Fabian Lagerkvist (23 May 1891 – 11 July 1974) was a Swedish author who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1951.
Per Anders Otto Bill (born 13 February 1958) is a Swedish politician of the Moderate Party who has been Governor of Gävleborg County since 1 August 2015.
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.
Pia Merete Kjærsgaard (born 23 February 1947) is a Danish politician who has been Speaker of the Danish Parliament since 2015.
Pielinen is the fourth largest lake of Finland, with a drainage basin area of that is equally distributed between eastern Finland and Russia.
Pirkanmaa (Birkaland, also known as Tampere Region in government documents), is a region of Finland.
Pite Sami, also known as Arjeplog Sami, is a Sami language traditionally spoken in Sweden and Norway.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, which is different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
Pori (Björneborg; Arctopolis) is a city and municipality on the west coast of Finland.
The President of the Republic of Finland (Suomen tasavallan presidentti, Republiken Finlands president) is the head of state of Finland.
The President of Iceland (Forseti Íslands) is Iceland's elected head of state.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
The Prime Minister of Denmark (Danmarks statsminister; literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Prime Minister of Finland (Suomen pääministeri) is the head of the Finnish Government.
The Prime Minister of Norway (statsminister, literally the "minister of the state") is the head of government of Norway and the most powerful person in Norwegian politics.
The Prime Minister (statsminister, literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in Sweden.
Frederick Charles Louis Constantine, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse (1 May 1868 – 28 May 1940), Friedrich Karl Ludwig Konstantin Prinz und Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel in German, was the brother-in-law of the German Emperor Wilhelm II.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
Qaqortoq, formerly Julianehåb, is a town in the Kujalleq municipality in southern Greenland, located near Cape Thorvaldsen.
Qeqertalik Municipality is a new municipality of Greenland created in 2018 from four southern regions of the former Qaasuitsup Municipality.
Qeqqata (Greenlandic:, The Center) is a municipality in western Greenland, operational from 1 January 2009.
Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land) is a c. 2.7 million-square-kilometre (1 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway.
The Rök Runestone (Rökstenen; Ög 136) is one of the most famous runestones, featuring the longest known runic inscription in stone.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography).
The Region of Southern Denmark (Region Syddanmark; Region Süddänemark) is an administrative region of Denmark established on Monday 1 January 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform, which abolished the traditional counties ("amter") and set up five larger regions.
Region Zealand (Region Sjælland) is the southernmost administrative region of Denmark, established on January 1, 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform, which abolished the traditional counties ("amter") and set up five larger regions.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Republic of Karelia (rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪ(j)ə; Karjalan tazavalda; Karjalan tasavalta; Karjalan Tazovaldkund) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in the northwest of Russia.
Reykjanesbær is a municipality on the Southern Peninsula in Iceland.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Ribe Amt is a former county (Danish: amt) on the Jutland peninsula of southwest Denmark.
The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Ringkjøbing Amt (English, Ringkjøbing County) is a former county (Danish: amt) on the Jutland peninsula in western Denmark.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
Roskilde, located west of Copenhagen on the Danish island of Zealand, is the main city in Roskilde Municipality.
Roskilde Amt is a former county on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark.
Rovaniemi is a city and municipality of Finland.
Roxette are a Swedish pop rock duo, consisting of Marie Fredriksson (vocals and keyboards) and Per Gessle (vocals and guitar).
A runic inscription is an inscription made in one of the various runic alphabets.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.
The Sagas of Icelanders (Íslendingasögur), also known as family sagas, are prose narratives mostly based on historical events that mostly took place in Iceland in the 9th, 10th, and early 11th centuries, during the so-called Saga Age.
Saltvik is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland.
The Sami flag is the flag of Sápmi and the Sámis, the indigenous people of the Nordic countries and the Kola Peninsula of the Russian Federation.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Sarpsborg, historically Borg, is a city and municipality in Østfold county, Norway.
Satakunta (Satakunda, Finnia Septentrionalis or Satagundia) is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland, part of the former Western Finland Province.
Sauðárkrókur is a town in Skagafjörður in northern Iceland and a part of the municipality of Skagafjörður.
Sauli Väinämö Niinistö (born 24 August 1948) is a Finnish politician and the 12th President of Finland, in office since 2012.
The Save the Children Fund, commonly known as Save the Children, is an international non-governmental organisation that promotes children's rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries.
The Save the Children State of the World's Mothers report (SOWM report) is an annual report by the Save the Children USA, which compiles statistics on the health of mothers and children and uses them to produce rankings of more than 170 countries, showing where mothers fare best and where they face the greatest hardships.
