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Index Normandy

Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. [1]

371 relations: -hou, Acadia, Agence France-Presse, Albert Marquet, Alençon, Alexis de Tocqueville, Alfred Sisley, Allies of World War II, Anatolia, Ancien Régime, Andelle, Andouille, Anglicanism, Anglo-Normans, Apéritif and digestif, Argentan, Armistice of 22 June 1940, Armorican Massif, Arromanches-les-Bains, Atlantic slave trade, Aubert of Avranches, Audoin (bishop), Auguste Perret, Avant-garde, Avranches Cathedral, Avranchin, Étienne de Rouen, Étretat, Évreux, Bagnoles-de-l'Orne, Bailiwick, Battle of Hastings, Baupte, Bayeux, Bénédictine, Bec Abbey, Belgae, Belle Époque, Bessin, Biloxi, Mississippi, Bocage, Bourbon Restoration, Boursin cheese, Bresle (river), Brillat-Savarin cheese, Brioche, Brutalist architecture, Caen, Calvados, Calvados (department), ..., Calvinism, Cambro-Normans, Camembert, Camille Pissarro, Canada (New France), Canary Islands, Carentan, Cathedral, Cauchois dialect, Cave painting, Côtis-Capel, Celtic Christianity, Celts, Chambois, Orne, Channel Islands, Charlemagne, Charles the Simple, Charles V of France, Charles VI of France, Charlotte Corday, Chausey, Château d'Ételan, Château Gaillard, Cherbourg-Octeville, Christian state, Church of England, Cider, Classics, Claude Monet, Cliff, Clovis I, Coat of arms of Guernsey, Coat of arms of Jersey, Confiture de lait, Cotentin Peninsula, Cotentinais, Couesnon, Coutances, Crème de cassis, Crown dependencies, Crusader states, Crusades, Danes, Demography of the Roman Empire, Departments of France, Dieppe, Dieppe Raid, Dives (river), Domfront, Orne, Drengot family, Drogo of Hauteville, Duchy, Duchy of Brittany, Duchy of Normandy, Duke of Normandy, Earl, Eden Agreement, Elizabeth II, English Channel, English Civil War, Epte, Eugène Boudin, Eure, Eure (river), Executive (government), Exmes, Falaise Pocket, Falaise, Calvados, Fécamp, Fealty, Fief, First French Empire, Flag and coat of arms of Normandy, Flax, Fondation Monet in Giverny, France, Francis Picabia, Franks, Free France, French regional elections, 2015, French Revolution, French Revolutionary Wars, French Second Republic, French Third Republic, French Wars of Religion, Fruit brandy, Gallo-Roman culture, Gallo-Romance languages, Gauls, George Métivier, Georges Braque, Georges Seurat, German military administration in occupied France during World War II, German occupation of the Channel Islands, Germanic peoples, Germanus of Normandy, Gisors, Giverny, Granite, Great Lakes, Guernsey, Guillaume Tirel, Gustave Caillebotte, Gustave Courbet, Gustave Flaubert, Guy de Maupassant, Harold Godwinson, Helier, Henry II of England, Henry III of Castile, Henry III of England, Hervé Morin, Hill 262, History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of Ireland (1169–1536), Holy Land, Homage (feudal), Honfleur, Horse breeding, Humphrey of Hauteville, Hundred Years' War, Impression, Sunrise, Impressionism, Invasion of Normandy, J. M. W. Turner, Jacques Villon, Jean de Béthencourt, Jean Dubuffet, Jean Jouvenet, Jean Marot, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, Jean-François Millet, Jean-Paul Marat, Jersey, Joan of Arc, John, King of England, Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly, Julius Caesar, July Monarchy, Jumièges, Kingdom of Sicily, Kingdom of the Canary Islands, Kir (cocktail), Languages of France, Langues d'oïl, Laud of Coutances, Le Havre, Le Monde, Les Andelys, Les Nabis, Liberation of the German-occupied Channel Islands, Lieuvin, Lisieux, Livarot cheese, Loire, Louis X of France, Louisiana, Louisiana (New France), Lower Normandy, Loyal toast, Ma Normandie, Macaroon, Magna Carta, Manche, Marais-Vernier, Marcel Duchamp, Martyr, Maurice Denis, Maurice Utrillo, Mayenne, Meander, Metropolitan France, Michael (archangel), Mississippi Delta, Mississippi River, Mobile, Alabama, Modernism, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Monastery, Mont Saint-Michel, Morchella, Mortain, Mulberry harbour, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, Museum of modern art André Malraux - MuMa, Mussel, Napoleonic Wars, Neufchâtel cheese, New France, New Orleans, New World, Nicolas Poussin, Nordic Cross flag, Norman architecture, Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest of southern Italy, Norman language, Norman Tart, Normandy landings, Normans, Norsemen, North Germanic languages, Norwegians, Nuclear power plant, Octave Mirbeau, Official language, Old French, Old Norse, Olivier Basselin, Operation Overlord, Orderic Vitalis, Orne, Orne (river), Ouistreham, Oyster, Pablo Picasso, Paris Basin, Pastry, Patron saint, Paul Gauguin, Paul Signac, Pays d'Auge, Pays d'Ouche, Pays de Bray, Pays de Caux, Pegasus Bridge, Penance, Perche, Perry, Petit suisse, Philip II of France, Pierre Bonnard, Pierre Corneille, Pierre Dumont (painter), Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Pilgrimage, Pommeau, Pont-l'Évêque cheese, Pope Innocent VII, Portbail, Prehistory, Proportional representation, Quebec, Quebec City, Querqueville, Rainulf Drengot, Raoul Dufy, Rémy Belleau, Reformation, Regional council (France), Regions of France, Remy de Gourmont, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, Richard Parkes Bonington, Risle, Robec, Robert Antoine Pinchon, Robert Guiscard, Roger I of Sicily, Rollo, Roman roads, Romanization, Romanticism, Rouen, Rouen Cathedral, Roumois, Saint Marcouf, Saint-Céneri-le-Gérei, Saint-Germain-des-Vaux, Salade cauchoise, Salic law, Samson of Dol, Samuel de Champlain, Sark, Sarthe, Saxons, Sée, Sélune, Scallop, Seafood, Second French Empire, Seine, Seine-Maritime, Société Normande de Peinture Moderne, Somme (river), Standard French, Tancred of Hauteville, Teurgoule, Théodore Géricault, Thérèse of Lisieux, The Centrists, The Crown, The Raft of the Medusa, Thomas Becket, Thomas Corneille, Timber framing, Toilers of the Sea, Touques (river), Treaty of Paris (1259), Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Trefoil, Tripes à la mode de Caen, Upper Normandy, Val de Saire, Vassal, Vaudeville, Vernacular architecture, Vexin, Victor Hugo, Vikings, Villa, Vire, Vire (river), Wace, West Francia, William Iron Arm, William the Conqueror, William Turner (artist), World War II, 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State. 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-hou and hou is a place-name element found commonly in the Norman toponymy of the Channel Islands and continental Normandy.

