382 relations: Administrative divisions of India, Afghanistan, Agastya, Agra, Agra Fort, Ahir, Ajmer, Akshardham (Delhi), Alamgirpur, Alder, Aligarh Muslim University, All India Institutes of Medical Sciences, Allahabad, Alwar, Amritsar, Aravalli Range, Atlantic Ocean, Austroasiatic languages, Awadhi language, Ayodhya, Āryāvarta, Bactria, Badakhshan Province, Bahá'í Faith, Banaras Hindu University, Barasingha, Bengal fox, Bengali language, Bhand, Bhangra (dance), Bhili language, Bhimbetka rock shelters, Bhojpuri language, Bihar, Birch, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Blackbuck, Bodh Gaya, Bombyx mori, Brahmin, British Raj, Bronze Age, Buddhism, Bungarus, Caracal, Caspian Sea, Cedrus deodara, Central Asia, Central India, Central University of Rajasthan, ..., Central Zone (Hindi), Chandigarh, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Chhattisgarh, China, Chinkara, Chital, Chota Char Dham, Christianity, Christopher Bayly, Churidar, Civet, Colobinae, Columbidae, Crane (bird), Crocodile, Cultural Zones of India, Dachigam National Park, Dalbergia sissoo, Dalit, Dastar, Delhi, Delhi Sultanate, Delhi Technological University, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, Desert National Park, Dhoti, Dogri language, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Dras, Dravidian languages, Duck, Dudhwa National Park, Earth, East India, Elephant, Empire of Harsha, English language, Ethnic group, Fatehpur Sikri, Fir, Firstpost, G. 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The administrative divisions of India are subnational administrative units of India; they compose a nested hierarchy of country subdivisions.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agastya was a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Agra Fort is a historical fort in the city of Agra in India.
Ahir or Aheer is an ethnic group, some members of which identify as being of the Indian Yadav community because they consider the two terms to be synonymous.
Ajmer (अजमेर) is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District.
Akshardham or Swaminarayan Akshardham complex is a Hindu temple, and a spiritual-cultural campus in Delhi, India.
Alamgirpur is an archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization that thrived along Yamuna River (c. 3300–1300 BC) from the Harappan-Bara period, located in Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.
Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is an Indian public central university.
The All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) are a group of autonomous public medical colleges of higher education.
Prayag, or Allahabad is a large metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Allahabad District, the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India, and the Allahabad Division.
Alwar (formerly Ulwar), located 150 km south of Delhi and 150 km north of Jaipur, is a city in India's National Capital Region and the administrative headquarters of Alwar District in the state of Rajasthan.
Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains running approximately 692 km (430 mi) in a southwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through southern Haryana, through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and ending in Gujarat.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Awadhi (Devanagari: अवधी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh and Terai belt of Nepal.
Ayodhya (IAST Ayodhyā), also known as Saketa, is an ancient city of India, believed to be the birthplace of Rama and setting of the epic Ramayana.
Āryāvarta (Sanskrit: आर्यावर्त, lit. "abode of the Aryans") is the term mentioned as denoting the entirety of the Indian subcontinent in some classical Hindu texts in Sanskrit such as by Patanjali and the authors of Dharmashastras.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Badakhshan Province (بدخشان ولایت Badaxšān wilāyat and Velâyat-e Badakhšân) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the farthest northeastern part of the country between Tajikistan and northern Pakistan.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Banaras Hindu University (Hindi:, BHU), formerly Central Hindu College, is a public central university located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
The barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii syn. Cervus duvaucelii), also called swamp deer, is a deer species distributed in the Indian subcontinent.
The Bengal fox (Vulpes bengalensis), also known as the Indian fox, is a fox endemic to the Indian subcontinent and is found from the Himalayan foothills and Terai of Nepal through southern India and from southern and eastern Pakistan to eastern India and southeastern Bangladesh.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bahānds (Devanagari: भांड, Urdu: بھانڈ, Gurmukhi: ਭਾਂਡ) are the traditional folk entertainers of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal.
