184 relations: Abbey of Saint-Étienne, Caen, Abbot of Evesham, Aelred of Rievaulx, Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Anglo-Saxons, Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop of York, Avranches, Æthelred the Unready, Æthelwig, Battle of Bouvines, Battle of Fulford, Battle of Hastings, Battle of Stamford Bridge, Battle, East Sussex, Bayeux Tapestry, BBC, Berkhamsted, Bessin, Bishop of Worcester, Black Sea, Bretons, Brian of Brittany, Brittany, Byzantine Empire, Canon law, Canute IV of Denmark, Carolingian dynasty, Castle, Catholic Church, Charles the Simple, Charter, Cheshire, Chiltern Hills, Christianity, Cnut the Great, Common-law marriage, Companions of William the Conqueror, Copsi, Cornwall, Cotentin Peninsula, Court (royal), Danegeld, Domesday Book, Dorset, Duchy of Normandy, Eadric the Wild, Ealdgyth, daughter of Earl Ælfgar, Ealdred (archbishop of York), ..., Earl of Hereford, Earl of Norfolk, Earl of Northumbria, Earl of Wessex, East Anglia, Edgar Ætheling, Edith the Fair, Edmund Ironside, Edward the Confessor, Edwin, Earl of Mercia, Ely, Cambridgeshire, Emma of Normandy, England, Epithet, Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, Exning, Feoffment, Feudal land tenure in England, Feudalism, Flanders, Fyrd, Geoffrey de Montbray, Germanic name, Godwin, Earl of Wessex, Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria, Gwynedd, Gyrth Godwinson, Gytha Thorkelsdóttir, Harald Hardrada, Harold Godwinson, Harrying of the North, Harthacnut, Hastings, Hereford, Hereward the Wake, History of Anglo-Saxon England, Housecarl, Isle of Ely, Kent, Kingdom of England, Lanfranc, Langues d'oïl, Leges Henrici Primi, Leofwine Godwinson, Lincoln, England, Lincolnshire, List of Norwegian monarchs, London Bridge, Magnus the Good, Malcolm III of Scotland, Matilda of Flanders, Mercia, Montacute Castle, Morcar, Motte-and-bailey castle, Norman language, Norman yoke, Normans, Norse activity in the British Isles, Norwich Castle, Odo of Bayeux, Odo, Count of Penthièvre, Old English, Old French, Old Norse, Orkney, Osprey Publishing, Osulf II of Bamburgh, Paganism, Papal legate, Penance, Pevensey, Pontefract, Pope Alexander II, Powys, R. W. Southern, Ralph de Gael, Reeve (England), Revolt of the Earls, Richard, Richard fitz Gilbert, Richard II, Duke of Normandy, River Aire, River Tees, River Thames, Robert, Robert de Comines, Robert, Count of Mortain, Roger de Breteuil, 2nd Earl of Hereford, Rollo, Royal forest, Saint Margaret of Scotland, Saint-Valery-sur-Somme, Salisbury, Serfdom, Sheriff, Shield wall, Shire, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Siege of Exeter (1068), Siward Barn, Slavery in Britain, Somerset, Southwark, Stafford, Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire, Stigand, Sussex, Sweyn Forkbeard, Sweyn II of Denmark, Tenant-in-chief, The English Historical Review, The Fens, Thomas of Bayeux, Toponymy, Tostig Godwinson, Treaty of Abernethy, Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Varangian Guard, Vikings, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Waltham Abbey Church, Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria, Westminster Abbey, William, William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford, William of Poitiers, William the Conqueror, Winchester, Witenagemot, Writ, Wulfstan (died 1095). Expand index (134 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbey of Saint-Étienne, also known as Abbaye aux Hommes ("Men's Abbey") by contrast with the Abbaye aux Dames ("Ladies' Abbey"), is a former Benedictine monastery in the French city of Caen, Normandy, dedicated to Saint Stephen.
The Abbot of Evesham was the head of Evesham Abbey, a Benedictine monastery in Worcestershire founded in the Anglo-Saxon era of English history.
Aelred of Rievaulx (Aelredus Riaevallensis); also Ailred, Ælred, and Æthelred; (1110 – 12 January 1167) was an English Cistercian monk, abbot of Rievaulx from 1147 until his death, and known as a writer.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Æthelred II (Old English: Æþelræd,;Different spellings of this king’s name most commonly found in modern texts are "Ethelred" and "Æthelred" (or "Aethelred"), the latter being closer to the original Old English form Æþelræd. 966 – 23 April 1016), known as the Unready, was King of the English from 978 to 1013 and again from 1014 until his death.