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Acadia (Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Albert Marquet

Albert Marquet (27 March 1875 – 14 June 1947) was a French painter, associated with the Fauvist movement.

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Alençon is a commune in Normandy, France, capital of the Orne department.

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Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.

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Alfred Sisley

Alfred Sisley (30 October 1839 – 29 January 1899) was an Impressionist landscape painter who was born and spent most of his life in France, but retained British citizenship.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancien Régime

The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.

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The Andelle is a river of Normandy, France, in length,http://sandre.eaufrance.fr/app/chainage/courdo/htm/H32-0400.php?cg.

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Andouille (from Latin, meaning 'made by insertion') is a smoked sausage made using pork, originating in France.

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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.

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Apéritif and digestif

Apéritifs and digestifs are drinks, typically alcoholic, that are normally served before (apéritif) or after (digestif) a meal.

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Argentan is a commune and the seat of two cantons and of an arrondissement in the Orne department in northwestern France.

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Armistice of 22 June 1940

The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.

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Armorican Massif

The Armorican Massif (Massif armoricain) is a geologic massif that covers a large area in the northwest of France, including Brittany, the western part of Normandy and the Pays de la Loire.

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Arromanches-les-Bains (or, simply Arromanches) is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandie region of northwestern France.

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Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.

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Aubert of Avranches

Saint Aubert, also known as Saint Autbert, was bishop of Avranches in the 8th century and is credited with founding Mont Saint-Michel.

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Audoin (bishop)

Audoin (AD 609 – 686; also spelled Audoen, Ouen, Owen; Audoenus; known as Dado to contemporaries) was a Frankish bishop, courtier, chronicler, and Catholic saint.

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Auguste Perret

Auguste Perret (12 February 1874 – 25 February 1954) was a French architect and a pioneer of the architectural use of reinforced concrete.

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The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.

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Avranches Cathedral

Avranches Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-André d'Avranches) was once a Roman Catholic cathedral in Avranches in Normandy.

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The Avranchin is an area in Normandy, France corresponding to the territory of the Abrincatui, a tribe of Celts from whom the city of Avranches, the main town of the Avranchin, takes its name.

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Étienne de Rouen

Étienne de Rouen (died c. 1169), also Stephen of Rouen and italic, was a Norman Benedictine monk of Bec Abbey of the twelfth century, and a chronicler and poet.

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Étretat is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in Normandy in north-western France.

