226 relations: Adventure travel, Airdrop, Airship, Airship Italia, Albert Hastings Markham, Albert P. Crary, Aleksandr Kuznetsov (explorer), Alert, Nunavut, Amphipoda, Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica, Arctic, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Arctic cooperation and politics, Arctic Council, Arctic fox, Arctic Ocean, Arktika (1972 icebreaker), Arktika 2007, Artur Chilingarov, Associated Press, Association football, Avro Lancaster, Axial tilt, Barneo, Barrow, Alaska, Beijing, Bering Strait, Biome, Black-legged kittiwake, Bratvaag Expedition, British Arctic Expedition, California Institute of Technology, Canada Post, Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame, Canadian Eskimo Dog, Canadian Global Affairs Institute, Cape Columbia, CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent, Celestial pole, Chandler wobble, Charles Francis Hall, Charles R. Burton, Chicago, Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route, Climate change in the Arctic, Climate of the Arctic, Commonwealth of Nations, Cosmology in medieval Islam, Culture of Iran, ..., Dante Alighieri, Douglas C-47 Skytrain, Drifting ice station, E. Myles Standish, Earth's rotation, Edmund Hillary, Effects of global warming, Ellesmere Island, Ernst Krenkel, Exclusive economic zone, Flag of Russia, Floyd Bennett, Fokker F.VII, Fram, Franz Josef Land, Frederick Cook, Fridtjof Nansen, George W. De Long, Global warming, Greenland, Greenwich Mean Time, Henry Corbin, Hjalmar Johansen, HMS Superb (S109), Hollywood Burbank Airport, Hyperborea, Ibrahim Muhawi, Icebreaker, International Astronomical Union, International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, International law, International Seabed Authority, International Terrestrial Reference System, Inuit, Inuit Circumpolar Council, Isostasy, Ivan Papanin, Jason (ship), Joseph O. Fletcher, Kaffeklubben Island, Kayak, Kommersant, Kotelny Island, Kvitøya, Lacuna (manuscripts), Lada Niva, Latitude, Lead (sea ice), Leonhard Euler, Lewis Pugh, Lincoln Ellsworth, Longitude, Los Angeles, March equinox, Matthew Henson, Midnight sun, Mir (submersible), MLAE-2009, Moscow State University, Moscow Time, Motorcycle, Mount Qaf, National Geographic Society, Neil Armstrong, Norge (airship), North Pole, Alaska, North Pole-1, Northern fulmar, Northern Hemisphere, Nuclear-powered icebreaker, Oden (1988 icebreaker), Open Polar Sea, Orbital pole, Orography, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Plate tectonics, Polar bear, Polar night, Polar Record, Polar route, Polaris, Polaris expedition, Pole of inaccessibility, Poles of astronomical bodies, Polynya, Postal codes in Canada, Pressure ridge (ice), Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, Purgatorio, Pyotr Shirshov, Qikiqtaaluk Region, Ralph Plaisted, Ranulph Fiennes, Regia Marina, Richard E. Byrd, Richard Weber (explorer), Ringed seal, Roald Amundsen, Robert Peary, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Roy Koerner, Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force, Royal Navy, Rudolf Island, Rupes Nigra, Russia, Russian Geographical Society, RV Polarstern, S. A. Andrée's Arctic Balloon Expedition of 1897, Salomon August Andrée, Santa Claus, Santa's workshop, Scott Polar Research Institute, Scuba diving, Sea anemone, Sea ice, September equinox, Sextant, Shinji Kazama, Shrimp, Sled dog, Snow bunting, Snowmobile, Solstice, South Pole, Soviet Union, Soviet–Canadian 1988 Polar Bridge Expedition, Sufism, Sunrise, Sunset, Svalbard, Taymyr (1909 icebreaker), The Hague Academy of International Law, The New York Times, Tom Avery, Transglobe Expedition, True north, Tug of war, Twilight, Umberto Cagni, Umberto Nobile, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United States Air Force, United States Navy, University of Cambridge, USCGC Healy (WAGB-20), USCGC Polar Sea (WAGB-11), USS Archerfish (SSN-678), USS Billfish (SSN-676), USS Charlotte (SSN-766), USS Gurnard (SSN-662), USS Hawkbill (SSN-666), USS Jeannette (1878), USS Nautilus (SSN-571), USS Pintado (SSN-672), USS Ray (SSN-653), USS Sea Devil (SSN-664), USS Seahorse (SSN-669), USS Skate (SSN-578), UTC+04:00, Vasily Igorevich Yelagin, Vidar Viking, Voenizdat, Vokrug sveta, Wally Herbert, Welland Phipps, Western culture, Will Steger, Willem Barentsz, William Anderson (naval officer), William Parry (explorer), William Pershing Benedict, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, World Meteorological Organization, Yevgeny Konstantinovich Fyodorov. Expand index (176 more) » « Shrink index
Adventure travel is a type of niche tourism, involving exploration or travel with a certain degree of risk (real or perceived), and which may require special skills and physical exertion.
