892 relations: A Kestrel for a Knave, A1 road (Great Britain), A1(M) motorway, Abdullah Quilliam, Act of Parliament, Advanced Manufacturing Park, Affordability of housing in the United Kingdom, Aidan of Lindisfarne, Air Passenger Duty, Aire and Calder Navigation, Alderley Edge, Allerdale, Amateur sports, Amateur status in first-class cricket, Analytics, Ancient university, Angles, Anglicanism, Anglo-Scottish border, Anglo-Scottish Wars, Angry young men, Animals in sport, Annals (Tacitus), Anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom, Antonine Wall, Apron, Arable land, Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop of Liverpool, Archbishop of York, Arctic Monkeys, Article (grammar), Asda, Association football, Æthelfrith, Bagpipes, Balance of trade, Bangladesh, Baptists, Barrow Blitz, Barrow-in-Furness, Baryte, Bassetlaw, Battle of Hastings, Battle of Marston Moor, Battle of Stamford Bridge, Battle of Wakefield, Battle-axe (woman), BBC, BBC Good Food, ..., BBC North West, Beat music, Beer head, Bernicia, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Beryl Bainbridge, Bessemer process, Beverley, Bigod's rebellion, Billy Liar, Birkenhead, Bishop of Durham, Bishops' Wars, Black Country, Black grouse, Black pudding, Blackburn Olympic F.C., Blackburn Rovers F.C., Blackburn with Darwen, Blackpool, Blackpool Airport, Blackpool Tramway, Blouse, Blur (band), Bolsover District, Bonfire Night, Border ballad, Borders of the Roman Empire, Boulby Mine, Bowling (cricket), Boys from the Blackstuff, Bradford, Bradford Lakshmi Narayan Hindu Temple, Brexit, Brigantes, Brigantia (ancient region), Britannia Inferior, British brass band, British Empire, British Library, British National Party, British Summer Time, Brittonic languages, Broadband for the Rural North, Brontë family, Bronze Age Britain, Brown ale, Burnley F.C., Bus, Bus deregulation in Great Britain, C. P. Scott, Cabaret Voltaire (band), Call centre, Canal & River Trust, Canal ring, Cancer, Cantonese, Caratacus, Carvetii, Casual (subculture), Cataractonium, Catherine Cookson, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in England and Wales, Catterick, North Yorkshire, Cavalier, Cave painting, Celtic Britons, Celtic Christianity, Central Belt, Central Lancashire, Centrism, Ceremonial counties of England, Championship (rugby league), Charles I of England, Cheddar cheese, Cheshire, Cheshire cheese, Cheshire Plain, Cheshire Ring, Chester, Chesterfield, Cheviot Hills, Chicken parmigiana, Children's literature, Chinatown, Chinatown, Liverpool, Chinatown, Manchester, Chinatown, Newcastle, Chris Rea, Christian revival, Christianity, Church of England, Cistercians, Cities and Local Government Devolution Act 2016, Clean Air Act 1956, Cleethorpes, Cleveland Hills, Clocking Off, Clog (British), Clog dancing, Coal mining in the United Kingdom, Cod Wars, Common Fisheries Policy, Commonwealth of Nations, Computus, Connacht, Conservative Party (UK), Continental Europe, Controlled-access highway, Controlling for a variable, Conurbation, Corn Laws, Corner kick, Cornwall, Coronation Street, Corporate services, Council of the North, County Championship, County cricket, County Durham, Creswell Crags, Creswellian culture, Crewe, Cricket, Cross Country Route, Cross Fell, Cultural area, Cultural impact of the Beatles, Cultural tourism, Culture of England, Cumberland, Cumberland sausage, Cumbria, Cumbrian dialect, Cumbric, Curry Mile, Cuthbert, Daily Mail, Daily Mirror, Daily Star (United Kingdom), Dandelion and burdock, Danelaw, Danny Dorling, Data-rate units, David Cameron, Dazed, Deforestation, Deindustrialization, Deira, Department for Transport, Derbyshire, Derbyshire Dales, Designer clothing, Deva Victrix, Devolution, Dissolution of the Monasteries, Doddington, Northumberland, Domesday Book, Domestic tourism, Doncaster, Doncaster Knights, Doncaster Sheffield Airport, Double Maxim Beer Company, Dress, Driven grouse shooting, Dual carriageway, Durham County Cricket Club, Durham Tees Valley Airport, Durham University, Durham, England, Earl of Northumberland, East Anglia, East Coast Main Line, East Midlands, East of England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Eboracum, Economy of England, Edict of Expulsion, Electropop, Elizabeth Gaskell, Elizabeth I of England, Elmet, Emmerdale, End of Roman rule in Britain, England, English as a second or foreign language, English Football League, English of Northumbria, English possessive, English Reformation, Eruv, Ethnic enclave, Etymology, European Investment Bank, European Parliament election, 2009 (United Kingdom), European Regional Development Fund, Euroscepticism, Evening Chronicle, Everton F.C., Exclusive