The term Bhaṅgṛā (ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi), (Shahmukhi); pronounced) refers to the traditional dance from the Indian subcontinent originating in the Majha area of the Punjab region.
Bhili (Bhili) is a Western Indo-Aryan language spoken in west-central India, in the region east of Ahmedabad.
The Bhimbetka rock shelters are an archaeological site in central India that spans the prehistoric paleolithic and mesolithic periods, as well as the historic period.
Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Northern-Eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani (shortened BITS Pilani or BITS) is an Indian institute of higher education and a deemed university under Section 3 of the UGC Act 1956.
The blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), also known as the Indian antelope, is an antelope found in India, Nepal and Pakistan.
Bodh Gaya is a religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar.
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bungarus is a genus of venomous elapid snakes, the kraits ("krait" is pronounced, rhyming with "kite"), found in South and Southeast Asia.
The caracal (Caracal caracal) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Cedrus deodara, the deodar cedar, Himalayan cedar, or deodar/devdar/devadar/devadaru, is a species of cedar native to the western Himalayas in Eastern Afghanistan, Northern Pakistan (especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and India (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and, Arunachal Pradesh states and the Darjeeling Region of West Bengal), Southwestern Tibet and Western Nepal, occurring at altitude.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of the states of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.
Central University of Rajasthan (CURAJ), is a central university located in Ajmer, Rajasthan, India.
The Central Zone or Madhya languages are the central varieties of the Hindi Belt, spoken across northern India, of the Indo-Aryan languages.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.
Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is a public funded agricultural university located at Hisar in the Indian state of Haryana.
Aerial view of Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University (CSJMU), formerly Kanpur University, is a public state university located in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Chhattisgarh (translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The chinkara (Gazella bennettii), also known as the Indian gazelle, is a gazelle species native to Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
The chital or cheetal (Axis axis), also known as spotted deer or axis deer, is a species of deer that is native in the Indian subcontinent.
The Chota Char Dham (Devanagari: छोटा चार धाम) (literally translated as 'the small four abodes/seats', meaning 'the small circuit of four abodes/seats'), is an important Hindu pilgrimage circuit on the under upgradation Chardham Road Highway and under construction Chota Char Dham Railway in the Indian Himalayas.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Sir Christopher Alan Bayly, FBA, FRSL (18 May 1945 – 18 April 2015) was a British historian specializing in British Imperial, Indian and global history.
Churidars, or more properly churidar pyjamas, are tightly fitting trousers worn by both men and women in the Indian subcontinent.
A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests.
The Colobinae are a subfamily of the Old World monkey family that includes 61 species in 11 genera, including the black-and-white colobus, the large-nosed proboscis monkey, and the gray langurs.
Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.
Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
The Cultural Zones of India are seven overlapping zones defined by the Ministry of Culture of the Government of India to promote and preserve the cultural heritage of various regions of India.
Dachigam National Park is located 22 kilometers from Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir.
Dalbergia sissoo, known commonly as North Indian rosewood, is a fast-growing, hardy deciduous rosewood tree native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southern Iran.
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.
A Dastaar (ਦਸਤਾਰ, dastāar, from دستار) or pagṛi (ਪਗੜੀ) or pagg (ਪੱਗ), is an item of headgear associated with Sikhism and is an important part of the Sikh culture.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Delhi Technological University (DTU), formerly known as Delhi College of Engineering, is an engineering university located in New Delhi, India.
Deogarh is a village in Lalitpur district of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Desert National Park, Rajasthan, India, is situated in the west Indian state of Rajasthan near the town of Jaisalmer.
The Vesti, also known as panche, Dhoti, dhuti, mardani, chaadra, dhotar, and panchey, is a traditional men's garment worn in the Indian subcontinent.
Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.
Dras (ISO transliteration: Drās) is a town in the Kargil District of Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir on NH 1 (former name NH 1D before renumbering of all national highways) between Zoji La pass and Kargil town.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the waterfowl family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese.
