63 relations: Antarctic oscillation, Anticyclone, Arctic dipole anomaly, Arctic oscillation, Atlantic hurricane, Atlantic multidecadal oscillation, Atlantic Ocean, Azores, Azores High, BBC News Online, Block (meteorology), Canada, Chionoecetes, Cod, Cod fishing in Newfoundland, East Coast of the United States, El Niño, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Empirical orthogonal functions, Europe, Georges Bank, Gibraltar, Global warming, Greenland, Gulf of Maine, Gulf of Mexico, Heat wave, Ice–albedo feedback, Iceland, Icelandic Low, Labrador Sea, Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory, Latitude of the Gulf Stream and the Gulf Stream north wall index, Lisbon, Mediterranean Sea, Met Office, National Center for Atmospheric Research, North Africa, North Atlantic Current, North Atlantic Gyre, North Sea, Northeastern United States, Numerical weather prediction, Pacific decadal oscillation, Pacific Ocean, Pacific–North American teleconnection pattern, Paleotempestology, Ponta Delgada, Quasi-biennial oscillation, Rain, ..., Reykjavík, Salinity, Soay sheep, Storm, Stykkishólmur, Tehuantepecer, Tropical cyclone, United Kingdom, Upwelling, Westerlies, Wind, Winter of 2009–10 in Europe, Winter of 2010–11 in Europe. Expand index (13 more) » « Shrink index
The Antarctic oscillation (AAO, to distinguish it from the Arctic oscillation or AO) is a low-frequency mode of atmospheric variability of the southern hemisphere.
An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States National Weather Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere".
The Arctic dipole anomaly is a pressure pattern characterized by high pressure on the arctic regions of North America and low pressure on those of Eurasia.
The Arctic oscillation (AO) or Northern Annular Mode/Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) is a weather phenomenon at the Arctic and Antarctic poles north (or south) of 20 degrees latitude.
An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean, usually in the summer or fall.
The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a climate cycle that affects the sea surface temperature (SST) of the North Atlantic Ocean based on different modes on multidecadal timescales.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.
The Azores High (Anticiclone dos Açores) also known as North Atlantic (Subtropical) High/Anticyclone or the Bermuda-Azores High, is a large subtropical semi-permanent centre of high atmospheric pressure typically found south of the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean, at the Horse latitudes.
BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.
Blocks in meteorology are large-scale patterns in the atmospheric pressure field that are nearly stationary, effectively “blocking” or redirecting migratory cyclones.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Chionoecetes is a genus of crabs that live in the northern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
Cod fishing in Newfoundland was carried out at a subsistence level for centuries, but large scale fishing began shortly after the European discovery of the North American continent in 1492, with the waters being found to be preternaturally plentiful, and ended after intense overfishing with the collapse of the fisheries in 1992.
The East Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
In statistics and signal processing, the method of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is a decomposition of a signal or data set in terms of orthogonal basis functions which are determined from the data.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Georges Bank (formerly known as St. Georges Bank) is a large elevated area of the sea floor between Cape Cod, Massachusetts (United States), and Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia (Canada).
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Gulf of Maine (Golfe du Maine) is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of North America.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
A heat wave is a period of excessively hot weather, which may be accompanied by high humidity, especially in oceanic climate countries.
Ice–albedo feedback is a positive feedback climate process where a change in the area of ice caps, glaciers, and sea ice alters the albedo.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Icelandic Low is a semi-permanent centre of low atmospheric pressure found between Iceland and southern Greenland and extending in the Northern Hemisphere winter into the Barents Sea.
The Labrador Sea (French: mer du Labrador, Danish: Labradorhavet) is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean between the Labrador Peninsula and Greenland.
The Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) is a research unit of Columbia University located on a campus in Palisades, N.Y., north of Manhattan on the Hudson River.
The Gulf Stream separates from the US coast near Cape Hatteras (35°N, 75°W) and then travels eastwards across the North Atlantic, becoming the North Atlantic current at about 55°W.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office) is the United Kingdom's national weather service.
The US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is a US federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) managed by the nonprofit University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current that extends the Gulf Stream north-eastward.
The North Atlantic Gyre, located in the Atlantic Ocean, is one of the five major oceanic gyres.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.
Numerical weather prediction (NWP) uses mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans to predict the weather based on current weather conditions.
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a robust, recurring pattern of ocean-atmosphere climate variability centered over the mid-latitude Pacific basin.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Pacific–North American teleconnection pattern (PNA) is a climatological term for a large-scale weather pattern with two modes, denoted positive and negative, and which relates the atmospheric circulation pattern over the North Pacific Ocean with the one over the North American continent.
Paleotempestology is the study of past tropical cyclone activity by means of geological proxies as well as historical documentary records.
Ponta Delgada is the largest municipality (concelho) and administrative capital of the Autonomous Region of the Azores in Portugal.
The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is a quasiperiodic oscillation of the equatorial zonal wind between easterlies and westerlies in the tropical stratosphere with a mean period of 28 to 29 months.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
The Soay sheep is a breed of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) descended from a population of feral sheep on the island of Soay in the St Kilda Archipelago, about from the Western Isles of Scotland.
A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather.
Stykkishólmur is a town and municipality situated in the western part of Iceland, in the northern part of the Snæfellsnes peninsula.
Tehuantepecer, or Tehuano wind, is a violent mountain-gap wind traveling through Chivela Pass, most common between October and February, with a summer minimum in July.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.
The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
The winter of 2009–2010 in Europe was unusually cold.
The winter of 2010–2011 in Europe began with an unusually cold November caused by a cold weather cycle that started in southern Scandinavia and subsequently moved south and west over both Belgium and the Netherlands on 25 November and into the west of Scotland and north east England on 26 November.