Æthelwig (c. 1013–16 February in either 1077 or 1078) was an Abbot of Evesham before and during the Norman Conquest of England.
The Battle of Bouvines, was a medieval battle fought on 27 July 1214 near the town of Bouvines in the County of Flanders.
The Battle of Fulford was fought on the outskirts of the village of Fulford near York in England, on 20 September 1066, when King Harald III of Norway, also known as Harald Hardrada ("harðráði" in Old Norse, meaning "hard ruler"), and Tostig Godwinson, his English ally, fought and defeated the Northern Earls Edwin and Morcar.
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire, in England on 25 September 1066, between an English army under King Harold Godwinson and an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson.
Battle is a small town and civil parish in the local government district of Rother in East Sussex, England.
The Bayeux Tapestry (Tapisserie de Bayeux or La telle du conquest; Tapete Baiocense) is an embroidered cloth nearly long and tall, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, Earl of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Berkhamsted is a historic market town close to the western boundary of Hertfordshire, England, in the small Bulbourne valley in the Chiltern Hills, northwest of London.
The Bessin is an area in Normandy, France, corresponding to the territory of the Bajocasses tribe of Gaul who also gave their name to the city of Bayeux, central town of the Bessin.
The Bishop of Worcester is the head of the Church of England Diocese of Worcester in the Province of Canterbury, England.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
Brian of Brittany, 1st Earl of Cornwall in English, or Brien (also Brient) de Bretagne in French, was a Breton noble who fought for William I of England.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
Canute IV (– 10 July 1086), later known as Canute the Holy (Knud IV den Hellige) or Saint Canute (Sankt Knud), was King of Denmark from 1080 until 1086.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Carolus Simplex), was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23.
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified.
Cheshire (archaically the County Palatine of Chester) is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire, Wales and Wrexham county borough to the west.
The Chiltern Hills form a chalk escarpment in South East England.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.
Common-law marriage, also known as sui iuris marriage, informal marriage, marriage by habit and repute, or marriage in fact, is a legal framework in a limited number of jurisdictions where a couple is legally considered married, without that couple having formally registered their relation as a civil or religious marriage.
William the Conqueror had men of diverse standing and origins under his command at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Copsi (or Copsig; Cōpsige) was a Northumbrian magnate in late Anglo-Saxon England.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
The Danegeld ("Danish tax", literally "Dane tribute") was a tax raised to pay tribute to the Viking raiders to save a land from being ravaged.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
Eadric the Wild (or Eadric Silvaticus), also known as Wild Edric, Eadric Cild (or Child) and Edric the Forester, was an Anglo-Saxon magnate of the West Midlands who led English resistance to the Norman Conquest, active in 1068-70.
Ealdgyth (fl. c. 1057–1066), also Aldgyth or in modern English, Edith, was a daughter of Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia, the wife of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn (d. 1063), ruler of all Wales, and later the wife and queen consort of Harold Godwinson, king of England in 1066.
Ealdred (or Aldred; died 11 September 1069) was Abbot of Tavistock, Bishop of Worcester, and Archbishop of York in Anglo-Saxon England.
The title of Earl of Hereford was created six times in the Peerage of England.
Earl of Norfolk is a title which has been created several times in the Peerage of England.
Earl of Northumbria was a title in the Anglo-Danish, late Anglo-Saxon, and early Anglo-Norman period in England.
Earl of Wessex is a title that has been created three times in British history, twice in the pre-Conquest Anglo-Saxon nobility of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.
Edgar Ætheling (also spelt Æþeling, Aetheling, Atheling or Etheling) or Edgar II (c. 1051 – c. 1126) was the last male member of the royal house of Cerdic of Wessex (see House of Wessex family tree).
Edith the Fair (Ealdgȳð Swann hnesce, "Edyth the Gentle Swan"; c. 1025 – c. 1086), also known as Edith Swanneck,Her first name is also spelled Ealdgyth, Aldgyth, Edeva or Eddeva, and sometimes appears as Ēadgȳð and Ēadgifu.
Edmund Ironside (c.990 – 30 November 1016), also known as Edmund II, was King of England from 23 April to 30 November 1016.
Edward the Confessor (Ēadƿeard Andettere, Eduardus Confessor; 1003 – 5 January 1066), also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England.
Edwin (Old English: Ēadwine) (died 1071) was the elder brother of Morcar, Earl of Northumbria, son of Ælfgār, Earl of Mercia and grandson of Leofric, Earl of Mercia.