The Dudhwa National Park is a national park in the Terai of Uttar Pradesh, India, and covers an area of, with a buffer zone of.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
The Empire of Harsha was an ancient Indian empire founded and ruled by Emperor Harsha from the capital Kannauj.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Fatehpur Sikri is a town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae.
Firstpost is an Indian news and media website.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
Garhwali language (गढ़वळि भाख/भासा) is a Central Pahari language belonging to the Northern Zone of Indo-Aryan languages.
Gautam Buddha University ("GBU") (गौतम बुद्ध विश्वविद्यालय) is a research university established under Uttar Pradesh Gautam Buddha University Act, 2002 and came into existence in year 2008.
The Geological Survey of India (GSI), founded in 1851, is a Government of India Ministry of Mines organisation, one of the oldest of such organisations in the world and the second oldest survey in India after Survey of India (founded in 1767), for conducting geological surveys and studies of India, and also as the prime provider of basic earth science information to government, industry and general public, as well as the official participant in steel, coal, metals, cement, power industries and international geoscientific forums.
The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), also known as the gavial or fish-eating crocodile, is a crocodilian in the family Gavialidae, and is native to the northern part of the Indian Subcontinent.
Sri Harmandir Sahib ("The abode of God"), also known as Darbar Sahib,, informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.
The Government of Bihar, known locally as the State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Bihar and its 9 divisions which consist of 38 districts.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP), is one of India's national parks, is located in Kullu region in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
The great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) also known as the great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill, is one of the larger members of the hornbill family.
The Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) or Indian bustard is a bustard found on the Indian subcontinent.
The Green Revolution in India refers to a period of time when agriculture in India changed to an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology such as high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, pump sets, etc.
The grey-headed fish eagle (Haliaeetus ichthyaetus) is a fish-eating bird of prey from South East Asia.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.
The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, also known as the Pratihara Empire, was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-7th to the 11th century.
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, was founded in 1995.
Gurukula Kangri University or Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya ('गुरुकुल कांगड़ी विश्वविद्यालय') is a university in the city of Haridwar in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.
Haridwar (pron:ˈ), also spelled Hardwar, is an ancient city and municipality in the Haridwar district of Uttarakhand, India.
Harit Pradesh (also known as Pashchim Pradesh & Pashchimanchal) is a proposed new state of India comprising the western parts of Uttar Pradesh state.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
Hemkund Sahib (also spelled Hemkunt), formally known as Gurudwara Sri Hemkund Sahib Ji, is a Sikh place of worship and pilgrimage site in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand, India.
The six Hill Forts of Rajasthan, spread across Rajasthan state in northern India, clustered together as a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
The Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus laniger) is a subspecies of the Asian black bear found in the Himalayas of India, Tibet, Nepal, China and Pakistan.
The Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus), also known as the Himalayan red bear, isabelline bear or Dzu-Teh, is a subspecies of the brown bear and is known from northern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, northern India, west China, and Nepal.
The Himalayan swiftlet (Aerodramus brevirostris) is a small swift.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The Hindi Belt or Hindi Desh, sometimes referred to as the Hindi-Urdu Region, is a linguistic region in north-central India where Hindi (including its dialects) and Urdu are widely spoken.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindu mythology are mythical narratives found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic literature, epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, the regional literatures Sangam literature and Periya Puranam.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The history of Buddhism spans from the 5th century BCE to the present.
History of Hinduism denotes a wide variety of related religious traditions native to the Indian subcontinent notably in modern-day Nepal and India.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
The hornbills (Bucerotidae) are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia.
Hunas or Huna was the name given by the ancient Indians to a group of Central Asian tribes who, via the Khyber Pass, entered India at the end of the 5th or early 6th century.
Hyelaphus (golden deer or hog deer) is a genus of relatively small South and Southeast Asia deer that are overall brown.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian classical dance, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles,, Quote: All of the dances considered to be part of the Indian classical canon (Bharata Natyam, Chhau, Kathak, Kathakali, Manipuri, Mohiniattam, Odissi, Sattriya and Yakshagana) trace their roots to religious practices (...) the Indian diaspora has led to the translocation of Hindu dances to Europe, North America and the world." whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.
