107 relations: Absolute value, Absolutely convex set, Absorbing set, Abuse of notation, Academic Press, Algebra over a field, Andrey Kolmogorov, Asymmetric norm, Ball (mathematics), Banach space, Bounded set, Cartesian coordinate system, Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, Circle, Coding theory, Complex coordinate space, Complex number, Complex plane, Composition algebra, Conjugate transpose, Continuous function, Convex function, Convex set, Cross-polytope, David Donoho, Dimension (vector space), Discrete space, Dot product, Euclidean space, F-space, Field (mathematics), Function (mathematics), Functional analysis, Generalized mean, Gowers norm, Grid plan, Haar measure, Hadamard product (matrices), Hamming distance, Harmonic analysis, Hausdorff space, Hölder's inequality, Homogeneous function, Hypercube, Infimum and supremum, Infix notation, Information theory, Inner product space, Involution (mathematics), Isotropic quadratic form, ..., Lateral clicks, LaTeX, Linear algebra, Linear form, Linear map, Locally convex topological vector space, Loss function, Lp space, Magnitude (mathematics), Mahalanobis distance, Mathematics, Matrix norm, Measurable function, Metric (mathematics), Metric space, Minkowski functional, Modes of convergence, N-sphere, Neighbourhood system, Norm (mathematics), Normed vector space, Null vector, Octahedron, Parallelogram, Prism (geometry), Probability theory, Pythagorean theorem, Quadratic form, Quasinorm, Quotient space (linear algebra), Real number, Row and column vectors, Separation axiom, Sequence, Signal processing, Springer Science+Business Media, Square, Square root, Statistics, Subadditivity, Sublinear function, Superellipse, Taxicab geometry, Topological vector space, Topology, Transpose, Triangle inequality, Two-dimensional space, Unicode, Uniform isomorphism, Uniform norm, Unit circle, Unit sphere, Vector (mathematics and physics), Vector space, Weak topology, Zero element. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.
A set C in a real or complex vector space is said to be absolutely convex or disked if it is convex and balanced (circled), in which case it is called a disk.
In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics an absorbing set in a vector space is a set S which can be inflated to include any element of the vector space.
In mathematics, abuse of notation occurs when an author uses a mathematical notation in a way that is not formally correct but that seems likely to simplify the exposition or suggest the correct intuition (while being unlikely to introduce errors or cause confusion).
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
In mathematics, an algebra over a field (often simply called an algebra) is a vector space equipped with a bilinear product.
Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (a, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.
In mathematics, an asymmetric norm on a vector space is a generalization of the concept of a norm.
In mathematics, a ball is the space bounded by a sphere.
In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced) is a complete normed vector space.
In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size.
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
In mathematics, the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, also known as the Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality, is a useful inequality encountered in many different settings, such as linear algebra, analysis, probability theory, vector algebra and other areas.
A circle is a simple closed shape.
Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes and their respective fitness for specific applications.
In mathematics, the n-dimensional complex coordinate space (or complex n-space) is the set of all ordered n-tuples of complex numbers.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
In mathematics, the complex plane or z-plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the perpendicular imaginary axis.
In mathematics, a composition algebra over a field is a not necessarily associative algebra over together with a nondegenerate quadratic form that satisfies for all and in.
In mathematics, the conjugate transpose or Hermitian transpose of an m-by-n matrix A with complex entries is the n-by-m matrix A∗ obtained from A by taking the transpose and then taking the complex conjugate of each entry.
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.
In mathematics, a real-valued function defined on an ''n''-dimensional interval is called convex (or convex downward or concave upward) if the line segment between any two points on the graph of the function lies above or on the graph, in a Euclidean space (or more generally a vector space) of at least two dimensions.
In convex geometry, a convex set is a subset of an affine space that is closed under convex combinations.
In geometry, a cross-polytope, orthoplex, hyperoctahedron, or cocube is a regular, convex polytope that exists in n-dimensions.
David Leigh Donoho (born March 5, 1957) is a professor of statistics at Stanford University, where he is also the Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor in the Humanities and Sciences.