Ely is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, about north-northeast of Cambridge and about by road from London.
Emma of Normandy (c. 985 – 6 March 1052) was a queen consort of England, Denmark and Norway. She was the daughter of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, and his second wife, Gunnora. Through her marriages to Æthelred the Unready (1002–1016) and Cnut the Great (1017–1035), she became the Queen Consort of England, Denmark, and Norway. She was the mother of three sons, King Edward the Confessor, Alfred Ætheling, and King Harthacnut, as well as two daughters, Goda of England, and Gunhilda of Denmark. Even after her husbands' deaths Emma remained in the public eye, and continued to participate actively in politics. She is the central figure within the Encomium Emmae Reginae, a critical source for the history of early 11th-century English politics. As Catherine Karkov notes, Emma is one of the most visually represented early medieval queens.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
Eustace II, (&ndash), also known as Eustace aux Gernons (with moustaches) Heather J. Tanner, ‘Eustace (II), count of Boulogne (d. c.1087)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
Exning is a village in Suffolk, England.
In the Middle Ages, especially under the European feudal system, feoffment or enfeoffment was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service.
Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
A fyrd was a type of early Anglo-Saxon army that was mobilised from freemen to defend their shire, or from selected representatives to join a royal expedition.
Geoffrey de Montbray (Montbrai, Mowbray) (died 1093), bishop of Coutances (Constantiensis), also known as Geoffrey of Coutances, a Norman nobleman, trusted adviser of William the Conqueror and a great secular prelate, warrior and administrator.
Germanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix and a suffix.
Godwin of Wessex (Godƿin; 100115 April 1053) was one of the most powerful earls in England under the Danish king Cnut the Great and his successors.
Gospatric or Cospatric (from the Cumbric "Servant of Saint Patrick"), (died after 1073), was Earl of Northumbria, or of Bernicia, and later lord of sizable estates around Dunbar.
Gwynedd is a county in Wales, sharing borders with Powys, Conwy, Anglesey over the Menai Strait, and Ceredigion over the River Dyfi.
Gyrth Godwinson (Old English: Gyrð Godƿinson) (1032 – 14 October 1066) was the fourth son of Earl Godwin, and thus a younger brother of Harold Godwinson.
Gytha Thorkelsdóttir (Gȳða Þorkelsdōttir, 997 – c. 1069), also called Githa, was a Danish noblewoman.
Harald Sigurdsson (– 25 September 1066), given the epithet Hardrada (harðráði, modern Norwegian: Hardråde, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the sagas, was King of Norway (as Harald III) from 1046 to 1066.
Harold Godwinson (– 14 October 1066), often called Harold II, was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.
The Harrying of the North was a series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror in the winter of 1069–70 to subjugate northern England.
Harthacnut (Hardeknud; "Tough-knot";Lawson, Harthacnut c. 1018 – 8 June 1042), sometimes referred to as Canute III, was King of Denmark from 1035 to 1042 and King of England from 1040 to 1042.
Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of the county town of Lewes and south east of London.
Hereford is a cathedral city, civil parish and county town of Herefordshire, England.
Hereward the Wake (pronounced /ˈhɛrɪwəd/) (c. 1035 – c.1072), (also known as Hereward the Outlaw or Hereward the Exile), was an Anglo-Saxon nobleman and a leader of local resistance to the Norman Conquest of England.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
In medieval Scandinavia, husmän (húskarlar, singular húskarl; also anglicised as housecarl huscarl (Old English form) and sometimes spelled huscarle or houscarl) were either non-servile manservants or household troops in personal service of someone, equivalent to a bodyguard to Scandinavian lords and kings.
The Isle of Ely is a historic region around the city of Ely in Cambridgeshire, England.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Lanfranc (1005 1010 – 24 May 1089) was a celebrated Italian jurist who renounced his career to become a Benedictine monk at Bec in Normandy. He served successively as prior of Bec Abbey and abbot of St Stephen in Normandy and then as archbishop of Canterbury in England, following its Conquest by William the Conqueror. He is also variously known as (Lanfranco di Pavia), (Lanfranc du Bec), and (Lanfrancus Cantuariensis).
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
The Leges Henrici Primi or Laws of Henry I is a legal treatise, written in about 1115, that records the legal customs of medieval England in the reign of King Henry I of England.
Leofwine Godwinson (c. 1035 – 14 October 1066) was a younger brother of King Harold Godwinson, the fifth son of Earl Godwin.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.