The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are a group of 20 public, autonomous institutes of management education and research in India.
The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), also called the greater one-horned rhinoceros and great Indian rhinoceros, is a rhinoceros native to the Indian subcontinent.
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as the Indus-Ganga Plain and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million-hectare (630 million-acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
Indore is the most populous and the largest city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jackals are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the genus Canis, which also includes wolves, coyotes and the domestic dog.
Jageshwar Temples, also referred to as Jageswar Temples or Jageshwar valley temples, are a group of over 100 Hindu temples dated between 7th and 12th century near Almora, in the Himalayan Indian state of Uttarakhand.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
The Masjid-i Jahān-Numā (Persian/Urdu: مسجدِ جہاں نما, Devnagri: मस्जिद जहान नुमा, the 'World-reflecting Mosque'), commonly known as the Jama Masjid devnagrii: जामा मस्जिद, Urdu: جامع مسجد) of Delhi, is one of the largest mosques in India. It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between 1644 and 1656 at a cost of 1 million rupees, and was inaugurated by an Imam from Bukhara, present-day Uzbekistan.The mosque was completed in 1656 AD with three great gates, four towers and two 40 metres high minarets constructed with strips of red sandstone and white marble. The courtyard can accommodate more than 25,000 people. There are three domes on the terrace which are surrounded by the two minarets. On the floor, a total of 899 black borders are marked for worshippers. The architectural plan of Badshahi Masjid, built by Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb at Lahore, Pakistan, is similar to the Jama Masjid.
Jammu is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
The people of Jammu have the following traditional costumes.
The Jantar Mantar monument in Jaipur, Rajasthan is a collection of nineteen architectural astronomical instruments built by the Rajput king Sawai Jai Singh II, and completed in 1734.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) is a public central university located in New Delhi, India.
Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.
Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger.
Jiwaji University (JU) is a public affiliating university in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The jungle cat (Felis chaus), also called reed cat and swamp cat, is a medium-sized cat native to the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia and southern China.
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.
A Jyotirlinga or Jyotirlingam, is a devotional representation of the Supreme God Shiva.
Kalesar National Park and adjacent Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary are protected areas in Yamunanagar district of Haryana state in India, from Chandigarh.
The Kamboj (کمبوہ ALA-LC:, ਕੰਬੋ Kamboj), also Kamboh, is a community mainly in the Northern India and eastern Pakistan.
Kanha Tiger Reserve, also called Kanha National Park, is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of Madhya Pradesh, state in the heart of India.
Kanpur (formerly Cawnpore) is the 12th most populous city in India and the second largest city in the state of Uttar Pradesh after Lucknow.
Kashipur is a city of Udham Singh Nagar district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and one of its seven subdivisions.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Kashmir stag (Cervus hanglu hanglu), also called hangul, was previuosly thought to be a subspecies of elk native to India but later researchers identified it to be a separate species.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
Kathak also known in Hindi as कथक is one of the eight major forms of Indian classical dance.
Kausani is a hill station and Village situated in Bageshwar district in the state of Uttarakhand, India.
Keoladeo National Park or Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India is a famous avifauna sanctuary that hosts thousands of birds, especially during the winter season.
The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh, India, about southeast of Jhansi.
Kharif crops or monsoon crops are domesticated plants that are cultivated and harvested in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh during the rainy season, which lasts from June to October depending on the area.
Khatri is a caste from the northern Indian subcontinent.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), also known as the hamadryad, is a venomous snake species in the family Elapidae, endemic to forests from India through Southeast Asia.
Kinnauri, also known as Kanauri, Kanor, Koonawur, or Kunawar, is a Sino-Tibetan dialect cluster centered on the Kinnaur district of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
The Koli people are an ethnic Indian group native to Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana states.
Korwa, or Kodaku/Koraku (Korku), is a Munda language of India.