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An airdrop is a type of airlift, developed during World War II to resupply otherwise inaccessible troops, who themselves may have been airborne forces.
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An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power.
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Airship Italia was a semi-rigid airship used by Italian engineer Umberto Nobile in his second series of flights around the North Pole.
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Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham, KCB (11 November 1841 – 28 October 1918) was a British-French explorer, author, and officer in the Royal Navy.
Albert Paddock Crary (July 25, 1911 – October 29, 1987), was a pioneer polar geophysicist and glaciologist.
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Aleksandr Kuznetsov was the expedition leader of the first undisputed team to set foot on the North Pole.
Alert, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, is the northernmost permanently inhabited place in the world, ("Twice a year, the military resupply Alert, the world's northernmost settlement.") at latitude 82°30'05" north, from the North Pole.
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Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies.
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The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is a United States scientific research station at the South Pole, the southernmost place on the Earth.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
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The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, or AARI (Арктический и антарктический научно-исследовательский институт, abbreviated as ААНИИ) is the oldest and largest Russian research institute in the field of comprehensive studies of Arctic and Antarctica.
Arctic cooperation and politics are partially coordinated via the Arctic Council, composed of the eight Arctic nations: the United States of America, Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, and Denmark with Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum which addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and people living in the Arctic region.
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The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.
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The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
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NS Arktika (p) is a retired nuclear-powered icebreaker of the Soviet (now Russian) ''Arktika'' class.
Arktika 2007 (Российская полярная экспедиция "Арктика-2007") was a 2007 expedition in which Russia performed the first ever crewed descent to the ocean bottom at the North Pole, as part of research related to the 2001 Russian territorial claim, one of many territorial claims in the Arctic, made possible, in part, because of Arctic shrinkage.
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Artur Nikolayevich Chilingarov (Артур Николаевич Чилингаров; born 25 September 1939) is an Armenian-Russian polar explorer.
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The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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The Avro Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber.
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In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
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Camp Barneo (Лагерь Бaрнео) is a private Russian temporary ice base, established annually since 2002 on an ice floe relatively close to the North Pole, used largely for tourist excursion purposes.
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Barrow, also known by its native name Utqiagvik, is the largest city and the borough seat of the North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska and is located north of the Arctic Circle.
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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
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The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.
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A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
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The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae.
The Bratvaag Expedition was a Norwegian expedition in 1930 led by Dr.
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The British Arctic Expedition of 1875-1876, led by Sir George Strong Nares, was sent by the British Admiralty to attempt to reach the North Pole via Smith Sound.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Canada Post Corporation (Société Canadienne des Postes), known more simply as Canada Post (Postes Canada), is a Crown corporation which functions as the primary postal operator in Canada.
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Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame, based in the Reynolds-Alberta Museum in Wetaskiwin, Alberta, Canada, commemorates and honours those whose accomplishments in aviation contributed so much to Canada's development as a nation.
The Canadian Eskimo Dog is an Arctic breed of working dog, which is often considered to be one of North America's oldest and rarest remaining purebred indigenous domestic canines.
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The Canadian Global Affairs Institute (Global Affairs) is an independent, non-partisan research institute based in Calgary with offices in Ottawa.
Cape Columbia is the northernmost point of land of Canada, located on Ellesmere Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut.
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CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent is a Canadian Coast Guard Heavy Arctic Icebreaker.
The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth's axis of rotation, indefinitely extended, intersects the celestial sphere.