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Évreux is a commune in and the capital of the department of Eure, in the French region of Normandy.

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Bagnoles-de-l'Orne is a former commune in the Orne department in northwestern France.

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A bailiwick is usually the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff, and once also applied to territories in which a privately appointed bailiff exercised the sheriff's functions under a royal or imperial writ.

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Battle of Hastings

The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.

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Baupte is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

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Bayeux is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandy in northwestern France.

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Bénédictine is a herbal liqueur beverage developed by Alexandre Le Grand in the 19th century and produced in France.

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Bec Abbey

Bec Abbey, formally the Abbey of Our Lady of Bec (Abbaye Notre-Dame du Bec), is a Benedictine monastic foundation in the Eure département, in the Bec valley midway between the cities of Rouen and Bernay.

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The Belgae were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC.

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Belle Époque

The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.

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The Bessin is an area in Normandy, France, corresponding to the territory of the Bajocasses tribe of Gaul who also gave their name to the city of Bayeux, central town of the Bessin.

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Biloxi, Mississippi

Biloxi is a city in Harrison County, Mississippi, United States.

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Bocage is a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture.

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Bourbon Restoration

The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.

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Boursin cheese

Boursin is a brand of Gournay cheese.

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Bresle (river)

The Bresle is a river in the northwest of France that flows into the English Channel at Le Tréport.

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Brillat-Savarin cheese

Brillat-Savarin is a soft, white-crusted cow's milk cheese triple cream brie with at least 75% fat in dry matter (roughly 40% overall).

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Brioche is a pastry of French origin that is similar to a highly enriched bread, and whose high egg and butter content (400 grams for each kilogram of flour) give it a rich and tender crumb.

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Brutalist architecture

Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.

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Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.

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Calvados is an apple brandy from the Normandy region in France.

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Calvados (department)

Calvados is a department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Cambro-Normans were Normans who settled in southern Wales after the Norman conquest of England in 1066.

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Camembert is a moist, soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese.

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Camille Pissarro

Camille Pissarro (10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies).

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Canada (New France)

Canada was a French colony within New France first claimed in the name of the King of France in 1535 during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Carentan is a small rural town near the north-eastern base of the French Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy in north-western France near the port city of Cherbourg, with a population somewhat over 6,000.

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A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

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Cauchois dialect

Cauchois (Norman: Caucheis) is one of the eastern dialects of the Norman language, spoken in, and taking its name from, the Pays de Caux region of the Seine-Maritime départment.

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Cave painting

Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.

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Côtis-Capel (22 January 1915 – 30 October 1986) was the pen name of Albert Lohier, a Norman language poet.

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Celtic Christianity

Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Chambois, Orne

Chambois is a former commune in the Orne département in north-western France.

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Channel Islands

The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.

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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles the Simple

Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Carolus Simplex), was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23.

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Charles V of France

Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called "the Wise" (le Sage; Sapiens), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.

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Charles VI of France

Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422), called the Beloved (le Bien-Aimé) and the Mad (le Fol or le Fou), was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422.

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Charlotte Corday

Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont (27 July 1768 – 17 July 1793), known as Charlotte Corday, was a figure of the French Revolution.

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Chausey is a group of small islands, islets and rocks off the coast of Normandy, in the English Channel.

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Château d'Ételan

The Château d'Ételan is a historical building in the commune of Saint-Maurice-d'Ételan in the Seine-Maritime département in Normandy, France.

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Château Gaillard

Château Gaillard ("Strong Castle") is a ruined medieval castle, located above the commune of Les Andelys overlooking the River Seine, in the Eure département of Normandy, France.

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Cherbourg-Octeville is a city and former commune situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula in the northwestern French department of Manche.

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Christian state

A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.

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Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.

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Claude Monet

Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein air landscape painting.

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In geography and geology, a cliff is a vertical, or nearly vertical, rock exposure.

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Clovis I

Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.

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Coat of arms of Guernsey

The coat of arms of Guernsey is the official symbol of the Channel Island of Guernsey.

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Coat of arms of Jersey

The coat of arms of Jersey is a red shield with three gold leopards (lions passant guardant) (les trois léopards in French).

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Confiture de lait

Confiture de lait is a thick, sweet caramel sauce prepared from milk and sugar.

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Cotentin Peninsula

The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France.

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Cotentinais is the dialect of the Norman language spoken in the Cotentin Peninsula.

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The Couesnon (Kouenon) is a river running from the département of Mayenne in north-western France, forming an estuary at Mont Saint-Michel.

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Coutances is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.

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Crème de cassis

Crème de cassis (also known as Cassis Liqueur) is a sweet, dark red liqueur made from blackcurrants.

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Crown dependencies

Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.

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Crusader states

The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.