The Kumaoni language is a Central Pahari language.
Kumaun University is a state university headquartered in Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
A kurta (कुर्ता, কুর্তা, ਕੁੜਤਾ, کرتہ) is an upper garment for men and women, originating in the Indian subcontinent, with regional variations of form.
Kurukshetra University is a university established on 11January 1957 in Kurukshetra in the Indian state of Haryana, from the capital, Delhi.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
Kushinagar (also known as Kusinagar, Kusinara, Kasia and Kasia Bazar) is a pilgrimage town and a Notified Area Council in the Kushinagar district of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh located around NH-28, and is 52 km east of Gorakhpur city.
Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of lac insects, of which the most commonly cultivated species is Kerria lacca.
The Ladakhi language, also called Bhoti or Bodhi, is a Tibetic language spoken in the Ladakh region of India.
The Lahuli–Spiti languages or Western Innovative Tibetan languages are a subgroup of the Tibetic languages spoken in the Lahaul and Spiti region of Himachal Pradesh, India.
Lakhimpur Kheri district is the largest district in Uttar Pradesh, India, on the border with Nepal.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glabrous (smooth and hairless) leaves, in the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
Indian folk and tribal dances are simple dances, and are performed to express joy and happiness among themselves.
The Indian state of Rajasthan is famous for historic havelis, forts and palaces.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Lucknow is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
The Mahabodhi Temple (literally: "Great Awakening Temple"), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is an ancient, but much rebuilt and restored, Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
Maharaja Ganga Singh University (MGSU, महाराजा गंगा सिंह विश्वविधालय), formerly University of Bikaner (UOB, बीकानेर विश्वविधालय), is a university located in Bikaner in the state of Rajasthan, India.
Manali is a resort town nestled in the mountains of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh near the northern end of the Kullu Valley, at an altitude of in the Beas River Valley.
Manda is a village and an archaeological site in Jammu in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Mathura is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menander I Soter (Μένανδρος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ, Ménandros A' ho Sōtḗr, "Menander I the Saviour"; known in Indian Pali sources as Milinda) was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (165Bopearachchi (1998) and (1991), respectively. The first date is estimated by Osmund Bopearachchi and R. C. Senior, the other Boperachchi/155 –130 BC) who administered a large empire in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala.
Meteorological Applications is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of meteorology published four times per year since 1994.
The typical falconets, Microhierax, are a genus of bird of prey in the Falconidae family.
The Ministry of Culture is the Indian government ministry charged with preservation and promotion of art and culture.
The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) or Home Ministry (IAST: Gṛha Maṃtrālaya) is a ministry of the Government of India.
The Ministry of Mines, a branch of the Government of India, is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to mines in India.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Mount Abu is a popular hill station in the Aravalli Range in Sirohi district of Rajasthan state in western India, near the border with Gujarat.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mussoorie (Garhwali/Hindi: Masūrī) is a hill station and a municipal board in the Dehradun District of the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand.
The myna (also known as mynah) is a bird of the starling family (Sturnidae).
Nainital is a popular hill station in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and headquarters of Nainital district in the Kumaon foothills of the outer Himalayas.
Nainital district is a district of Uttarakhand state, India.
Nalanda was a Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.
Nalanda University (also known as Nalanda International University) is located in Rajgir, near Nalanda, Bihar, India.
The Nanda Devi National Park or Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, established in 1988, is a national park situated around the peak of Nanda Devi (7816 m) in the state of Uttarakhand in northern India.
The National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
The nilgai or blue bull (literally meaning "blue cow"; Boselaphus tragocamelus) is the largest Asian antelope and is endemic to the Indian subcontinent.
Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
The Northern Satraps are a dynasty of Indo-Scythian rulers who held sway over the area of Mathura and Eastern Punjab from the 1st century BCE to the 2nd century CE.
Northern Zonal Council is a zonal council that comprises the states and union territories of Chandigarh,National Capital Territory of Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, and Rajasthan.