The list of Norwegian monarchs (kongerekken or kongerekka) begins in 872: the traditional dating of the Battle of Hafrsfjord, after which victorious King Harald Fairhair merged several petty kingdoms into that of his father.
Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames between the City of London and Southwark, in central London.
Magnus Olafsson (Old Norse: Magnús Óláfsson, Norwegian and Danish: Magnus Olavsson; c. 1024 – 25 October 1047), better known as Magnus the Good (Old Norse: Magnús góði, Norwegian and Danish: Magnus den gode), was the King of Norway from 1035 and King of Denmark from 1042, ruling over both countries until his death in 1047.
Malcolm III (Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Donnchada; c. 26 March 1031 – 13 November 1093) was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093.
Matilda of Flanders (Mathilde; Machteld) (1031 – 2 November 1083) was Queen of England and Duchess of Normandy by marriage to William the Conqueror, and sometime Regent of these realms during his absence.
Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
Montacute Castle was a castle built on a hill overlooking the village of Montacute, Somerset, England.
Morcar (or Morkere) (Mōrcǣr) (died after 1087) was the son of Ælfgār (earl of Mercia) and brother of Ēadwine.
A motte-and-bailey castle is a fortification with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade.
The Norman yoke refers to the oppressive aspects of feudalism in England attributed to the impositions of William the Conqueror, his retainers and their descendants.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Norse activity in the British Isles occurred during the Early Medieval period when members of the Norse populations of Scandinavia travelled to Britain and Ireland to settle, trade or raid.
Norwich Castle is a medieval royal fortification in the city of Norwich, in the English county of Norfolk.
Odo of Bayeux (died 1097), Earl of Kent and Bishop of Bayeux, was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, and was, for a time, second in power after the King of England.
Odo of Rennes (Medieval Breton: Eudon Pentevr, Modern Breton: Eozen Penteur, Latin: Eudo, French: Eudes/Éon de Penthièvre) (999–1079), Count of Penthièvre, was the youngest of the three sons of Duke Geoffrey I of Brittany and Hawise of Normandy, daughter of Richard I of Normandy.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
Osulf or Oswulf (died 1067) was the son of Eadulf III, Earl of Bamburgh (killed 1041), and grandson of Uchtred the Bold, Earl of Northumbria (killed 1016).
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
Pevensey is a village and civil parish in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England.
Pontefract is a historic market town in West Yorkshire, England, near the A1 (or Great North Road) and the M62 motorway.
Pope Alexander II (1010/1015 – 21 April 1073), born Anselm of Baggio (Anselmo da Baggio), was Pope from 30 September 1061 to his death in 1073.
Powys is a principal area, a county and one of the preserved counties of Wales.
Sir Richard William Southern, FBA (8 February 1912 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne – 6 February 2001 in Oxford), who published under the name R. W. Southern, was a noted English medieval historian, based at the University of Oxford.
Ralph de Gaël (otherwise Ralph de Guader, Radulf Waders or Ralph Wader) (before 1042 – c. 1096) was the Earl of East Anglia (Norfolk and Suffolk) and Lord of Gaël and Montfort (Seigneur de Gaël et Montfort).
Originally in Anglo-Saxon England the reeve was a senior official with local responsibilities under the Crown, e.g., as the chief magistrate of a town or district.
The Revolt of the Earls in 1075 was a rebellion of three earls against William I of England (William the Conqueror).
The Germanic first or given name Richard derives from German, French, and English "ric" (ruler, leader, king, powerful) and "hard" (strong, brave, hardy), and it therefore means "strong in rule".
Richard fitz Gilbert (bef. 1035–), was a Norman lord who participated in the Norman conquest of England in 1066, and was styled "de Bienfaite", "de Clare", and of "Tonbridge" from his holdings.
Richard II (unknown – 28 August 1026), called the Good (French: Le Bon), was the eldest son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora.
The River Aire is a major river in Yorkshire, England, in length.
The River Tees is in northern England.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
The name Robert is a Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic *χrōþi- "fame" and *berχta- "bright".
Robert Comine (died 1069) (also Robert de Comines, Robert de Comyn) was very briefly earl of Northumbria.
Robert, Count of Mortain, 2nd Earl of Cornwall (–) was a Norman nobleman and the half-brother (on his mother's side) of King William the Conqueror.
Roger de Breteuil, 2nd Earl of Hereford (1056 – after 1087), succeeded in 1071 to the earldom of Hereford and the English estate of his father, William Fitz-Osbern.
Rollo or Gaange Rolf (Norman: Rou; Old Norse: Hrólfr; Rollon; 846 – 930 AD) was a Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region of France.