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The Chandler wobble or variation of latitude is a small deviation in the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the solid earth, which was discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891.
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Charles Francis Hall (1821 – November 8, 1871) was an American Arctic explorer.
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Charles Robert Burton (13 December 1942 – 15 July 2002) was an English explorer, best known for his part in the Transglobe Expedition, the first expedition to circumnavigate the globe from pole to pole.
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Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
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The Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route (translit), also known as Glavsevmorput or GUSMP (ГУСМП), was a Soviet government organization in charge of the maritime Northern Sea Route, established in January 1932 and dissolved in 1964.
, observed in recent years.
The climate of the Arctic is characterized by long, cold winters and short, cool summers.
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The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Islamic cosmology is the cosmology of Islamic societies.
The culture of Iran (Farhang-e Irān), also known as culture of Persia, is one of the oldest in the world.
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Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
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The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota (RAF designation) is a military transport aircraft developed from the civilian Douglas DC-3 airliner.
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Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations are research stations built on the ice of the high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean.
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Erland Myles Standish, Jr. (born March 5, 1939) is a mathematical astronomer and a former professor at Yale University.
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Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.
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Sir Edmund Percival Hillary OSN (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist.
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The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.
Ellesmere Island (Inuit: Umingmak Nuna, meaning "land of muskoxen"; Île d'Ellesmere) is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region in the Canadian territory of Nunavut.
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Ernst Teodorovich Krenkel (Эрнст Теодо́рович Кре́нкель) (in Bialystok – 8 December 1971 in Moscow) was a Soviet Arctic explorer, radio operator, doctor of geographical sciences (1938), and Hero of the Soviet Union (1938).
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An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
The flag of Russia (Флаг России) is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.
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Floyd Bennett (October 25, 1890 – April 25, 1928) was an American aviator who claimed, along with Richard E. Byrd, to have made the first flight to the North Pole in 1926.
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The Fokker F.VII, also known as the Fokker Trimotor, was an airliner produced in the 1920s by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker, Fokker's American subsidiary Atlantic Aircraft Corporation, and other companies under licence.
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Fram ("Forward") is a ship that was used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912.
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Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land (r) is a Russian archipelago, inhabited only by military personnel, located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast.
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Frederick Albert Cook (June 10, 1865August 5, 1940) was an American explorer, physician, and ethnographer, noted for his claim of having reached the North Pole on April 21, 1908. This was nearly a year before April 6, 1909, the date claimed by the American explorer Robert Peary, and the accounts were disputed for several years. His expedition did discover Meighen Island, the only discovery of an island in the American Arctic by a United States expedition. After reviewing Cook's limited records, a commission of the University of Copenhagen ruled in December 1909 that he had not proven that he reached the pole. In 1911 Cook published a memoir of his expedition, continuing to assert their success. His 1906 account of having reached the summit of Denali has also been discredited.
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Fridtjof Nansen (10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
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George Washington De Long (August 22, 1844 – October 31, 1881) was a United States Navy officer and explorer.
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Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
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Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
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Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 – 7 October 1978) was a philosopher, theologian, Iranologist and professor of Islamic Studies at the École pratique des hautes études in Paris, France.
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Fredrik Hjalmar Johansen (15 May 1867 – 3 January 1913) was a Norwegian polar explorer.
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HMS Superb was a nuclear-powered fleet submarine of the serving in the Royal Navy.
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Hollywood Burbank Airport, formerly known as Bob Hope Airport is a public airport northwest of downtown Burbank, in Los Angeles County, California.
In Greek mythology the Hyperboreans (Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι,; Hyperborei) were a mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind".
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Ibrahim Muhawi (born 1937, إبراهيم مهوي) is a Palestinian academic and writer, specializing in Palestinian and Arabic literature, folklore and translation.
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An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
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The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), formerly the International Earth Rotation Service, is the body responsible for maintaining global time and reference frame standards, notably through its Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) groups.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
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The International Seabed Authority (ISA) (Autorité internationale des fonds marins, Autoridad Internacional de los Fondos Marinos) is an intergovernmental body based in Kingston, Jamaica, that was established to organize, regulate and control all mineral-related activities in the international seabed area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, an area underlying most of the world’s oceans.