O.P. Jindal Global University (JGU) is a Private university located at Sonipat, Haryana, India.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Pallas's fish eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus), also known as Pallas's sea eagle or band-tailed fish eagle, is a large, brownish sea eagle.
Panjab University is a public collegiate university located in Chandigarh, India.
A parakeet is any one of a large number of small to medium-sized species of parrot, in multiple genera, that generally have long tail feathers.
Parrots, also known as psittacines, are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions.
Patiala is a city in southeastern Punjab, northwestern India.
A Patiala salwar (also called a pattian walee salwar) (also pronounced as shalwar in Urdu) is a type of female trousers which has its roots in Patiala City in the Northern region of Punjab state in India.
Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.
Patna University, the first university in Bihar, was established on 1 October 1917 during the British Raj, and is the seventh oldest university of the Indian subcontinent.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Pheasants are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.
The traditional outfit for both males and females in Kashmir is the pheran (or pheran) and poots. The pheran and poots consist of two gowns, one over the other.
Phulkari (ਫੁਲਕਾਰੀ) embroidery technique from the Punjab region (divided between India and Pakistan) and Haryana literally means flower work, which was at one time used as the word for embroidery, but in time the word “Phulkari” became restricted to embroidered shawls and head scarfs.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Pinus roxburghii, commonly known as chir pine or longleaf Indian pine, is a species of pine.
Pinus wallichiana is a coniferous evergreen tree native to the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindu Kush mountains, from eastern Afghanistan east across northern Pakistan and north west India to Yunnan in southwest China.
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.
Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) in Ludhiana, Punjab is a state agricultural university in India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
The Punjabi ghagra is a four-piece outfit known as tewar or 'ti-or' which was traditionally worn by Punjabi women throughout the Punjab region with the outfit comprising a head scarf (Phulkari), kurta or kurti, ghagra and either a suthan (baggy trousers with a tight band at the ankles) or the Punjabi salwar.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Punjabi Kurta and Tamba are traditional costume for men of Punjab.
Punjabi University is a state university located in Patiala, Punjab, India.
Pushkar is a town in the Ajmer district in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
The Qutub Minar, also spelled as Qutab Minar, or Qutb Minar, is the tallest minaret in the world made up of bricks.
Rabi crops or Rabi harvest are agricultural crops that are sown in winter and harvested in the spring in South Asia.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajasthani (Devanagari: राजस्थानी) refers to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken primarily in the state of Rajasthan and adjacent areas of Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh in India.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Ranthambhore National Park (रणथंभौर राष्ट्रीय उद्यान) or Ranthambhore is the fortieth largest national park in northern India, covering 392 km².
The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.
Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi in India.
The red-breasted parakeet (Psittacula alexandri) is among the more widespread species of the genus and is the species which has the most geographical variations.
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America.
Rishi (Sanskrit: ऋषि IAST: ṛṣi) is a Vedic term for an inspired poet of hymns from the Vedas.
Rishikesh is a city, municipal corporation and a tehsil in Dehradun district of the Indian state, Uttarakhand.
Romila Thapar (born 30 November 1931) is an Indian historian whose principal area of study is ancient India.
Roorkee (Rūṛkī) is a city in North India and a Municipal Corporation in the Haridwar district of state Uttarakhand, India.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
Saari means island in Finnish and may refer to.
Salix herbacea, the dwarf willow, least willow or snowbed willow, is a species of tiny creeping willow (family Salicaceae) adapted to survive in harsh arctic and subarctic environments.
The Punjabi Salwar is part of the Punjabi suit which is the traditional attire of the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
The sambar (Rusa unicolor) is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, southern China, and Southeast Asia that is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2008.
Samudragupta (CE) was the second ruler of the Gupta Empire and the son and successor of Chandragupta I. His rule was one of expansion marked first by the conquest of his immediate neighbours and then by campaigns to the east and the south where chiefdoms and kingdoms were subdued and forced to pay tribute to him.
Sanchi Stupa, also written Sanci, is a Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.
