226 relations: Absorption (pharmacology), Acetic acid, Acetylene, Acetylide, Acne, Active metabolite, Agonist, Aldosterone, Alkyl, Alkynylation, Allopregnanolone, Allyl group, Allylestrenol, Altrenogest, Amenorrhea, Anabolic steroid, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Antiglucocorticoid, Antigonadotropin, Antimineralocorticoid, Antiprogestogen, Aromatase, Aromatase inhibitor, Bioassay, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Biological target, Biotransformation, Bleeding, Bloating, Blood pressure, Bolandione, Bosentan, Breakthrough bleeding, Breast, Breast cancer, Breast enlargement, Breast pain, Carbamazepine, Carl Djerassi, Chemical structure, Chlorine, Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, Chromium trioxide, Coagulation, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Cyanomethyl, CYP17A1, CYP2C9, ..., CYP3A4, Danazol, Decidualization, Derivative (chemistry), Desogestrel, Dienogest, Diuretic, Double bond, Dutasteride, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Dysmenorrhea, Elimination (pharmacology), Emotional lability, Endometriosis, Endometrium, Enzyme inducer, Enzyme inhibitor, Estradiol (medication), Estrane, Estrogen (medication), Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen receptor beta, Estrone, Ethinylestradiol, Ethisterone, Ethynyl, Etonogestrel, Etynodiol, Etynodiol diacetate, Feces, Finasteride, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Functional group, GABAA receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Generic drug, George Rosenkranz, Gestodene, Gestrinone, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Glucuronidation, Gonane, Gynaecology, Gynecomastia, Headache, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Hepatic veno-occlusive disease, High-density lipoprotein, Hirsutism, Hoarse voice, Hormone, Hot flash, Human serum albumin, Hydrochloride, Hydrocortisone, Hydroxylation, Hydroxyprogesterone caproate, Hypericum perforatum, Hypogonadism, IC50, Impaired glucose tolerance, Intellectual disability, Intramuscular injection, Irregular menstruation, Isomer, Ketone, Labioscrotal swelling, Leuprorelin, Levonorgestrel, Ligand (biochemistry), Liver, Luis E. Miramontes, Luteinizing hormone, Lynestrenol, Male contraceptive, Medicine, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Megestrol acetate, Menopause, Menorrhagia, Menstrual disorder, Menstruation, Mestranol, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methyl group, Metribolone, Mexico City, Micronization, Mineralocorticoid, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Miscarriage, Molar concentration, Mood (psychology), Nandrolone, Nausea, Norelgestromin, Norethandrolone, Norethisterone acetate, Norethisterone enanthate, Noretynodrel, Norgesterone, Norgestimate, Norgestrel, Norgestrienone, Normethandrone, Norvinisterone, Oppenauer oxidation, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Organic compound, Ovulation, Oxendolone, Parent structure, Pharmacodynamics, Pituitary gland, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Potassium tert-butoxide, Potency (pharmacology), Pregnancy, Premenstrual syndrome, Prodrug, Progesterone, Progesterone (medication), Progesterone receptor, Progestin, Progestogen, Progestogen-only pill, Promegestone, Prostate, Quingestanol acetate, Rifampicin, Sebaceous gland, Secretion, Sex hormone receptor, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex organ, Side effect, Sperm, Steric effects, Steroid, Steroid 11β-hydroxylase, Substrate (chemistry), Sulfation, Symptom, Syntex, Testicle, Testosterone, Testosterone (medication), Thermogenesis, Tibolone, Tolerability, Triethyl orthoformate, Urine, Uterus, Vagina, Vasodilation, Venous thrombosis, Vinyl group, Virilization, Voice change, Vomiting, Water retention (medicine), Weight gain, 17α-Methylprogesterone, 19-Norprogesterone, 21-Hydroxylase, 3α-Androstanediol, 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5α-Dihydronorethisterone, 5α-Reductase, 5α-Reductase inhibitor, 5β-Reductase. Expand index (176 more) » « Shrink index
In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
Acetylide refers to chemical compounds with the chemical formulas MC≡CH and MC≡CM, where M is a metal.
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
Alkynylation is an addition reaction in organic synthesis where a terminal alkyne adds to a carbonyl group to form an α-alkynyl alcohol.
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.
An allyl group is a substituent with the structural formula H2C.