The International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) describes procedures for creating reference frames suitable for use with measurements on or near the Earth's surface.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
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The Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC) (Inuit Issittormiut Siunnersuisoqatigiifiat), formerly Inuit Circumpolar Conference, is a multinational non-governmental organization (NGO) and Indigenous Peoples' Organization (IPO) representing the 160,000 Inuit (often referred to as Eskimo) people living in Alaska (United States), Canada, Greenland (Denmark), and Chukotka (Russia).
Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.
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Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin (Иван Дмитриевич Папанин, – January 30, 1986) was a Soviet polar explorer, scientist, Counter Admiral, and twice Hero of the Soviet Union, who was awarded nine Orders of Lenin.
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Jason was a Norwegian whaling vessel laid down in 1881 in Rødsverven, Norway, the same shipyard which later built Ernest Shackleton's ship ''Endurance''.
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Joseph Otis Fletcher (May 16, 1920 – July 6, 2008) was an American Air Force pilot and polar explorer.
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Kaffeklubben Island or Coffee Club Island (Kaffeklubben Ø; Inuit Qeqertaat) is a small island lying off the northern tip of Greenland.
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A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft which is propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle.
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Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.
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Kotelny Island (Остров Котельный, Олгуйдаах арыы) is part of the Anzhu Islands subgroup of the New Siberian Islands located between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea in the Russian Arctic.
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Kvitøya (English: "White Island") is an island in the Svalbard archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, with an area of.
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A lacuna (lacunae or lacunas) is a gap in a manuscript, inscription, text, painting, or a musical work.
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The Lada 4x4, formerly called the Lada Niva (Лада Нива; Niva (нива) is the Russian word for "field"), is an off-road vehicle designed and produced by the Russian (former Soviet) manufacturer AvtoVAZ specifically for the rural market.
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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
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A lead is a large fracture within an expanse of sea ice, defining a linear area of open water that can be used for navigation purposes.
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Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.
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Lewis William Gordon Pugh, OIG, (born 5 December 1969) is a British-South African endurance swimmer and ocean advocate.
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Lincoln Ellsworth (May 12, 1880 – May 26, 1951) was a polar explorer from the United States and a major benefactor of the American Museum of Natural History.
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Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
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Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
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The March equinox or Northward equinox is the equinox on the Earth when the subsolar point appears to leave the southern hemisphere and cross the celestial equator, heading northward as seen from Earth.
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Matthew Alexander Henson (August 8, 1866March 9, 1955) was the first African-American Arctic explorer, an associate of Robert Peary on seven voyages over a period of nearly 23 years. They made six voyages and spent a total of 18 years in expeditions., Globe Pequot, 2009, pp. 3–6 Henson served as a navigator and craftsman, traded with Inuit and learned their language, and was known as Peary's "first man" for these arduous travels. During their 1909 expedition to Greenland, Henson accompanied Peary in the small party, including four Inuit men, that has been recognized as the first to reach the Geographic North Pole (although this has also been subject to dispute). Henson was invited in 1937 as a member of The Explorers Club due to his achievement and was the first African American to be accepted. In 1948 he was made an honorary member, a distinction for 20 people annually. Based on research into Peary's diary and astronomical observations, Wally Herbert, a later Arctic explorer who reached the North Pole in 1969, concluded in 1989 that Peary's team had not reached the pole. This has been widely accepted, but some dispute this conclusion. Henson published his memoir, A Negro Explorer at the North Pole (1912), which included a foreword and praise by Peary. Since the late 20th century, Henson's contributions have received more recognition. By presidential order, in 1988, the remains of Henson and his wife were re-interred with a monument at Arlington National Cemetery, near that for Peary and his wife. Henson has received numerous posthumous honors since then. In the late 20th century, Henson's and Peary's elderly sons by their Inuit "country wives" were tracked down, and their descendants invited to the United States to meet other family members, as well as to attend the 1988 ceremonies.
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The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.
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Mir (Russian: "Мир", world or peace) is a self-propelled Deep Submergence Vehicle.
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In 2009, the Marine Live-ice Automobile Expedition (MLAE) successfully traversed the Arctic waters and ice between Ostrov Sredniy island of the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago and the North Pole.
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Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
Moscow Time (Моско́вское вре́мя) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg.