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Demography of the Roman Empire

Demographically, the Roman Empire was an ordinary premodern state.

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Departments of France

In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.

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Dieppe is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.

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Dieppe Raid

The Dieppe Raid was an Allied assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France on 19 August 1942, during the Second World War.

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Dives (river)

The Dives is a 105 km long river in the Pays d'Auge, Normandie, France.

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Domfront, Orne

Domfront is a former commune in the Orne department in north-western France.

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Drengot family

The Drengots were a Norman family of mercenaries, one of the first to head to the Mezzogiorno of Italy to fight in the service of the Lombards.

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Drogo of Hauteville

Drogo of Hauteville (c. 1010 – 10 August 1051) was the second Count of Apulia and Calabria (1046–51) in southern Italy.

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A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.

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Duchy of Brittany

The Duchy of Brittany (Breton: Dugelezh Breizh, French: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547.

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Duchy of Normandy

The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.

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Duke of Normandy

In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France.

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An earl is a member of the nobility.

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Eden Agreement

The Eden Treaty was a treaty signed between Great Britain and France in 1786, named after the British negotiator William Eden, 1st Baron Auckland (1744–1814).

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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The Epte is a river in Seine-Maritime and Eure, in Normandy, France.

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Eugène Boudin

Eugène Louis Boudin (12 July 18248 August 1898) was one of the first French landscape painters to paint outdoors.

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Eure is a department in the north of France named after the river Eure.

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Eure (river)

The Eure is a river between Normandy and Centre-Val de Loire in north-western France, left tributary of the Seine.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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Exmes is a former commune in the Orne department in north-western France.

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Falaise Pocket

The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket (12 – 21 August 1944) was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.

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Falaise, Calvados

Falaise is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

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Fécamp is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.

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An oath of fealty, from the Latin fidelitas (faithfulness), is a pledge of allegiance of one person to another.

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A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.

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First French Empire

The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

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Flag and coat of arms of Normandy

The flag and coat of arms of Normandy are symbols of Normandy, a region in the north-western France.

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Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.

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Fondation Monet in Giverny

The Fondation Claude Monet is a nonprofit organisation that runs and preserves the house and gardens of Claude Monet in Giverny, France.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francis Picabia

Francis Picabia (born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia, 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde painter, poet and typographist.

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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Free France

Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.

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French regional elections, 2015

Regional elections were held in France on 6 and 13 December 2015.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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French Revolutionary Wars

The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.

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French Second Republic

The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.

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Fruit brandy

Fruit brandy or fruit spirit is a distilled beverage produced from mash, juice, wine or residues of culinary fruits.

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Gallo-Roman culture

The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.

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Gallo-Romance languages

The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).

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The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).

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George Métivier

George Métivier (29 January 1790 – 23 March 1881) was a Guernsey poet dubbed the "Guernsey Burns", and sometimes considered the island's national poet.

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Georges Braque

Georges Braque (13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor.

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Georges Seurat

Georges-Pierre Seurat (2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist painter and draftsman.

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German military administration in occupied France during World War II

The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.

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German occupation of the Channel Islands

The German occupation of the Channel Islands lasted for most of the Second World War, from 30 June 1940 until their liberation on 9 May 1945.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Germanus of Normandy

Germanus of Normandy, also known as Germanus the Scot, is a Christian saint venerated especially in Normandy.

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Gisors is a commune of Normandy, France.

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Giverny is a commune in the Eure department in northern France.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.

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Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.

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Guillaume Tirel

Guillaume Tirel, known as Taillevent (French: "wind-cutter" i.e. an idle swaggerer) (born ca. 1310 in Pont-Audemer – 1395), was an important figure in the early history of French cuisine.

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Gustave Caillebotte

Gustave Caillebotte (19 August 1848 – 21 February 1894) was a French painter, member and patron of the artists known as Impressionists, although he painted in a much more realistic manner than many others in the group.

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Gustave Courbet

Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting.

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Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist.

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Guy de Maupassant

Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, and as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and often pessimistic terms.

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Harold Godwinson

Harold Godwinson (– 14 October 1066), often called Harold II, was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.

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Saint Helier (died 555 AD) was a 6th-century ascetic hermit.

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Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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Henry III of Castile

Henry III of Castile (4 October 1379 – 25 December 1406), called the Mourner, was the son of John I and Eleanor of Aragon.

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Henry III of England

Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.

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Hervé Morin

Hervé Morin (born 17 August 1961) is a French politician, currently the President of Normandy.

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Hill 262

Hill 262, or the Mont Ormel ridge (elevation), is an area of high ground above the village of Coudehard in Normandy that was the location of a bloody engagement in the final stages of the Battle of Falaise in the Normandy Campaign during the Second World War.

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History of Anglo-Saxon England

Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.