Sangeet Natak Akademi (The National Academy for Music, Dance and Drama in English) is the national level academy for performing arts set up by the Government of India.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarnath is a place located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India.
The sarus crane (Antigone antigone) is a large non-migratory crane found in parts of the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Australia.
Sawai Madhopur is a city and Municipal Corporation (Nagar Parishad) in the Sawai Madhopur District in Rajasthan state, India.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in the Indian subcontinent.
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (SKUAST) was an Agricultural University in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Shimla, also known as Simla, is the capital and the largest city of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Shorea robusta, also known as śāl, sakhua or shala tree, is a species of tree belonging to the Dipterocarpaceae family.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus), also known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Sikh Architecture is a style of architecture that is characterized with values of progressiveness, exquisite intricacy, austere beauty and logical flowing lines.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
The Sivalik Hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas.
The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), also known as the labiated bear, is an insectivorous bear species native to the Indian subcontinent.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (P. g. gangetica)(~3,500 individuals) and the Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor)(~1,500 individuals).
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
Srinagar is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
SRM Institute of Science and Technology, or Sri Ramaswamy Memorial Institute of Science and Technology, formerly SRM University, is a deemed university located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.
The stork-billed kingfisher (Pelargopsis capensis), is a tree kingfisher which is widely but sparsely distributed in the tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, from India to Indonesia.
The Sur Empire was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun origin who ruled a large territory in northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital.
The Taj Mahal (meaning "Crown of the Palace") is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra.
The tawny fish owl (Ketupa flavipes) is a species of owl in the genus Ketupa.
Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, informally Thapar University, is an institute deemed to be university that was founded in 1956 by Karam Chand Thapar and is situated in Patiala.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The Tibetan sand fox (Vulpes ferrilata) is a species of true fox endemic to the high Tibetan Plateau, Ladakh plateau, Nepal, China, Sikkim, and Bhutan, up to altitudes of about 5300 m. It is classed as of "least concern" for extinction by the IUCN, on account of its widespread range in the Tibetan Plateau's steppes and semi-deserts.
The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
Red velvet mites or rain bugs are arachnids found in soil litter known for their bright red color but are often mistaken for spiders.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
The University of Allahabad, informally known as Allahabad University, is a public central university located in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
The University of Delhi, informally known as Delhi University (DU), is a collegiate public central university, located in New Delhi, India.
The University of Jammu informally known as Jammu University (JU), accredited as A+ grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), was established in 1969 by an Act of the State Legislature which effectively split the Jammu and Kashmir University into the separate University of Jammu and University of Kashmir.
The University of Kashmir (UK) is a university on the western side of Dal Lake in the city of Srinagar which lies in the India state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The University of Kota (UOK) is a public university in Kota, Rajasthan, India.
University Of Lucknow or Lucknow University (LU) is a government owned Indian research university based in Lucknow.
University of Rajasthan is a public and state university and one of the oldest universities in the Indian state Rajasthan, located in the city Jaipur.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
UTC+05:30 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +05:30.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.
Uttarakhand Technical University is a public university in the Indian state of Uttarakhand set up by the Government of Uttarakhand on 27 January 2005, through the.
Vaishno Devi, also known as Mata Rani, Trikuta and Vaishnavi, is a manifestation of the Hindu Goddess Mata Adi Shakti also known as Chandi/Durga.
Vaishya is one of the four varnas of the Hindu social order in Nepal and India.
Valley of Flowers National Park is an Indian national park, located in West Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand and is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora.
Varadaraja V. Raman (born May 28, 1932) is Emeritus Professor of Physics and Humanities at the Rochester Institute of Technology.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University is an open university in Kota, Rajasthan, India, established on July 23, 1987, and was initially known as Kota Open University.
Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary is located in Bhagalpur District of Bihar, India.
The Vindhya Range(also known as Vindhyachal)() is a complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India.
Vrindavan is a town in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
A Western Disturbance is an extratropical storm originating in the Mediterranean region that brings sudden winter rain to the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Western India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of its western part.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The white-tailed rubythroat has been split into the following species.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.