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A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two-> or three-wheeled motor vehicle.
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Mount Qaf, also known as Qaf-Kuh, Cafcuh or Kafkuh, (قافکوه Qâf-Kūh or کوهٔ قاف Kuh-e Qaaf; جبل قاف Jabal Qāf or Djebel Qaf) is a mountain in Middle Eastern mythology.
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The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon.
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The Norge was a semi-rigid Italian-built airship that carried out the first verified trip of any kind to the North Pole and likely the first verified overflight on 12 May 1926.
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North Pole is a small city in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska, United States.
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North Pole-1 (Северный полюс-1) was the first Soviet manned drifting station in the Arctic Ocean, primarily used for research.
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The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), fulmar, or Arctic fulmar is a highly abundant sea bird found primarily in subarctic regions of the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans.
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The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
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A nuclear-powered icebreaker is a nuclear-powered ship purpose-built for use in waters covered with ice.
Oden is a large Swedish icebreaker, built in 1988 for the Swedish Maritime Administration.
The Open Polar Sea was a hypothesized ice-free ocean surrounding the North Pole.
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An orbital pole is either point at the ends of an imaginary line segment that runs through the center of an orbit (of a revolving body like a planet) and is perpendicular to the orbital plane.
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Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.
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The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies is an energy research institution which was founded in 1982, and serves a worldwide audience with its research, guides understanding of all major energy issues.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
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The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
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The polar night occurs in the northernmost and southernmost regions of the Earth when the night lasts for more than 24 hours.
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Polar Record is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of Arctic and Antarctic exploration and research.
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A polar route is an aircraft route across the uninhabited polar ice cap regions.
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Polaris, designated Alpha Ursae Minoris (Ursae Minoris, abbreviated Alpha UMi, UMi), commonly the North Star or Pole Star, is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Minor.
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The Polaris expedition (1871) was led by the American Charles Francis Hall, who intended it to be the first expedition to reach the North Pole.
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A pole of inaccessibility marks a location that is the most challenging to reach owing to its remoteness from geographical features that could provide access.
The poles of astronomical bodies are determined based on their axis of rotation in relation to the celestial poles of the celestial sphere.
A polynya is an area of open water surrounded by sea ice.
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A Canadian postal code is a six-character string that forms part of a postal address in Canada.
A pressure ridge develops in an ice cover as a result of a stress regime established within the plane of the ice.
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Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi (29 January 1873 – 18 March 1933) was a Spanish mountaineer and explorer, briefly Infante of Spain as son of Amadeo I of Spain, member of the royal House of Savoy and cousin of the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III.
Purgatorio (Italian for "Purgatory") is the second part of Dante's Divine Comedy, following the Inferno, and preceding the Paradiso.
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Pyotr Petrovich Shirshov (Пётр Петрович Ширшов) (December 25 (O.S. December 12), 1905 in Ekaterinoslav (today Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine) - February 17, 1953 in Moscow) was a Russian Soviet oceanographer, hydrobiologist, polar explorer, statesman, academician (1939), the first minister of Ministry of Maritime Fleet of the USSR and Hero of the Soviet Union (1938).
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The Qikiqtaaluk Region, Qikiqtani Region (ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ) or Baffin Region is the easternmost administrative region of Nunavut, Canada.
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Ralph Plaisted (30 September 1927 – 8 September 2008) and his three companions, Walt Pederson, Gerry Pitzl and Jean-Luc Bombardier, are regarded by most polar authorities to be the first to succeed in a surface traverse across the ice to the North Pole on 19 April 1968, making the first confirmed surface conquest of the Pole.
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Sir Ranulph Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes, 3rd Baronet, OBE (born 7 March 1944), commonly known as Ranulph "Ran" Fiennes, is a British explorer and holder of several endurance records.
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The Royal Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1861 to 1946.
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Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd Jr., (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was an American naval officer and explorer.
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Richard Weber, (born June 9, 1959, in Edmonton, Alberta) is a Canadian Arctic and polar adventurer.
The ringed seal (Pusa hispida or Phoca hispida), also known as the jar seal and as netsik or nattiq by the Inuit, is an earless seal (family: Phocidae) inhabiting the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.
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Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (16 July 1872 – c. 18 June 1928) was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions.