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History of Ireland (1169–1536)

The history of Ireland from 1169–1536 covers the period from the arrival of the Cambro-Normans to the reign of Henry VIII of England, who made himself King of Ireland.

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Holy Land

The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.

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Homage (feudal)

Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture).

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Honfleur is a commune in the Calvados department in northwestern France.

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Horse breeding

Horse breeding is reproduction in horses, and particularly the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals, particularly purebred horses of a given breed.

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Humphrey of Hauteville

Humphrey of Hauteville (c. 1010 – August 1057), surnamed Abagelard, was the Count of Apulia and Calabria from 1051 to his death.

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Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.

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Impression, Sunrise

Impression, Sunrise (French: Impression, soleil levant) is a painting by Claude Monet.

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Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

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Invasion of Normandy

The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.

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J. M. W. Turner

Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.

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Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist and abstract painter and printmaker.

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Jean de Béthencourt

Jean de Béthencourt (1362–1425) was a French explorer who in 1402 led an expedition to the Canary Islands, landing first on the north side of Lanzarote.

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Jean Dubuffet

Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (31 July 1901 – 12 May 1985) was a French painter and sculptor.

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Jean Jouvenet

Jean-Baptiste Jouvenet (1 May 1644 – 5 April 1717) was a French painter, especially of religious subjects.

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Jean Marot

Jean Marot (1463 – c. 1526) was a French poet and the father of French Renaissance poet Clément Marot.

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Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville

Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville (February 23, 1680 – March 7, 1767) was a colonist, born in Montreal, New France, and an early, repeated governor of French Louisiana, appointed four separate times during 1701–1743.

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Jean-François Millet

Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France.

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Jean-Paul Marat

Jean-Paul Marat (24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a French political theorist, physician, and scientist who became best known for his role as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution.

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Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.

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Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.

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John, King of England

John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.

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Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly

Jules-Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly (2 November 1808 – 23 April 1889) was a French novelist and short story writer.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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July Monarchy

The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.

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Jumièges is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France.

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Kingdom of Sicily

The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.

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Kingdom of the Canary Islands

The Kingdom of the Canary Islands was founded in 1404, although it had always recognized another country as their overlord.

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Kir (cocktail)

Kir is a popular French cocktail made with a measure of crème de cassis (blackcurrant liqueur) topped up with white wine.

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Languages of France

Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.

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Langues d'oïl

The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.

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Laud of Coutances

Saint Laud of Coutances (variants: Lauto, Laudo, Launus, popularly: Saint Lô) was the fifth bishop of Coutances and is venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.

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Le Havre

Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.

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Le Monde

Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.

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Les Andelys

Les Andelys is a commune in the Eure department in Normandy in northern France.

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Les Nabis

Les Nabis were a group of Post-Impressionist avant-garde artists who set the pace for fine arts and graphic arts in France in the 1890s.

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Liberation of the German-occupied Channel Islands

The Channel Islands were occupied during World War II by German forces from 30 June 1940, until May 1945.

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The Lieuvin is a plateau region in the western part of the Eure département in Normandy, France.

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Lisieux is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

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Livarot cheese

Livarot is a French cheese of the Normandy region, originating in the commune of Livarot, and protected by an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) since 1975.

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The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.

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Louis X of France

Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarreler, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (le Hutin), was a monarch of the House of Capet who ruled as King of Navarre (as Louis I Luis I.a Nafarroakoa) and Count of Champagne from 1305 and as King of France from 1314 until his death.

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Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Louisiana (New France)

Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.

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Lower Normandy

Lower Normandy (Basse-Normandie,; Basse-Normaundie) is a former administrative region of France.

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Loyal toast

A loyal toast is a salute given to the head of state of the country in which a formal gathering is being given, or by expatriates of that country, whether or not the particular head of state is present.

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Ma Normandie

"Ma Normandie" is the semi-official anthem of the Bailiwick of Jersey, a British Crown dependency in the Channel Islands, and was written and composed by Frédéric Bérat.

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A macaroon is a small biscuit/cookie, typically made from ground almonds (the original main ingredient), coconut, and/or other nuts or even potato, with sugar and sometimes flavorings (e.g. honey, vanilla, spices), food coloring, glace cherries, jam and/or a chocolate coating.

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Magna Carta

Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

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Manche is a French department in Normandy (Normandie), named for the English Channel, which is known as La Manche, literally "the sleeve", in French, that borders its north and west shores and part of its east shore.

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Marais-Vernier is a commune in the Eure department in Normandy in northern France.

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Marcel Duchamp

Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French-American painter, sculptor, chess player and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, conceptual art, and Dada, although he was careful about his use of the term Dada and was not directly associated with Dada groups.

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A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.

