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North African Campaign

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The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. [1]

152 relations: Adolf Hitler, Afrika Korps, Alexandria, Algeria, Algiers, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Alphonse Juin, An Army at Dawn, Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, Armistice of 22 June 1940, Australian Army, Axis powers, Bardia, Battle of Alam el Halfa, Battle of Beda Fomm, Battle of Cape Matapan, Battle of France, Battle of Gazala, Battle of Kasserine Pass, Beda Fomm, Benito Mussolini, Bernard Montgomery, Black (code), Bonner Fellers, British Army, British Indian Army, British Military Administration (Libya), Case Anton, Claude Auchinleck, Colonialism, Commonwealth of Nations, Counter-offensive, Coup d'état, Crusader tank, Czechoslovak government-in-exile, Dwight D. Eisenhower, East African Campaign (World War II), Eastern Front (World War II), Egypt, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), El Agheila, Enigma machine, Erwin Rommel, Ettore Bastico, First Army (United Kingdom), First Battle of El Alamein, Fort Capuzzo, François Darlan, Free France, ..., French Algeria, French North Africa, French protectorate in Morocco, French protectorate of Tunisia, French Third Republic, Front line, George Marshall, George S. Patton, German-occupied Europe, Giovanni Messe, Halfaya Pass, Hans-Jürgen von Arnim, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, II Corps (United States), Italian Campaign (World War II), Italian Cyrenaica, Italian invasion of Egypt, Italian Libya, Italian Tripolitania, Italo Balbo, Italo Gariboldi, Joseph Stalin, Kenneth Anderson (British Army officer), Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Italy, Libya, Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom), List of World War II battles, Lloyd Fredendall, Major general (United States), Mareth Line, Marie-Pierre Kœnig, Mark W. Clark, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Mersa Matruh, Morocco, Naval Battle of Casablanca, Nazi Germany, Neutral country, New Zealand Army, No. 6 Commando, North Africa, North African Campaign timeline, Office of Public Sector Information, Operation Battleaxe, Operation Brevity, Operation Compass, Operation Crusader, Operation Lustre, Operation Sea Lion, Operation Sonnenblume, Operation Torch, Oran, Panzer IV, Pietro Badoglio, Polish Armed Forces in the West, Prisoner of war, Red Army, Richard O'Connor, Rodolfo Graziani, Royal Navy, Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon, Second Battle of El Alamein, Sicily, Sidi Barrani, Siege of Tobruk, South African Army, Soviet Union, Sudan Defence Force, Supermarina, Tenth Army (Italy), Timeline of World War II (1940), Timeline of World War II (1941), Timeline of World War II (1942), Timeline of World War II (1943), Tobruk, Tripoli, Tunisia, Tunisian Campaign, Ugo Cavallero, Ultra, United Kingdom, United States Armed Forces, United States Department of State, Vichy France, Władysław Anders, Wehrmacht, Western Desert Campaign, William Gott, World War II, XIII Corps (United Kingdom), Yad Vashem, 11th Hussars, 18th Army Group, 1st Armored Division (United States), 1st Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom), 1st Royal Tank Regiment, 6th Armoured Division (United Kingdom), 70th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom), 9th Division (Australia). Expand index (102 more) »

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Afrika Korps

The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.

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Alexandria

Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Algeria

Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Algiers

Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.

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Allied invasion of Sicily

The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alphonse Juin

Alphonse Pierre Juin (16 December 1888 – 27 January 1967) was a senior French Army officer who became a Marshal of France.

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An Army at Dawn

An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942–1943 is a Pulitzer Prize–winning book written in 2002 by long-time Washington Post correspondent Rick Atkinson.

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Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell

Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army.

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Armistice of 22 June 1940

The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.

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Australian Army

The Australian Army is Australia's military land force.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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Bardia

Bardia, or El Burdi (البردية or البردي) is a Mediterranean seaport in the Butnan District of eastern Libya.

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Battle of Alam el Halfa

The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between 30 August and 5 September 1942 south of El Alamein during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.

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Battle of Beda Fomm

The rapid British advance during Operation Compass (9 December 1940 – 9 February 1941) forced the Italian 10th Army to evacuate Cyrenaica, the eastern province of Libya.