Allylestrenol, sold under the brand names Gestanin and Turinal among others, is a progestin medication which is used to treat recurrent and threatened miscarriage and to prevent premature labor in pregnant women.
Altrenogest, sold under the brand names Regumate and Matrix, is a progestin of the 19-nortestosterone group which is widely used in veterinary medicine to suppress or synchronize estrus in horses and pigs.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
An antiglucocorticoid is a drug which reduces glucocorticoid activity in the body.
An antigonadotropin is a drug which suppresses the activity and/or downstream effects of one or both of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
Antiprogestogens, or antiprogestins, also known as progesterone antagonists or progesterone blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent progestogens like progesterone from mediating their biological effects in the body.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.
A bioassay is an analytical method to determine concentration or potency of a substance by its effect on living cells or tissues.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Abdominal bloating is a symptom that can appear at any age, generally associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but can also appear alone.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Bolandione, also known as 19-norandrostenedione, as well as 19-norandrost-4-en-3,17-dione or estr-4-ene-3,17-dione, is a precursor of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist used in the treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH).
Breakthrough bleeding (BTB) is any of various forms of vaginal bleeding,, in turn citing.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breast enlargement is the enlargement of the breasts.
Breast pain is a medical symptom that is most often associated with a developing disease or condition of the breast.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
Carl Djerassi (October 29, 1923 – January 30, 2015) was an Austrian-born Bulgarian-American chemist, novelist, playwright and co-founder of with Diane Wood Middlebrook.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage.
Chromium trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO3.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
In organic chemistry, the term cyanomethyl (cyanide (N≡C) + methyl (CH3)) designates.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Danazol, sold under the brand name Danocrine among others, is a medication which is used in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, hereditary angioedema, and other conditions.
Decidualization is a process that results in significant changes to cells of the endometrium in preparation for, and during, pregnancy.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Desogestrel, sold under the brand names Cerazette and Mircette among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women.
Dienogest, sold under the brand names Natazia and Qlaira among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in the treatment of endometriosis.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Dutasteride, sold under the brand name Avodart among others, is a medication used primarily to treat enlarged prostate in men.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable structural or organic disease.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
In pharmacology the elimination or excretion of a drug is understood to be any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated (that is, cleared and excreted) from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite.
In medicine and psychology, emotional lability is a sign or symptom typified by exaggerated changes in mood or affect in quick succession.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
An enzyme inducer is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of an enzyme either by binding to the enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Ethisterone, also known as ethinyltestosterone, pregneninolone, and anhydrohydroxyprogesterone and formerly sold under the brand names Proluton C and Pranone among others, is a progestin medication which was used in the treatment of gynecological disorders but is now no longer available.
In organic chemistry, the term ethynyl designates.
Etonogestrel is a progestin medication which is used as a means of birth control for women.
Etynodiol, or ethynodiol, is a steroidal progestin of the 19-nortestosterone group which was never marketed.
Etynodiol diacetate, or ethynodiol diacetate, sold under the brand names Demulen and Femulen among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Finasteride, sold under the brand names Proscar and Propecia among others, is a medication used mainly to treat an enlarged prostate or scalp hair loss in men.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
George Rosenkranz (born György Rosenkranz, August 20, 1916) is a pioneering Mexican scientist in the field of steroid chemistry, who used native Mexican plant sources as raw materials.
Gestodene, sold under the brand names Femodene and Minulet among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women.
Gestrinone, sold under the brand names Dimetrose and Nemestran among others, is a medication which is used in the treatment of endometriosis.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
Gonane (C17), also known as perhydrocyclopentaphenanthrene, is a tetracyclic hydrocarbon ring structure and the fundamental steroid nucleus.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease or veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI) is a condition in which some of the small veins in the liver are obstructed.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
A hoarse voice, also known as hoarseness or dysphonia, is when the voice involuntarily sounds breathy, raspy, or strained, or is softer in volume or lower in pitch.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (OHPC), sold under the brand names Proluton and Makena among others, is a progestin medication which is used to prevent preterm birth in pregnant women with a history of the condition and to treat gynecological disorders.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Irregular menstruation is a menstrual disorder whose manifestations include irregular cycle lengths as well as metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding between expected periods).