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Maurice Denis

Maurice Denis (25 November 1870 – 13 November 1943) was a French painter, decorative artist and writer, who was an important figure in the transitional period between impressionism and modern art.

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Maurice Utrillo

Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (26 December 1883 – 5 November 1955), was a French painter who specialized in cityscapes.

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Mayenne is a department in northwest France named after the Mayenne River.

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A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse.

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Metropolitan France

Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.

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Michael (archangel)

Michael (translit; translit; Michahel;ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ, translit) is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

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Mississippi Delta

The Mississippi Delta, also known as the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta, is the distinctive northwest section of the U.S. state of Mississippi (and small portions of Arkansas and Louisiana) which lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers.

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Mississippi River

The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.

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Mobile, Alabama

Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States.

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Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Monarchy of the United Kingdom

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.

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A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).

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Mont Saint-Michel

Mont-Saint-Michel (Norman: Mont Saint Miché) is an island commune in Normandy, France.

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Morchella, the true morels, is a genus of edible sac fungi closely related to anatomically simpler cup fungi in the order Pezizales (division Ascomycota).

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Mortain is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.

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Mulberry harbour

Mulberry harbours were temporary portable harbours developed by the United Kingdom during the Second World War to facilitate the rapid offloading of cargo onto beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

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Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen

The musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen is an art museum in Rouen, Normandy, France.

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Museum of modern art André Malraux - MuMa

The Musée d'art moderne André Malraux (also known as Musée Malraux and simply MuMa) is a museum in Le Havre, France containing one of the nation's most extensive collections of impressionist paintings.

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Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Neufchâtel cheese

Neufchâtel (pronunciation) is a soft, slightly crumbly, mold-ripened cheese made in the Neufchâtel-en-Bray, French region of Normandy.

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New France

New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.

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New Orleans

New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Nicolas Poussin

Nicolas Poussin (June 1594 – 19 November 1665) was the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome.

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Nordic Cross flag

The Nordic Cross flag is any of certain flags bearing the design of the Nordic or Scandinavian cross, a cross symbol in a rectangular field, with the center of the cross shifted towards the hoist.

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Norman architecture

The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries.

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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Norman conquest of southern Italy

The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.

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Norman language

No description.

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Norman Tart

Norman tart is a shortcrust pastry-based (pâte brisée) variant of the apple tart made in Normandy filled with apples, sliced almonds and sugar topped with creamy egg custard tart and baked until the topping is slightly caramelised.

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Normandy landings

The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.

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The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.

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North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

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Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.

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Nuclear power plant

A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.

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Octave Mirbeau

Octave Mirbeau (16 February 1848 – 16 February 1917) was a French journalist, art critic, travel writer, pamphleteer, novelist, and playwright, who achieved celebrity in Europe and great success among the public, while still appealing to the literary and artistic avant-garde.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Olivier Basselin

Olivier Basselin was a French poet.

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Operation Overlord

Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.

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Orderic Vitalis

Orderic Vitalis (Ordericus Vitalis; 1075 –) was an English chronicler and Benedictine monk who wrote one of the great contemporary chronicles of 11th- and 12th-century Normandy and Anglo-Norman England.

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Orne is a department in the northwest of France, named after the river Orne.

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Orne (river)

The Orne (Ptolemeus Olina) is a river in Normandy, within northwestern France.

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Ouistreham is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandie region in northwestern France.

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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.

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Paris Basin

The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny.

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Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.

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Patron saint

A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

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Paul Gauguin

Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French post-Impressionist artist.

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Paul Signac

Paul Victor Jules Signac (11 November 1863 – 15 August 1935) was a French Neo-Impressionist painter who, working with Georges Seurat, helped develop the Pointillist style.

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Pays d'Auge

The Pays d'Auge is an area in Normandy, straddling the départements of Calvados and Orne (plus a small part of the territory of Eure).

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Pays d'Ouche

The Pays d'Ouche is an historical and geographical region in Normandy.

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Pays de Bray

The Pays de Bray is a small (about 750 km²) natural region of France situated to the north-east of Rouen, straddling the French departments of the Seine-Maritime and the Oise (historically divided among the Provinces of Normandy and Picardy since 911, now divided among the administrative regions of Upper Normandy and Picardy).

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Pays de Caux

The Pays de Caux is an area in Normandy occupying the greater part of the French département of Seine Maritime in Normandy.

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Pegasus Bridge

Pegasus Bridge is a bascule bridge (a type of movable bridge), that was built in 1934, that crossed the Caen Canal, between Caen and Ouistreham, in Normandy, France.

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Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.

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Perche (French: le Perche) is a former province or county of northwestern France, best known for its forests and its Percheron work horse.

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Perry is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented pears, similar to the way cider is made from apples.

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Petit suisse

Petit-suisse (meaning "little Swiss cheese") is a French cheese from the Normandy region.