In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space V is the cardinality (i.e. the number of vectors) of a basis of V over its base field.
In topology, a discrete space is a particularly simple example of a topological space or similar structure, one in which the points form a discontinuous sequence, meaning they are isolated from each other in a certain sense.
In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.
In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
In functional analysis, an F-space is a vector space V over the real or complex numbers together with a metric d: V × V → R so that.
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.
In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.
In mathematics, generalized means are a family of functions for aggregating sets of numbers, that include as special cases the Pythagorean means (arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means).
In mathematics, in the field of additive combinatorics, a Gowers norm or uniformity norm is a class of norm on functions on a finite group or group-like object which are used in the study of arithmetic progressions in the group.
The grid plan, grid street plan, or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid.
In mathematical analysis, the Haar measure assigns an "invariant volume" to subsets of locally compact topological groups, consequently defining an integral for functions on those groups.
In mathematics, the Hadamard product (also known as the Schur product or the entrywise product) is a binary operation that takes two matrices of the same dimensions, and produces another matrix where each element i,j is the product of elements i,j of the original two matrices.
In information theory, the Hamming distance between two strings of equal length is the number of positions at which the corresponding symbols are different.
Harmonic analysis is a branch of mathematics concerned with the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves, and the study of and generalization of the notions of Fourier series and Fourier transforms (i.e. an extended form of Fourier analysis).
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space, separated space or T2 space is a topological space in which distinct points have disjoint neighbourhoods.
In mathematical analysis, Hölder's inequality, named after Otto Hölder, is a fundamental inequality between integrals and an indispensable tool for the study of ''Lp'' spaces.
In mathematics, a homogeneous function is one with multiplicative scaling behaviour: if all its arguments are multiplied by a factor, then its value is multiplied by some power of this factor.
In geometry, a hypercube is an ''n''-dimensional analogue of a square and a cube.
In mathematics, the infimum (abbreviated inf; plural infima) of a subset S of a partially ordered set T is the greatest element in T that is less than or equal to all elements of S, if such an element exists.
Infix notation is the notation commonly used in arithmetical and logical formulae and statements.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.
In mathematics, an involution, or an involutory function, is a function that is its own inverse, for all in the domain of.
In mathematics, a quadratic form over a field F is said to be isotropic if there is a non-zero vector on which the form evaluates to zero.
The lateral clicks are a family of click consonants found only in African languages.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.
In linear algebra, a linear functional or linear form (also called a one-form or covector) is a linear map from a vector space to its field of scalars.
In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.
In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, locally convex topological vector spaces or locally convex spaces are examples of topological vector spaces (TVS) that generalize normed spaces.
In mathematical optimization, statistics, econometrics, decision theory, machine learning and computational neuroscience, a loss function or cost function is a function that maps an event or values of one or more variables onto a real number intuitively representing some "cost" associated with the event.
In mathematics, the Lp spaces are function spaces defined using a natural generalization of the ''p''-norm for finite-dimensional vector spaces.
In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.
The Mahalanobis distance is a measure of the distance between a point P and a distribution D, introduced by P. C. Mahalanobis in 1936.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In mathematics, a matrix norm is a vector norm in a vector space whose elements (vectors) are matrices (of given dimensions).
In mathematics and in particular measure theory, a measurable function is a function between two measurable spaces such that the preimage of any measurable set is measurable, analogously to the definition that a function between topological spaces is continuous if the preimage of each open set is open.
In mathematics, a metric or distance function is a function that defines a distance between each pair of elements of a set.
In mathematics, a metric space is a set for which distances between all members of the set are defined.
In mathematics, in the field of functional analysis, a Minkowski functional is a function that recovers a notion of distance on a linear space.
In mathematics, there are many senses in which a sequence or a series is said to be convergent.
In mathematics, the n-sphere is the generalization of the ordinary sphere to spaces of arbitrary dimension.
In topology and related areas of mathematics, the neighbourhood system, complete system of neighbourhoods, or neighbourhood filter \mathcal(x) for a point x is the collection of all neighbourhoods for the point x.