Södermanland County (Södermanlands län) is a county or län on the southeast coast of Sweden.
Sør-Trøndelag was a county comprising the southern portion of the present-day Trøndelag county in Norway.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula.
The Scandinavian Peninsula (Skandinaviska halvön; Den skandinaviske halvøy; Skandinavian niemimaa; ?; Скандинавский полуостров, Skandinavsky poluostrov) is a peninsula of Eurasia located in Northern Europe, which generally comprises the mainland of Sweden, the mainland of Norway (with the exception of a small coastal area bordering Russia), the northwestern area of Finland, as well as a narrow area in the west of the Pechengsky District of Russia.
Scandinavians are people belonging to the various ethnic groups native to Scandinavia: Always included based on a genetic definition are.
Scandinavism, also called Scandinavianism, Pan-Scandinavianism,.
Scandoromani (romani, romani, romani rakripa alt. tavringens rakripa), also known as Tavringer Romani and the Tattare language, is a North Germanic based Para-Romani.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
The Second Swedish Crusade was a 13th century Swedish military expedition against the Tavastians, in present-day Finland, led by Birger jarl.
The Second Treaty of Brömsebro (or the Peace of Brömsebro) was signed on 13 August 1645, and ended the Torstenson War, a local conflict that began in 1643 (and was part of the larger Thirty Years' War) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway.
Seinäjoki is a city located in Southern Ostrobothnia, Finland.
Selfoss is a town in southern Iceland on the banks of the Ölfusá river.
Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf (20 November 1858 – 16 March 1940) was a Swedish author and teacher.
Sermersooq (Greenlandic:, Place of Much Ice) is a municipality in Greenland, formed on 1 January 2009 from five earlier, smaller municipalities.
Sigbjørn Johnsen (born 1 October 1950 in Lillehammer, Norway) is a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party and was Norwegian Minister of Finance in the periods 1990-1996 and 2009-2013.
Sigrid Undset (20 May 1882 – 10 June 1949) was a Norwegian novelist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1928.
A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.
Sisimiut, formerly known by its colonial name Holsteinsborg, is the capital and largest city of the Qeqqata municipality, and the second-largest city in Greenland.
The term skald, or skáld (Old Norse:, later;, meaning "poet"), is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age and Middle Ages.
Skåne County (Skåne län), sometimes referred to as Scania County in English, is the southernmost county or län, of Sweden, basically corresponding to the traditional province Skåne.
Skien is a city and municipality in Telemark county, Norway.
Skolt Sami (sääʹmǩiõll 'the Saami language' or nuõrttsääʹmǩiõll if a distinction needs to be made between it and the other Sami languages) is a Uralic, Sami language that is spoken by the Skolts, with approximately 300 speakers in Finland, mainly in Sevettijärvi and approximately 20–30 speakers of the Njuõʹttjäuʹrr (Notozero) dialect in an area surrounding Lake Lovozero in Russia.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP, Suomen sosialidemokraattinen puolue, Finlands socialdemokratiska parti), shortened to the Social Democrats, is a social-democratic political party in Finland.
The Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne), officially Social Democracy (Socialdemokratiet), is a social-democratic political party in Denmark.
Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.
Sorø is a town in Sorø municipality in Region Sjælland on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in east Denmark.
South Jutland County (Danish: Sønderjyllands Amt) is a former county (Danish: amt) on the south-central portion of the Jutland Peninsula in southern Denmark.
South Karelia (Etelä-Karjala; Södra Karelen) is a region of Finland.
The forested landscape of the South Swedish highland seen from Skuruhatt in Eksjö Municipality. The South Swedish highlands or South Swedish Uplands (Sydsvenska höglandet) is a hilly area covering large parts of Götaland in the southern parts of Sweden.
Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland) is the name for the region south of the Kongeå in Jutland, Denmark and north of the Eider (river) in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Southern Ostrobothnia (Etelä-Pohjanmaa; Södra Österbotten) is one of the 19 regions of Finland.
Southern Peninsula (Suðurnes) Reykjanesskagi (pronounced) or Reykjanes Peninsula is a region in southwest Iceland.
Southern Region (Suðurland, literally: Southern Land) is a region of Iceland.
Southern or South Sami (åarjelsaemien gïele) is the southwestern-most of the Sami languages.
Southern Savonia (Etelä-Savo; Södra Savolax) is a region in the south-east of Finland.