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Philip II of France

Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.

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Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard (3 October 1867 — 23 January 1947) was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis.

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Pierre Corneille

Pierre Corneille (Rouen, 6 June 1606 – Paris, 1 October 1684) was a French tragedian.

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Pierre Dumont (painter)

Pierre Jean Baptiste Louis Dumont (29 March 1884, 5th arrondissement, Paris – 8 April 1936, Paris) more commonly known as Pierre Dumont, was a French painter of the Rouen School.

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Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville

Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (16 July 1661 – 9 July 1706) was a soldier, ship captain, explorer, colonial administrator, knight of the order of Saint-Louis, adventurer, privateer, trader, member of Compagnies Franches de la Marine and founder of the French colony of La Louisiane of New France.

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Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.

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A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.

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Pommeau is an alcoholic drink made in north-western France by mixing apple juice with apple brandy: Calvados in Normandy or lambig in Brittany.

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Pont-l'Évêque cheese

Pont-l'Évêque is a French cheese, originally manufactured in the area around the commune of Pont-l'Évêque, between Deauville and Lisieux in the Calvados département of Normandy.

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Pope Innocent VII

Pope Innocent VII (Innocentius VII; 1339 – 6 November 1406), born Cosimo de' Migliorati, was Pope from 17 October 1404 to his death in 1406.

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Portbail (sometimes spelled Port-Bail) is a commune in the Manche department in north-western France.

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Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Quebec City

Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.

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Querqueville is a former commune in the Manche department in north-western France.

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Rainulf Drengot

Rainulf Drengot (also Ranulph, Ranulf, or Rannulf; died June 1045) was a Norman adventurer and mercenary in southern Italy.

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Raoul Dufy

Raoul Dufy (3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter, brother of Jean Dufy.

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Rémy Belleau

Remy (or Rémi) Belleau (1528 – 6 March 1577) was a poet of the French Renaissance.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Regional council (France)

A regional council (conseil régional) is the elected assembly of a region of France.

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Regions of France

France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.

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Remy de Gourmont

Remy de Gourmont (4 April 1858 – 27 September 1915) was a French Symbolist poet, novelist, and influential critic.

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René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle

René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French explorer.

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Richard Parkes Bonington

Richard Parkes Bonington (25 October 1802 – 23 September 1828) was an English Romantic landscape painter, who moved to France at the age of 14 and can also be considered as a French artist, and an intermediary bringing aspects of English style to France.

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The Risle (less common: Rille) is a long river in Normandy, left tributary of the Seine.

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The Robec (Old Norse raudh, red and bekkr, stream) is a small river in Seine-Maritime, Normandy, France, right tributary of the Seine.

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Robert Antoine Pinchon

Robert Antoine Pinchon (July 1, 1886 in Rouen – January 9, 1943 in Bois-Guillaume) was a French Post-Impressionist landscape painter of the Rouen School (l'École de Rouen) who was born and spent most of his life in France.

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Robert Guiscard

Robert Guiscard (– 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily.

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Roger I of Sicily

Roger I (– 22 June 1101), nicknamed Roger Bosso and The Great Count, was a Norman nobleman who became the first Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101.

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Rollo or Gaange Rolf (Norman: Rou; Old Norse: Hrólfr; Rollon; 846 – 930 AD) was a Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region of France.

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Roman roads

Roman roads (Latin: viae Romanae; singular: via Romana meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.

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Rouen Cathedral

Rouen Cathedral (primatiale Notre-Dame de l'Assomption de Rouen) is a Roman Catholic church in Rouen, Normandy, France.

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The Roumois is a region in the northwestern part of the Eure département in Normandy, France.

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Saint Marcouf

Marcouf giving the cure to the king. Saint Marcouf (variously spelled Marcoult, Marculf, Marcoul, Marcou), Abbot of Nantus (Nanteuil-en-Cotentin) in the Cotentin, is a saint born in the Saxon colony of Bayeux in Normandy around 500 AD and who is best known for the healing of scrofula.

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Saint-Céneri-le-Gérei is a commune in the Orne department in north-western France.

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Saint-Germain-des-Vaux is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.

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Salade cauchoise

Salade cauchoise is a traditional potato and celery salad of the cuisine of the Pays de Caux, Normandy, France.

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Salic law

The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.

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Samson of Dol

Saint Samson of Dol (also Samsun; born late 5th century) was a Christian religious figure who is counted among the seven founder saints of Brittany with Pol Aurelian, Tugdual or Tudwal, Brieuc, Malo, Patern (Paternus) and Corentin.

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Samuel de Champlain

Samuel de Champlain (born Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – December 25, 1635), known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.

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Sark (Sercq; Sercquiais: Sèr or Cerq) is an island in the Channel Islands in the southwestern English Channel, off the coast of Normandy, France.