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Battle of Cape Matapan

The Battle of Cape Matapan (Ναυμαχία του Ταινάρου) was a Second World War naval engagement between British and Axis forces, fought from 27–29 March 1941.

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Battle of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.

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Battle of Gazala

The Battle of Gazala (near the modern town of Ayn al Ghazālah) was fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, west of the port of Tobruk in Libya, from 26 May to 21 June 1942.

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Battle of Kasserine Pass

The Battle of Kasserine Pass was a battle of the Tunisia Campaign of World War II that took place in February 1943.

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Beda Fomm

Beda Fomm is a small coastal town in southwestern Cyrenaica, Libya.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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Bernard Montgomery

Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.

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Black (code)

The Black Code (more formally, Military Intelligence Code No. 11) was a secret code used by US military attachés in the early period of World War II.

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Bonner Fellers

Bonner Frank Fellers (February 7, 1896 – October 7, 1973) was a U.S. Army officer who served during World War II as military attaché and psychological warfare director.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Indian Army

The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.

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British Military Administration (Libya)

The British Military Administration of Libya was the control of the regions of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania of the former Italian Libya by the British from 1942 until Libyan independence in 1951.

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Case Anton

Operation Anton, or Fall Anton, in German, was the codename for the military occupation of Vichy France carried out by Germany and Italy in November 1942.

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Claude Auchinleck

Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck (21 June 1884 – 23 March 1981) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.

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Colonialism

Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Counter-offensive

A counter-offensive is the term used by the military to describe large-scale, usually strategic offensive operations by forces that had successfully halted the enemy's offensive, while occupying defensive positions.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Crusader tank

The Tank, Cruiser, Mk VI or A15 Crusader was one of the primary British cruiser tanks during the early part of the Second World War.

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Czechoslovak government-in-exile

The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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East African Campaign (World War II)

The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Eighth Army (United Kingdom)

The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.

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El Agheila

El Agheila (العقيلة al-'Uqaylah) is a coastal city at the bottom of the Gulf of Sidra in far western Cyrenaica, Libya.

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Enigma machine

The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.

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Erwin Rommel

Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.

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Ettore Bastico

Ettore Bastico (9 April 1876 – 2 December 1972) was an Italian military officer before and during World War II.

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First Army (United Kingdom)

The First Army was a formation of the British Army that existed during the First and Second World Wars.

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First Battle of El Alamein

The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought in Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika, which included the Afrika Korps) (Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel) and Allied (British Imperial and Commonwealth) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the Eighth Army (General Claude Auchinleck).

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Fort Capuzzo

Fort Capuzzo (Ridotta Capuzzo) was a fort in the colony of Italian Libya, near the Libyan-Egyptian border and next to the Italian Frontier Wire.

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François Darlan

Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral and political figure.

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Free France

Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.

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French Algeria

French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.

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French North Africa

French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.

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French protectorate in Morocco

The French protectorate in Morocco (Protectorat français au Maroc; حماية فرنسا في المغرب Ḥimāyat Faransā fi-l-Maḡrib) was established by the Treaty of Fez.

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French protectorate of Tunisia

The French protectorate of Tunisia (Protectorat français de Tunisie; الحماية الفرنسية في تونس) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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Front line

A front line (alternative forms: front-line or frontline) in military terminology is the position(s) closest to the area of conflict of an armed force's personnel and equipment, generally referring to maritime or land forces.

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George Marshall

George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.

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George S. Patton

General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

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German-occupied Europe

German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.

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Giovanni Messe

Giovanni Messe (10 December 1883 – 18 December 1968) was an Italian general, politician, and field marshal (Maresciallo d'Italia).

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Halfaya Pass

Halfaya Pass (مَمَرّ حَلْفَيَا translit., known colloquially as Hellfire Pass) is located in Egypt, near the border with Libya.

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Hans-Jürgen von Arnim

Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (4 April 1889 – 1 September 1962) was a German general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several armies.

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Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis

Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.

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II Corps (United States)

The II Corps was a corps-sized formation of the United States Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.