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The labioscrotal swellings (genital swellings or labioscrotal folds) are paired structures in the human embryo that represent the final stage of development of the caudal end of the external genitals before sexual differentiation.
Leuprorelin, also known as leuprolide, is a manufactured version of a hormone used to treat prostate cancer, breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and early puberty.
Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Luis Ernesto Miramontes Cárdenas (March 16, 1925 – September 13, 2004) was a Mexican chemist known as the co-inventor of the progestin norethisterone used in one of the first three oral contraceptives.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Lynestrenol, sold under the brand names Exluton and Ministat among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
Megestrol acetate (MGA), sold under the brand name Megace among others, is a progestin medication which is used mainly as an appetite stimulant to treat wasting syndromes such as cachexia.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menorrhagia is a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow and falls under the larger category of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).
A menstrual disorder is an abnormal condition in a woman's menstrual cycle.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Mestranol, sold under the brand names Enovid, Norinyl, and Ortho-Novum among others, is an estrogen medication which has been used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and the treatment of menstrual disorders.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Metribolone (developmental code name R1881), also known as methyltrienolone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) derivative which was never marketed for medical use but has been widely used in scientific research as a hot ligand in androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding assays (LBAs) and as a photoaffinity label for the AR.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Micronization is the process of reducing the average diameter of a solid material's particles.
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate (brand name Deca-Durabolin) and nandrolone phenylpropionate (brand name Durabolin).
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Norelgestromin, or norelgestromine, sold under the brand names Evra and Ortho Evra among others, is a progestin medication which is used as a method of birth control for women.
Norethandrolone, sold under the brand names Nilevar and Pronabol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which has been used to promote muscle growth and to treat severe burns, physical trauma, and aplastic anemia but has mostly been discontinued.
Norethisterone acetate (NETA), also known as norethindrone acetate and sold under the brand name Primolut-Nor among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Norethisterone enanthate (NETE), also known as norethindrone enanthate, is a form of progestogen-only injectable birth control.
Noretynodrel, or norethynodrel, sold under the brand name Enovid among others, is a progestin medication which was previously used in birth control pills and in the treatment of gynecological disorders but is now no longer marketed. It was available both alone and in combination with an estrogen. The medication is taken by mouth. Noretynodrel is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It is a relatively weak progestogen. The medication has weak estrogenic activity, no or only very weak androgenic activity, and no other important hormonal activity. It is a prodrug of various active metabolites in the body, such as norethisterone among others. Noretynodrel was introduced for medical use in 1957. It was specifically approved at this time in combination with mestranol for the treatment of gynecological and menstrual disorders. Subsequently, in 1960, this formulation was approved for use as a birth control pill. It was the first birth control pill to be introduced, and was followed by birth control pills containing norethisterone and other progestins shortly thereafter. Due to its nature as a relatively weak progestogen, noretynodrel is no longer used in medicine. As such, it is no longer marketed.
Norgesterone, also known as norvinodrel or vinylestrenolone and sold under the brand name Vestalin, is a progestin medication which was formerly used in birth control pills for women but is now no longer marketed.
Norgestimate, sold under the brand names Ortho Tri-Cyclen and Previfem among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women and in menopausal hormone therapy.
Norgestrel, sold under the brand name Ovral among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in menopausal hormone therapy.
Norgestrienone, sold under the brand names Ogyline, Planor, and Miniplanor, is a progestin medication which has been used in birth control pills, sometimes in combination with ethinylestradiol.
Normethandrone, also known as methylestrenolone or methylnortestosterone and sold under the brand name Metalutin among others, is a progestin and androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in combination with an estrogen in the treatment of amenorrhea and menopausal symptoms in women.
Norvinisterone, sold under the brand names Neoprogestin and Nor-Progestelea, is a progestin and androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which was used in Europe but is now no longer marketed.
Oppenauer oxidation, named after Rupert Viktor Oppenauer, is a gentle method for selectively oxidizing secondary alcohols to ketones.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Oxendolone, sold under the brand names Prostetin and Roxenone, is an antiandrogen and progestin medication which is used in Japan in the treatment of enlarged prostate.
In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
Potassium tert-butoxide is the chemical compound with the formula K+(CH3)3CO−.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the one to two weeks before a woman's period.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Progestogen-only pills or progestin-only pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that contain only synthetic progestogens (progestins) and do not contain estrogen.