Southwest Finland, also known as Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi, Egentliga Finland) is a region in the south-west of Finland.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The speaker of the Parliament of Finland (Finnish eduskunnan puhemies, Swedish riksdagens talman), along with two deputy speakers, is elected by Parliament during the first plenary session each year.
The speaker of the Riksdag (Riksdagens talman) is the presiding officer of the national unicameral legislature in Sweden.
Statistics Denmark (Danmarks Statistik) is a Danish governmental organization under the Ministry for Economic and Interior Affairs.
Statistics Iceland (Hagstofa Íslands) is the main official institute providing statistics on the nation of Iceland.
Statistics Norway (Statistisk sentralbyrå, abbreviated to SSB) is the Norwegian statistics bureau.
Statistics Sweden (Statistiska centralbyrån, SCB) is the Swedish government agency responsible for producing official statistics regarding Sweden.
Stavanger is a city and municipality in Norway.
Kjell Stefan Löfven (born 21 July 1957) is a Swedish politician serving as the 33rd and current Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014 and Leader of the Social Democrats since 2012.
Steingrímur Jóhann Sigfússon (born 4 August 1955) is an Icelandic politician.
Steinkjer is the administrative centre of the municipality of Steinkjer in Trøndelag county, Norway.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Stockholm County (Stockholms län) is a county or län (in Swedish) on the Baltic Sea coast of Sweden.
Storstrøms Amt (English Storstrøm County) is a former county (Danish: amt) on the islands of Zealand (Sjælland), Møn, Falster, Lolland and some minor islands in southeast Denmark.
The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.
The subdivisions of the Nordic countries are similar given the countries' shared culture and history.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
Sven-Erik Österberg (born 10 March 1955 in Munktorp) is a Swedish official and former social-democratic politician.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Sweden maintained its policy of neutrality during World War II.
Sweden Finns (ruotsinsuomalaiset, sverigefinnar) are a Finnish-speaking national minority in Sweden consisting of Finns historically residing in Sweden as well as Finnish immigrants to Sweden.
Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
General elections were held in Sweden on 14 September 2014 to elect the Riksdag, all 21 county councils, and 290 municipal assemblies.
The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish Sign Language (Svenskt teckenspråk or STS) is the sign language used in Sweden.
The Swedish-speaking population of Finland (whose members are often called Swedish-speaking Finns, Finland-Swedes, Finland Swedes, Finnish Swedes, or Swedes of Finland—see below; finlandssvenskar; suomenruotsalaiset; the term Swedo-Finnish—finlandssvensk; suomenruotsalainen—can be used as an attribute) is a linguistic minority in Finland.
The Swedish–Norwegian War, also known as the Campaign against Norway (Fälttåget mot Norge), War with Sweden 1814 (Krigen med Sverige 1814), or the Norwegian War of Independence, was a war fought between Sweden and Norway in the summer of 1814.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Tampere (Swedish: Tammerfors) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland.
Tavastia Proper (Kanta-Häme; Egentliga Tavastland) is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland.
Tórshavn (lit. 'Thor's harbour'; Thorshavn) is the capital and largest town of the Faroe Islands.
Tønsberg is a city and municipality in Vestfold county, southern Norway, located around south-southwest of Oslo on the western coast of the Oslofjord near its mouth onto the Skagerrak.
The Cardigans are a Swedish rock band formed in Jönköping, Sweden, in 1992, by guitarist Peter Svensson, bassist Magnus Sveningsson, drummer Bengt Lagerberg, keyboardist Lars-Olof Johansson and lead singer Nina Persson, with the line-up remaining unchanged to this day.
The Rasmus is a Finnish rock band that formed in 1994 in Helsinki while the band members were still in upper comprehensive school.
The Scream (Skrik) is the popular name given to each of four versions of a composition, created as both paintings and pastels, by Norwegian Expressionist artist Edvard Munch between 1893 and 1910.
The Spotnicks is an instrumental rock group from Sweden, who were formed in 1961.
The term "the unity of the Realm" (Rigsfællesskabet, RigsenhedenSee "Nationale symboler i Det Danske Rige".) refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Wild Duck (original Norwegian title: Vildanden) is an 1884 play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Third Swedish Crusade to Finland was a Swedish military expedition against the pagan Karelians in 1293.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
Tomas Gösta Tranströmer (15 April 1931 – 26 March 2015) was a Swedish poet, psychologist and translator.
Tove Marika Jansson (Finland; 9 August 1914 – 27 June 2001) was a Swedish-speaking Finnish author, novelist, painter, illustrator and comic strip author.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
Trøndelag is a county in the central part of Norway.