A royal forest, occasionally "Kingswood", is an area of land with different definitions in England, Wales, and Scotland.
Saint Margaret of Scotland (Scots: Saunt Magret, c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), also known as Margaret of Wessex, was an English princess and a Scottish queen.
Saint-Valery-sur-Somme is a commune in the Somme department.
Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Nadder, Ebble, Wylye and Bourne.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.
The formation of a shield wall (Scildweall or Bordweall in Old English, Skjaldborg in Old Norse) is a military tactic that was common in many cultures in the Pre-Early Modern warfare age.
A shire is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and some other English speaking countries.
Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England.
Shropshire (alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian) is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, and Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south.
The Siege of Exeter occurred in 1068 when William I marched a combined army of Normans and Englishmen loyal to the king west to force the submission of Exeter, a stronghold of Anglo-Saxon resistance against Norman rule.
Siward Barn (Sigeweard Bearn) was an 11th-century English thegn and landowner-warrior.
Slavery in Great Britain existed and was recognized from before the Roman occupation until the 12th century, when chattel slavery disappeared after the Norman Conquest.
Somerset (or archaically, Somersetshire) is a county in South West England which borders Gloucestershire and Bristol to the north, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south-east and Devon to the south-west.
Southwark is a district of Central London and part of the London Borough of Southwark.
Stafford is the county town of Staffordshire, in the West Midlands of England.
Stamford Bridge is a village and civil parish on the River Derwent in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, approximately east of York and west of Driffield.
Stigand (died 1072) was an Anglo-Saxon churchman in pre-Norman Conquest England who became Archbishop of Canterbury.
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.
Sweyn Forkbeard (Old Norse: Sveinn Haraldsson tjúguskegg; Danish: Svend Tveskæg; 960 – 3 February 1014) was king of Denmark during 986–1014.
Sweyn II Estridsson (Sveinn Ástríðarson, Svend Estridsen) (– 28 April 1076) was King of Denmark from 1047 until his death in 1076.
In medieval and early modern Europe the term tenant-in-chief (or vassal-in-chief), denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy.
The English Historical Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1886 and published by Oxford University Press (formerly Longman).
The Fens, also known as the, are a coastal plain in eastern England.
Thomas of Bayeux (died 1100) was Archbishop of York from 1070 until 1100.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Tostig Godwinson (1026 – 25 September 1066) was an Anglo-Saxon Earl of Northumbria and brother of King Harold Godwinson.
The Treaty of Abernethy was signed at the Scottish village of Abernethy in 1072 where king Malcolm III of Scotland paid homage to William I, King of England, acknowledging William as his feudal overlord.
The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, between Charles the Simple (King Charles III of France) and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, was signed in autumn 911.
The Varangian Guard (Τάγμα τῶν Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Wallingford is an ancient market town and civil parish in the upper Thames Valley in England.
The Abbey Church of Waltham Holy Cross and St Lawrence is the parish church of the town of Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.
Waltheof, 1st Earl of Northumbria (d. 31 May 1076) was the last of the Anglo-Saxon earls and the only English aristocrat to be executed during the reign of William I.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
William is a popular given name of an old Germanic origin.
William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, Lord of Lewes, Seigneur de Varennes (died 1088), was a Norman nobleman created Earl of Surrey under William II Rufus.
William FitzOsbern (c. 1020 – 22 February 1071), Lord of Breteuil, in Normandy, was a relative and close counsellor of William the Conqueror and one of the great magnates of early Norman England.
William of Poitiers (1020 1090) was a Frankish priest of Norman origin and chaplain of Duke William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) (Guillaume le Conquerant), for whom he chronicled the Norman Conquest of England in his Gesta VVillelmi ducis Normannorum et regis Anglorum ("The Deeds of William, Duke of Normandy and King of England") or Gesta Guillelmi II ducis Normannorum.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.
The Witenaġemot (Old English witena ġemōt,, modern English "meeting of wise men"), also known as the Witan (more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated from before the 7th century until the 11th century.
In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.
Wulfstan (c. 1008 – 20 January 1095) was Bishop of Worcester from 1062 to 1095.
1066 Norman conquest of England, Conquest of England, Norman Conquest, Norman Conquest of 1066, Norman Conquest of England, Norman Invasion, Norman Invasion of England, Norman conquest, Norman conquest of 1066, Norman conquest of england, Norman invasion of Britain, Norman invasion of England, Norman period, Norman times, Normanization, Normans conquered England, The Norman Conquest.