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Rear Admiral Robert Edwin Peary Sr. (May 6, 1856 – February 20, 1920) was an American explorer and United States Navy officer who made several expeditions to the Arctic in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
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(Российская газета, lit. Russian Gazette) is a Russian newspaper published by the Government of Russia.
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Roy Koerner MBE was a Polar explorer who participated in what the then Prime Minister, Harold Wilson described as "a feat of endurance and courage which ranks with any in polar history", and Prince Philip feels "ranks among the greatest triumphs of human skill and endurance".
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The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
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The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air force of Canada.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
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Prince Rudolf Land, Crown Prince Rudolf Land, Prince Rudolf Island or Rudolf Island (Остров Рудольфа) is the northernmost island of the Franz Josef Archipelago, Russia and is home to the northernmost point in Russia.
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The Rupes Nigra ("Black Rock"), a phantom island, was believed to be a 33-mile-wide black rock located at the Magnetic North Pole or at the North Pole itself.
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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
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The Russian Geographical Society (Russian: Ру́сское географи́ческое о́бщество «РГО») (RGO) is a learned society based in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
RV Polarstern (meaning pole star) is a German research icebreaker of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) in Bremerhaven.
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Salomon August Andrée (18 October 1854, Gränna, Småland – October 1897, Kvitøya, Arctic Norway), during his lifetime most often known as S. A. Andrée, was a Swedish engineer, physicist, aeronaut and polar explorer who died while leading an attempt to reach the Geographic North Pole by hydrogen balloon.
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Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).
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Santa's workshop is the workshop where Santa Claus is said to make the toys and presents given out at Christmas.
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The Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) is a centre for research into the polar regions and glaciology worldwide.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
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Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
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Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
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The September equinox (or Southward equinox) is the moment when the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator, heading southward.
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A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects.
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Shinji Kazama (born 26 September 1950) is a Japanese motorcyclist who rode to the North and South Poles on motorcycles.
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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
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Sled dogs were important for transportation in arctic areas, hauling supplies in areas that were inaccessible by other methods.
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The snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) is a passerine bird in the family Calcariidae.
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A snowmobile, also known as a motor sled, motor sledge, or snowmachine, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow.
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A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
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The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.
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The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
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The Soviet–Canadian 1988 Polar Bridge Expedition (also known as Skitrek) began on March 3, 1988, when a group of thirteen Russian and Canadian skiers set out from Siberia, in an attempt to ski to Canada over the North Pole.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
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Sunrise or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the horizon in the morning.
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Sunset or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun below the horizon as a result of Earth's rotation.
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Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
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The Taymyr was an icebreaking steamer of 1200 tons built for the Russian Imperial Navy at St. Petersburg in 1909.
The Hague Academy of International Law (Académie de droit international de La Haye) is a center for high-level education in both public and private international law housed in the Peace Palace in The Hague, the Netherlands.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
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Thomas Avery (born 17 December 1975) is a British explorer and author.
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The Transglobe Expedition was the first expedition to make a circumpolar navigation, traveling the world "vertically" traversing both of the poles using only surface transport.
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True north (also called geodetic north) is the direction along Earth's surface towards the geographic North Pole.
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Tug of war (also known as war of tug, tug o' war, tug war, rope war, rope pulling, tugging war or toutrek) is a sport that directly puts two teams against each other in a test of strength: teams pull on opposite ends of a rope, with the goal being to bring the rope a certain distance in one direction against the force of the opposing team's pull.
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Twilight on Earth is the illumination of the lower atmosphere when the Sun itself is not directly visible because it is below the horizon.
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Umberto Cagni (24 February 1863 in Asti – 22 April 1932 in Genoa) was a polar explorer and an admiral in the Royal Italian Navy.
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Umberto Nobile (21 January 1885 – 30 July 1978) was an Italian aviator, aeronautical engineer and Arctic explorer.
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The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
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The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
USCGC Healy (WAGB-20) is the United States' largest and most technologically advanced icebreaker as well as the US Coast Guard's largest vessel.
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USCGC Polar Sea (WAGB-11) is a United States Coast Guard Heavy Icebreaker.