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Sarthe is a French department situated in the Grand-Ouest of the country.

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The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.

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The Sée is a 78 km long river in the Manche department, Normandy, France, beginning near Sourdeval.

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The Sélune is a 91 km long river in the Manche department, Normandy, France, beginning near Saint-Cyr-du-Bailleul.

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Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.

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Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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Second French Empire

The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

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The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.

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Seine-Maritime is a department of France in the Normandy region of northern France.

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Société Normande de Peinture Moderne

The Société Normande de Peinture Moderne, also known as Société de Peinture Moderne, or alternatively, Normand Society of Modern Painting, was a collective of eminent painters, sculptors, poets, musicians and critics associated with Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism and Orphism.

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Somme (river)

The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.

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Standard French

Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français normé, le français neutre or le français international, the last being a Quebec invention) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language.

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Tancred of Hauteville

Tancred of Hauteville (980 – 1041) was an 11th-century Norman petty lord about whom little is known.

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Teurgoule is a rice pudding that is a speciality of Normandy.

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Théodore Géricault

Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault (26 September 1791 – 26 January 1824) was an influential French painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings.

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Thérèse of Lisieux

Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (Sainte-Thérèse de Lisieux), born Marie Françoise-Thérèse Martin (2 January 1873 – 30 September 1897), also known as Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face, O.C.D., was a French Catholic Discalced Carmelite nun who is widely venerated in modern times.

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The Centrists

The Centrists (Les Centristes, LC), formerly known as New Centre (Nouveau Centre, NC) and European Social Liberal Party (Parti Social Libéral Européen, PSLE), is a centre-right political party in France, formed by the members of the Union for French Democracy (UDF) – including 18 of the 29 members of the UDF in the National Assembly) – who did not agree with François Bayrou's decision to found the Democratic Movement (MoDem) and wanted to support the newly elected president Nicolas Sarkozy, continuing the UDF-Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) alliance. The party foundation was announced on 29 May 2007 during a press conference and renamed on 11 December 2016.

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The Crown

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).

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The Raft of the Medusa

The Raft of the Medusa (Le Radeau de la Méduse) is an oil painting of 1818–1819 by the French Romantic painter and lithographer Théodore Géricault (1791–1824).

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Thomas Becket

Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.

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Thomas Corneille

Thomas Corneille (20 August 1625 – 8 December 1709) was a French dramatist.

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Timber framing

Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.

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Toilers of the Sea

Toilers of the Sea (Les Travailleurs de la mer) is a novel by Victor Hugo published in 1866.

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Touques (river)

The Touques is a small long coastal river in Pays d'Auge in Normandy, France.

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Treaty of Paris (1259)

The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on 4 December 1259 ending 100 years of conflicts between the Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties.

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Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte

The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, between Charles the Simple (King Charles III of France) and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, was signed in autumn 911.

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Trefoil (from Latin trifolium, "three-leaved plant") is a graphic form composed of the outline of three overlapping rings used in architecture and Christian symbolism.

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Tripes à la mode de Caen

Tripes à la mode de Caen is a traditional dish of the cuisine of Normandy, France.

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Upper Normandy

Upper Normandy (Haute-Normandie,; Ĥâote-Normaundie) is a former administrative region of France.

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Val de Saire

The Val de Saire (or Vale of the River Saire) is an area situated in the north of the Cotentin Peninsula, to the east of Cherbourg in the French region of Lower Normandy.

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A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.

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Vaudeville is a theatrical genre of variety entertainment.

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Vernacular architecture

Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions.

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Vexin is a historical county of northwestern France.

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Victor Hugo

Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.

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Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.

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Vire is a town and a former commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

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Vire (river)

The Vire is a river in Normandy, France whose 128 km course crosses the départements of Calvados and Manche, flowing through the towns of Vire, Saint-Lô and Isigny-sur-Mer, finally flowing out into the English Channel.

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Wace (1110 – after 1174), sometimes referred to as Robert Wace, was a Norman poet, who was born in Jersey and brought up in mainland Normandy (he tells us in the Roman de Rou that he was taken as a child to Caen), ending his career as Canon of Bayeux.

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West Francia

In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.

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William Iron Arm

William I of Hauteville (before 1010 – 1046), known as William Iron Arm, was a Norman adventurer who was the founder of the fortunes of the Hauteville family.

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William the Conqueror

William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.

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William Turner (artist)

William Turner (29 November 1789 – 7 August 1862) was an English painter who specialised in watercolour landscapes.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State

The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State (French) was passed by the Chamber of Deputies on 9 December 1905.

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Redirects here:

Normandy (France), Normandy (French region), Normandy (administrative region), Normandy (region), Normandy, France.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normandy

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