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Italian Campaign (World War II)

The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.

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Italian Cyrenaica

Italian Cyrenaica was an Italian colony, located in present-day eastern Libya, that existed from 1927 to 1934.

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Italian invasion of Egypt

The Italian invasion of Egypt (Operazione E) was an Italian offensive against British, Commonwealth and Free French forces during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.

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Italian Libya

Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.

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Italian Tripolitania

Italian Tripolitania was an Italian colony, located in present-day western Libya, that existed from 1927 to 1934.

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Italo Balbo

Italo Balbo (Ferrara, 6 June 1896 – Tobruk, 28 June 1940) was an Italian Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) leader who served as Italy's Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), Governor-General of Libya, Commander-in-Chief of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), and the "heir apparent" to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.

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Italo Gariboldi

Italo Gariboldi (20 April 1879 – 3 February 1970) was a senior officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) before and during World War II.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Kenneth Anderson (British Army officer)

General Sir Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson, (25 December 1891 – 29 April 1959) was a senior British Army officer who saw service in both world wars.

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Kingdom of Egypt

The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom)

Lieutenant general (Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.

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List of World War II battles

This is a list of World War II battles.

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Lloyd Fredendall

Lieutenant General Lloyd Ralston Fredendall (December 28, 1883 – October 4, 1963) was a senior officer of the United States Army who fought during World War II.

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Major general (United States)

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.

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Mareth Line

The Mareth Line was a system of fortifications built by France in southern Tunisia, prior to World War II.

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Marie-Pierre Kœnig

Marie-Pierre Kœnig (10 October 1898 – 2 September 1970) was a French army officer and politician.

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Mark W. Clark

Mark Wayne Clark (May 1, 1896 – April 17, 1984) was a United States Army officer who saw service during World War I, World War II, and the Korean War.

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Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II

The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.

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Mersa Matruh

Mersa Matruh (مرسى مطروح) is a seaport in Egypt, the capital of the Matrouh Governorate.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Naval Battle of Casablanca

The Naval Battle of Casablanca was a series of naval engagements fought between American ships covering the invasion of North Africa and Vichy French ships defending the neutrality of French Morocco in accordance with the Second Armistice at Compiègne during World War II.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neutral country

A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).

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New Zealand Army

The New Zealand Army (Ngāti Tūmatauenga, "Tribe of the God of War") is the land component of the New Zealand Defence Force and comprises around 4,500 Regular Force personnel, 2,000 Territorial Force personnel and 500 civilians.

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No. 6 Commando

No.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North African Campaign timeline

Timeline of the North African Campaign.

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Office of Public Sector Information

The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.

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Operation Battleaxe

Operation Battleaxe was a British Army operation during the Second World War in June 1941, to clear eastern Cyrenaica of German and Italian forces and raise the Siege of Tobruk.

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Operation Brevity

Operation Brevity was a limited offensive conducted in mid-May 1941, during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.

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Operation Compass

Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.

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Operation Crusader

Operation Crusader was a military operation during the Second World War by the British Eighth Army against the Axis forces in North Africa between 18 November and 30 December 1941.

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Operation Lustre

Operation Lustre was an action during World War II: the movement of British and other Allied troops (Australian, New Zealand and Polish) from Egypt to Greece in March and April 1941, in response to the failed Italian invasion and the looming threat of German intervention.

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Operation Sea Lion

Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.

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Operation Sonnenblume

Operation Sonnenblume (Unternehmen Sonnenblume/Operation Sunflower) was the name given to the dispatch of German troops to North Africa in February 1941, during the Second World War.

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Operation Torch

Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.

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Oran

Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.

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Panzer IV

The Panzerkampfwagen IV (PzKpfw IV), commonly known as the Panzer IV, was a German medium tank developed in the late 1930s and used extensively during the Second World War.

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Pietro Badoglio

Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.

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Polish Armed Forces in the West

The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.

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Prisoner of war

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Richard O'Connor

General Sir Richard Nugent O'Connor & Bar, MC (21 August 1889 – 17 June 1981) was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First and Second World Wars, and commanded the Western Desert Force in the early years of the Second World War.