Promegestone, sold under the brand name Surgestone, is a progestin medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Quingestanol acetate, sold under the brand names Demovis and Pilomin among others, is a progestin which was used in birth control pills but is no longer marketed.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
The sex hormone receptors, or sex steroid receptors, are a group of steroid hormone receptors that interact with the sex hormones, the androgens, estrogens, and progestogens, as well as with sex-hormonal agents such as anabolic steroids, progestins, and antiestrogens.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Steroid 11β-hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Laboratorios Syntex SA was a pharmaceutical company formed in Mexico City in 1944 by Russell Marker to manufacture therapeutic steroids from the Mexican yams called cabeza de negro (Dioscorea mexicana) and Barbasco (Dioscorea composita).
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Testosterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms.
Tibolone, sold under the brand names Livial and Tibofem among others, is a medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and endometriosis.
Tolerability refers to the degree to which overt adverse effects of a drug can be tolerated by a patient.
Triethyl orthoformate is an organic compound with the formula HC(OC2H5)3.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
In chemistry, vinyl or ethenyl is the functional group with the formula −CH.
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
A voice change or voice mutation, sometimes referred to as a voice break, commonly refers to the deepening of the voice of people as they reach puberty.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.
Weight gain is an increase in body weight.
17α-Methylprogesterone (17α-MP), or 17α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a steroidal progestin related to progesterone that was synthesized and characterized in 1949 but was never marketed.
19-Norprogesterone, also known as 19-norpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a steroidal progestin and close analogue of the sex hormone progesterone, lacking only the C19 methyl group of that molecule.
Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-Hydroxylase, P450 21A2, and, less commonly 21β-Hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.
3α-Androstanediol (often abbreviated as 3α-diol), also known as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, is an endogenous inhibitory androstane neurosteroid and weak androgen, and a major metabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), also known as aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1C4 gene.
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of progesterone from pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone from 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and androstenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal gland.
5α-Dihydronorethisterone (5α-DHNET, dihydronorethisterone, 17α-ethynyl-5α-dihydro-19-nortestosterone, or 17α-ethynyl-5α-estran-17β-ol-3-one) is a major active metabolite of norethisterone (norethindrone).
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
5α-Reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) blockers, are a class of medications with antiandrogenic effects which are used primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate and scalp hair loss.
5β-Reductase, or Δ4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase (3-oxo-Δ4-steroid 5β-reductase, androstenedione 5β-reductase, cholestenone 5β-reductase, cortisone 5β-reductase, cortisone Δ4-5β-reductase, steroid 5β-reductase, testosterone 5β-reductase, Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5β-reductase, Δ4-5β-reductase, Δ4-hydrogenase, 4,5β-dihydrocortisone:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase, 3-oxo-5β-steroid:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name 5β-cholestan-3-one:NADP+ 4,5-oxidoreductase.
3-Ketoethynodiol, 3-Ketoetynodiol, 3-Ketolynestrenol, 3-ketoethynodiol, 3-ketoetynodiol, 3-ketolynestrenol, ATC code G03AC01, ATC code G03DC02, ATCvet code QG03AC01, ATCvet code QG03DC02, Anovulatorio, Anovule, Binovum, Ciclovulan, Conceplan, Conludaf, Conludag, Errin, Estrinor, Ethinylnortestosterone, Ethynylmortestosterone, Ethynylnortestosterone, Genora, Gestest, Incassia, Jencycla, Menzol, Microneth, Micronett, Micronor, Micronovum, Mini-Pe, Mini-Pill, Minovlar, Necon, Nelova, Nodiol, Nor-Q.D., Nor-QD, Nor-Qd, NorQ.D., NorQD, Noraethisteronum, Noralutin, Norcolut, Noresthisterone, Norethadrone, Norethindrone, Norethisteron, Norethyndron, Norethynodron, Norethynodrone, Noretisterone, Norfor, Norgestin, Noriday 28, Norimin, Norlutate, Norluten, Norlutin, Norluton, Normapause, Norpregneninlone, Norpregneninolone, Norpregneninotone, Orlest, Ortho 7 7 7, Perovex, Premolut N, Primolut, Primolut N, Primolut-N, Primolut-nor, Proluteasi, Synphase, Synphasic 28, Triella, Trinovum, Trinovum 21, Utovlan, Utovlar.