economic zone, FA Cup, Far-right politics, Fat rascal, Federmesser culture, Fen, Ferret-legging, Ferriby Boats, Financial services, First English Civil War, First-class cricket, Fish and chips, Flat cap, Fleetwood, Flemish people, Fluorite, Fluvio-glacial, Folk music, Fountains Abbey, Free trade, Freight transport, Friedrich Engels, Gateshead, Gatwick Airport, General Certificate of Secondary Education, Gentlemen v Players, Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union, Geordie, George Orwell, Ginger, Glacial lake, Glacier, Glasgow, Glasgow Corporation Tramways, Glorious Twelfth, Glottal stop, Golden Triangle (Cheshire), Golden Triangle (Yorkshire), Graphene, Grave goods, Great Britain, Great Depression in the United Kingdom, Great Famine (Ireland), Great Lever F.C., Great North Road (Great Britain), Great Raid of 1322, Great Recession, Greater London, Greater Manchester, Greater Manchester Built-up Area, Greater Manchester Statutory City Region, Greenwich Mean Time, Greyhound racing, Grimsby, Grit (personality trait), Gross value added, Gurdwara, Haar (fog), Hadrian's Wall, Halewood Body & Assembly, Halite, Harald Hardrada, Hard water, Harold Godwinson, Harrogate, Harrying of the North, Headscarf, Health technology, Heathrow Airport, Heavy industry, Hen Ogledd, Henry of Scotland, Henry VIII of England, Heritage tourism, High Peak, Derbyshire, High Speed 2, Highland, Hillfort, Hillsborough disaster, Hindu temple, Historic counties of England, History of the cooperative movement, History of the formation of the United Kingdom, History of the Jews in Manchester, Hitachi Newton Aycliffe, Hollyoaks, Home counties, Home Nations, Homophone, Honesty, House of Lancaster, House of Stuart, House of York, Housewife, Hull Blitz, Hull Daily Mail, Humanists UK, Humber, Humber Refinery, Humberhead Levels, Humberside, Humberside Airport, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydropower, Ice age, Ice sheet, Iceland, Immigrant language, Independent Methodist Connexion, Indian religions, Indian subcontinent, Indie rock, Indirect free kick, Industrial Revolution, Industrial tourism, Insular Celtic languages, Integrated ticketing, Internet exchange point, Interwar Britain, Interwar unemployment and poverty in the United Kingdom, Irish migration to Great Britain, Irish Sea, Iron ore, Isle of Man, Italian Americans, Jack Sharp, Jarrow March, Jeanette Winterson, Jehovah's Witnesses, Kaiser Chiefs, KCOM Group, Kellingley Colliery, King's Manor, Kingdom of Lindsey, Kingdom of Northumbria, Kingston upon Hull, Kirk (placename element), Kirklees, Labour Party (UK), Laissez-faire, Lake District, Lancashire, Lancashire bagpipe, Lancashire Coalfield, Lancashire County Cricket Club, Lancashire hotpot, Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire, Language contact, Last Tango in Halifax, Laws of the Game (association football), Leading question, Leeds, Leeds Blitz, Leeds Bradford Airport, Leicester, Leyland Trucks, Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Party (UK), Life expectancy, Light rail, Lincolnshire, Lincolnshire Wolds, Lindisfarne, Lindisfarne Gospels, Lindsey Oil Refinery, List of Catholic dioceses in Great Britain, List of national parks of England and Wales, List of sports rivalries in the United Kingdom, List of supermarket chains in the United Kingdom, Liverpool, Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Liverpool Blitz, Liverpool City Council, Liverpool Echo, Liverpool F.C., Liverpool John Lennon Airport, Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral, Liverpool Muslim Institute, Livestock, Long Parliament, Low-cost carrier, Lower Allithwaite, Luftwaffe, M1 motorway, M6 motorway, M62 coach bombing, M62 motorway, Madchester, Mamucium, Manchester, Manchester Airport, Manchester Blitz, Manchester City Council, Manchester City F.C., Manchester dialect, Manchester Evening News, Manchester Liberalism, Manchester Metrolink, Manchester Network Access Point, Manchester Reform Synagogue, Manchester Ship Canal, Manchester United F.C., Manorialism, Margaret Thatcher, Marine layer, Marylebone Cricket Club, Matriarchy, Maxïmo Park, Meat pie, MediaCityUK, Member of the European Parliament, Merseyside, Merseytravel, Mesolithic, Methodism, Metropolitan county, Middle Eastern cuisine, Middlesbrough, Middlesbrough F.C., Middlesex County Cricket Club, Middleton Railway, Militant in Liverpool, Military band, Millstone, Millstone Grit, Ministry of Transport, Mobile broadband, Molasses, Morecambe, Morrisons, Mosque, Motown, Movement for Reform Judaism, Multiple deprivation index, Municipal bus company, Mushy peas, Music of Northumbria, N8 Research Partnership, Napoleonic Wars, National