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Rodolfo Graziani

Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon

The French fleet in Toulon was scuttled on 27 November 1942 to avoid capture by Nazi German forces.

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Second Battle of El Alamein

The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Sidi Barrani

Sidi Barrani (سيدى برانى) is a town in Egypt, near the Mediterranean Sea, about east of the border with Libya, and around from Tobruk, Libya.

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Siege of Tobruk

The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.

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South African Army

The South African Army is the army of South Africa, first formed after the Union of South Africa was created in 1910.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sudan Defence Force

The Sudan Defence Force (SDF) was a British Army unit formed in 1925, as its name indicates, to maintain the borders of the Sudan under the British administration.

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Supermarina

Supermarina was the supreme command of the Regia Marina during World War II, activated on 1 June 1940.

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Tenth Army (Italy)

The Italian Tenth Army was an Italian Army which fought in World War I and in Italian North Africa during World War II.

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Timeline of World War II (1940)

This is a timeline of events that stretched over the period of World War II.

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Timeline of World War II (1941)

This is a timeline of events that stretched over the period of World War II from 1941, marked also by the beginning of Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front.

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Timeline of World War II (1942)

This is a timeline of events that occurred during World War II in 1942.

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Timeline of World War II (1943)

This is a timeline of events that occurred during World War II in 1943.

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Tobruk

Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.

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Tripoli

Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Tunisian Campaign

The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.

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Ugo Cavallero

Ugo Cavallero (20 September 1880 – 13 September 1943) was an Italian military commander before and during World War II.

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Ultra

Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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Vichy France

Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

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Władysław Anders

Władysław Albert Anders (11 August 1892 – 12 May 1970) was a general in the Polish Army and later in life a politician and prominent member of the Polish government-in-exile in London.

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Wehrmacht

The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".

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Western Desert Campaign

The Western Desert Campaign (Desert War), took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War.

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William Gott

Lieutenant-General William Henry Ewart Gott, & Bar, MC (13 August 1897 – 7 August 1942), nicknamed "Strafer", was a senior British Army officer who fought during both World War I and World War II, reaching the rank of lieutenant-general while serving with the British Eighth Army.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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XIII Corps (United Kingdom)

XIII Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that fought on the Western Front during the First World War and was reformed for service during the Second World War, serving in the Mediterranean and Middle East throughout its service.

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Yad Vashem

Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.

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11th Hussars

The 11th Hussars (Prince Albert's Own) was a cavalry regiment of the British Army established in 1715.

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18th Army Group

The 18th Army Group was an Allied formation in the Second World War.

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1st Armored Division (United States)

The 1st Armored Division—nicknamed "Old Ironsides"—is a combined arms division of the United States Army.

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1st Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 1st Parachute Brigade was an airborne forces brigade formed by the British Army during the Second World War.

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1st Royal Tank Regiment

The 1st Royal Tank Regiment (1 RTR) was an armoured regiment of the British Army.

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6th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

The 6th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army, created in September 1940 during the Second World War.

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70th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

The 70th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.

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78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

The 78th Infantry Division, also known as the Battleaxe Division, was an infantry division of the British Army, raised during World War II that fought, with great distinction, in Tunisia, Sicily and Italy from late 1942–1945.

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7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

The 7th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army that saw distinguished active service during World War II, where its exploits in the Western Desert Campaign gained it the Desert Rats nickname.

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9th Division (Australia)

The 9th Division was a division of the Australian Army that served during World War II.

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Redirects here:

African front, Afrikafeldzug, Campaigns in North Africa, Invasion of North Africa, North Africa 1940-42, North Africa 1940-43, North Africa 1940–42, North Africa 1940–43, North Africa 1941-1943, North Africa 1941-42, North Africa 1941-43, North Africa 1941–1943, North Africa 1941–42, North Africa 1941–43, North Africa 1942-43, North Africa 1942–43, North Africa 1943, North Africa Campaign, North Africa Theatre of World War II, North Africa campaign, North African Campaign (World War II), North African Theatre (World War II), North African Theatre of World War II, North African campaign, North African theatre (World War II), North african campaign outline, WWII in North Africa.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_African_Campaign

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