USS Archerfish (SSN-678), a ''Sturgeon''-class attack submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the archerfish, a family (Toxotidae) of fish notable for their habit of preying on insects and other animals by shooting them down with squirts of water from the mouth.
USS Billfish (SSN-676), a ''Sturgeon''-class attack submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the billfish, a name used for any fish, such as gar or spearfish, with bill-shaped jaws.
USS Charlotte (SSN-766), a, is the fourth ship of the United States Navy to be named for Charlotte, North Carolina.
USS Gurnard (SSN-662), a, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the gurnard, a food fish of the genus Trigla and part of the sea robin family.
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USS Hawkbill (SSN-666), a ''Sturgeon''-class attack submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the hawksbill, a large sea turtle.
USS Jeannette was a naval exploration vessel which, under the command of George W. De Long, undertook an ill-fated 1879–1881 voyage to the Arctic.
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USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3rd August 1958.
USS Pintado (SSN-672), a ''Sturgeon''-class attack submarine, was the First ship of the United States Navy to be named after the Pintado Family.
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USS Ray (SSN-653), a ''Sturgeon''-class attack submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the rays.
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USS Sea Devil (SSN-664), a ''Sturgeon''-class attack submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the sea devil (Manta birostria), also known as the manta ray or devil ray, the largest of all living rays, noted for power and endurance.
USS Seahorse (SSN-669), a ''Sturgeon''-class attack submarine, was the second submarine and third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the seahorse.
USS Skate (SSN-578), the third submarine of the United States Navy named for the skate, a type of ray, was the lead ship of the ''Skate'' class of nuclear submarines.
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UTC+04:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +04.
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Vasily Igorevich Yelagin (born February 22, 1953) is Russian mountaineer and explorer, head of the MLAE-2008, MLAE-2009, MLAE-2011, MLAE-2013, MLAE-2014, and MLAE-2015 expeditions.
Vidar Viking is an icebreaker and anchor handling tug.
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Voenizdat (Воениздат) is a publishing house in Moscow, Russia.
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Vokrug sveta (Вокруг света, literally: "Around the World") is a Russian geographic magazine.
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Sir Walter William "Wally" Herbert (24 October 1934 – 12 June 2007) was a British polar explorer, writer and artist.
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Welland Wilfred "Weldy" "Angayuroluk" Phipps (July 23, 1922 – October 22, 1996) was a Canadian military pilot and prisoner of war during World War II, a pioneer bush pilot, inventor and a territorial level politician.
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Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
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Will Steger (born August 27, 1944 in Richfield, Minnesota) is a prominent spokesperson for the understanding and preservation of the Arctic and has led some of the most significant feats in the field of dogsled expeditions; such as the first confirmed dogsled journey to the North Pole (without re-supply) in 1986, the 1,600-mile south-north traverse of Greenland - the longest unsupported dogsled expedition in history at that time in 1988, the historic 3,471-mile International Trans-Antarctic Expedition - the first dogsled traverse of Antarctica (1989–90), and the International Arctic Project - the first and only dogsled traverse of the Arctic Ocean from Russia to Ellesmere Island in Canada during 1995.
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Willem Barentsz (anglicized as William Barents or Barentz) (c. 1550 – 20 June 1597) was a Dutch navigator, cartographer, and Arctic explorer.
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William Robert Anderson (June 17, 1921 – February 25, 2007) was an officer in the United States Navy, and a U.S. Representative from Tennessee from 1965 to 1973.
Rear-Admiral Sir William Edward Parry, (19 December 1790 – 8 or 9 July 1855) was an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer.
Lt. Colonel William Pershing Benedict (July 20, 1918 – Aug 31, 1974) was an American pilot who was born in Ruth, Nevada and raised in California.
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI, acronym pronounced) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
Yevgeny Konstantinovich Fyodorov (Евгений Константинович Фёдоров; 10 April (O.S. 28 March), 1910, Bendery - 30 December 1981) was a Soviet geophysicist, statesman, public figure, academician (1960), and Hero of the Soviet Union (1938).
90 degrees north, 90th parallel north, Boreaplas, Geographic North Pole, Geographic north pole, Geographical North Pole, Latitude 90 degrees N, North Pole, Canada, North Terrestrial Pole, North pole, Northpole, Race for the North Pole, The North Pole, Water in the North Pole.