Troms (italic; Tromssa) is a county in Northern Norway.
Tromsø (Romsa; Tromssa; Tromssa) is a city and municipality in Troms county, Norway.
Trondheim (historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem) is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.
A tunnel valley is a large, long, U-shaped valley originally cut under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets such as that now covering Antarctica and formerly covering portions of all continents during past glacial ages.
Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.
Ulf Hjalmar Kristersson (born 29 December 1963) is a Swedish Moderate Party politician who has served as Leader of the Opposition and Leader of the Moderate Party since October 2017.
Ume Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and (formerly) in Norway.
Umeå (South Westrobothnian; Uumaja, Ume Sami: Ubmeje, Upmeje, Ubmi) is a city in north east Sweden.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
Sweden and Norway or Sweden–Norway (Svensk-norska unionen; Den svensk-norske union), officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, or as the United Kingdoms, was a personal union of the separate kingdoms of Sweden and Norway under a common monarch and common foreign policy that lasted from 1814 until its amicable and peaceful dissolution in 1905.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG; the Vienna Convention) is a treaty that is a uniform international sales law.
The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations to supply the statistical needs and coordinating activities of the global statistical system.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.
Uppsala County (Uppsala län) is a county or län on the eastern coast of Sweden.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Urban Christian Ahlin (born 13 November 1964) is a Swedish Social Democratic Party politician who has served as Speaker of the Riksdag since September 2014.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Uusimaa (Nyland,;; both lit. “new land”) is a region of Finland.
Vaasa (Vasa) is a city on the west coast of Finland.
Vadsø (Čáhcesuolu; Vesisaari) is a town in Vadsø Municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.
Värmland County (Värmlands län) is a county or län in west central Sweden.
Västerås is a city in central Sweden, located on the shore of Lake Mälaren in the province Västmanland, some west of Stockholm.
Västerbotten, known in English as West Bothnia or Westrobothnia, is a province (landskap) in the north of Sweden, bordering Ångermanland, Lapland, North Bothnia, and the Gulf of Bothnia.
Västerbotten County (Västerbottens län) is a county or län in the north of Sweden.
Västernorrland County (Västernorrlands län) is a county (län) in the north of Sweden.
Västmanland County (Västmanlands län) is a county or län in central Sweden.
Västra Götaland County (Västra Götalands län) is a county or län on the western coast of Sweden.
Växjö is a city and the seat of Växjö Municipality, Kronoberg County, Sweden.
Vejle is a town in Denmark, in the southeast of the Jutland Peninsula at the head of Vejle Fjord, where the Vejle River and Grejs River and their valleys converge.
Vejle Amt (English Vejle County) is a former county (Danish: amt) on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula in southern Denmark.
Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam (6 July 1859 – 20 May 1940) was a Swedish poet, novelist and laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1916.
Viborg Amt is a former county (Danish: amt) in the north-central part of the Jutland peninsula in western Denmark.
Viborg, a city in central Jutland, Denmark, is the capital of both Viborg municipality and Region Midtjylland.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
Viking metal is a style of heavy metal music characterized by a lyrical and thematic focus on Norse mythology, Norse paganism, and the Viking Age.
Vilhelm Hammershøi, often written in English Vilhelm Hammershoi (15 May 186413 February 1916), was a Danish painter.
Visby is a locality and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County, on the island of Gotland, Sweden with 24,330 inhabitants,.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
West Zealand County (Vestsjællands Amt) is a former county (Danish: amt) in the west-central part of the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark.
Western Region (Vesturland) is one of the traditional eight regions of Iceland, located on the western coast of the island.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The Westfjords or West Fjords (Vestfirðir, ISO 3166-2:IS: IS-4) is a large peninsula in northwestern Iceland and an administrative district.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World Development Indicators (WDI) is the primary World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized international sources.
The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network which contains rankings of national happiness and analysis of the data from various perspectives.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
The Icelandic financial crisis was a major economic and political event in Iceland that involved the default of all three of the country's major privately owned commercial banks in late 2008, following their difficulties in refinancing their short-term debt and a run on deposits in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
Demographics of Scandinavia, Greater Scandinavia, Largest cities of the Nordic countries, Nordic Countries, Nordic Country, Nordic Europe, Nordic Region, Nordic States, Nordic area, Nordic areas, Nordic country, Nordic identity, Nordic population, Nordic region, Nordic states, Nordic territories, Norselands, Norðurlöndin, Pohjoismaat, Scandic countries, Scandinavias largest cities, The Nordics.