In linear algebra, functional analysis, and related areas of mathematics, a norm is a function that assigns a strictly positive length or size to each vector in a vector space—save for the zero vector, which is assigned a length of zero.
In mathematics, a normed vector space is a vector space over the real or complex numbers, on which a norm is defined.
In mathematics, given a vector space X with an associated quadratic form q, written, a null vector or isotropic vector is a non-zero element x of X for which.
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.
In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.
In geometry, a prism is a polyhedron comprising an n-sided polygonal base, a second base which is a translated copy (rigidly moved without rotation) of the first, and n other faces (necessarily all parallelograms) joining corresponding sides of the two bases.
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.
In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.
In mathematics, a quadratic form is a homogeneous polynomial of degree two in a number of variables.
In linear algebra, functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, a quasinorm is similar to a norm in that it satisfies the norm axioms, except that the triangle inequality is replaced by for some K > 0.
In linear algebra, the quotient of a vector space V by a subspace N is a vector space obtained by "collapsing" N to zero.
In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.
In linear algebra, a column vector or column matrix is an m × 1 matrix, that is, a matrix consisting of a single column of m elements, Similarly, a row vector or row matrix is a 1 × m matrix, that is, a matrix consisting of a single row of m elements Throughout, boldface is used for the row and column vectors.
In topology and related fields of mathematics, there are several restrictions that one often makes on the kinds of topological spaces that one wishes to consider.
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.
Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90-degree angles, or (100-gradian angles or right angles). It can also be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length. A square with vertices ABCD would be denoted.
In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
In mathematics, subadditivity is a property of a function that states, roughly, that evaluating the function for the sum of two elements of the domain always returns something less than or equal to the sum of the function's values at each element.
A sublinear function (or functional, as is more often used in functional analysis), in linear algebra and related areas of mathematics, is a function f: V \rightarrow \mathbf on a vector space V over F, an ordered field (e.g. the real numbers \mathbb), which satisfies \mathbf and any x ∈ V (positive homogeneity), and f(x + y) \le f(x) + f(y) for any x, y ∈ V (subadditivity).
A superellipse, also known as a Lamé curve after Gabriel Lamé, is a closed curve resembling the ellipse, retaining the geometric features of semi-major axis and semi-minor axis, and symmetry about them, but a different overall shape.
A taxicab geometry is a form of geometry in which the usual distance function or metric of Euclidean geometry is replaced by a new metric in which the distance between two points is the sum of the absolute differences of their Cartesian coordinates.
In mathematics, a topological vector space (also called a linear topological space) is one of the basic structures investigated in functional analysis.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
In linear algebra, the transpose of a matrix is an operator which flips a matrix over its diagonal, that is it switches the row and column indices of the matrix by producing another matrix denoted as AT (also written A′, Atr, tA or At).
In mathematics, the triangle inequality states that for any triangle, the sum of the lengths of any two sides must be greater than or equal to the length of the remaining side.
Two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space is a geometric setting in which two values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
In the mathematical field of topology a uniform isomorphism or uniform homeomorphism is a special isomorphism between uniform spaces which respects uniform properties.
In mathematical analysis, the uniform norm (or sup norm) assigns to real- or complex-valued bounded functions f defined on a set S the non-negative number This norm is also called the supremum norm, the Chebyshev norm, or the infinity norm. The name "uniform norm" derives from the fact that a sequence of functions \ converges to f under the metric derived from the uniform norm if and only if f_n converges to f uniformly.
In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle with a radius of one.
In mathematics, a unit sphere is the set of points of distance 1 from a fixed central point, where a generalized concept of distance may be used; a closed unit ball is the set of points of distance less than or equal to 1 from a fixed central point.
When used without any further description, vector usually refers either to.
A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.
In mathematics, weak topology is an alternative term for certain initial topologies, often on topological vector spaces or spaces of linear operators, for instance on a Hilbert space.
In mathematics, a zero element is one of several generalizations of the number zero to other algebraic structures.
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