Graphene Institute, National Grid (Great Britain), National Museums of the United Kingdom, National parks of England and Wales, Neanderthal, Near-open front unrounded vowel, Negative equity, New Brighton, Merseyside, New Yorkshire, New Zealand national rugby union team, Newcastle Airport, Newcastle Blitz, Newcastle Brown Ale, Newcastle City Council, Newcastle Falcons, Newcastle United F.C., Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nissan Motor Manufacturing UK, Non-communicable disease, Non-denominational, Norman conquest of England, Norse funeral, North and South (Gaskell novel), North East Derbyshire, North East England, North East England devolution referendum, 2004, North East Lincolnshire, North East of England Process Industry Cluster, North East Party, North Lincolnshire, North Pennine Ring, North v South, North Wales, North West England, North York Moors, North Yorkshire, Northallerton, Northampton, North–South divide (England), Northern (train operating company), Northern Forest (England), Northern Hub, Northern Party, Northern Powerhouse, Northern Powerhouse Rail, Northern soul, Northumberland, Northumberland and Durham Coalfield, Northumberland National Park, Northumbria's Golden Age, Northumbrian dialect (Old English), Northumbrian smallpipes, Nottinghamshire, Oasis (band), Oat, Oatmeal, Oceanic climate, Offal, Office for National Statistics, Offshore drilling, Old English, Old Norse, Online shopping, Open-pit coal mining in the United Kingdom, Orange Order, Ormskirk, Ostend, Oswald of Northumbria, Our Friends in the North, Overfishing, Owenism, Oxbridge, Oxford Professor of Poetry, Oxford University Press, Package tour, Pakistan, Paleolithic, Parish councils in England, Parisi (Yorkshire), Parkin (cake), Parmo, Pashto, Passenger transport executive, Pastoralism, Patron saint, Peak District, Peat, Pennines, People's Republic of South Yorkshire, Percentage point, Personal Rule, Peterloo Massacre, Phonological history of English high back vowels, Pier Head, Pigeon racing, Pilgrimage of Grace, Pitmatic, Plate glass university, Pleistocene, Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom, Pogrom, Polish language, Popular music, Port of Grimsby, Port of Immingham, Port of Liverpool, Potash, Premier League, Premiership Rugby, Preston By-pass, Preston North End F.C., Preston, Lancashire, Prevailing winds, Primitive Methodist Church, Productivity, Professionalism in association football, Pronoun, Province of York, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Public school (United Kingdom), Public sector, Public transport, Pulp (band), Punjabi language, Quintus Petillius Cerialis, Radiocarbon dating, Rail freight transport, Rail transport, Rain shadow, Rave, Recusancy, Red brick university, Red grouse, Red Rose of Lancaster, Redcar and Cleveland, Reformed Baptists, Regional assembly (England), Regionalism (politics), Regions of England, Resettlement of the Jews in England, Respiratory disease, RFU Championship, Rheged, Rhotic consonant, Rhoticity in English, Rhubarb Triangle, Rhyl, Richmond, North Yorkshire, Rising of the North, River Lune, River Mersey, River Tees, River Trent, River Tyne, River Wharfe, Robert the Bruce, Rochdale, Roll-on/roll-off, Roman Catholic Diocese of Nottingham, Roman Catholic Diocese of Shrewsbury, Roman conquest of Britain, Roman Empire, Roman legion, Roman roads in Britannia, Romantic literature in English, Room at the Top (novel), Roses Match, Roses rivalry, Rotherham Titans, Rugby football, Rugby Football League, Rugby Football Union, Rugby league, Rugby union, Russell Group, Sale Sharks, Salford, Greater Manchester, Salt in Cheshire, Samuel Smith Brewery, Sandstone, Sankey Canal, Satellite town, Scafell Pike, Scandinavia, Scone, Scorched earth, Scotland, Scottish English, Scouse, Scunthorpe, Sea breeze, Seafood, Seathwaite Fell, Sellafield, Service economy, Shale gas, Shameless (UK TV series), Shawl, Sheffield, Sheffield Blitz, Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough (UK Parliament constituency), Sheffield City Council, Sheffield City Region Combined Authority, Sheffield F.C., Sheffield Hallam (UK Parliament constituency), Sheffield Rules, Sheffield Supertram, Sheffield Tramway, Sheffield urban area, Shibboleth, Shipyard, Simon Armitage, Singing hinny, Skirt, Slum clearance, Soap opera, Social realism, Soft drink, Soft water, Solway Plain, South Asian cuisine, South Pennine Ring, South Yorkshire, South Yorkshire Coalfield, South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive, Southern England, Spiritualism, Spoke–hub distribution paradigm, Sportswear (fashion), Sprachraum, Springfields, St Helens, Merseyside, Staffordshire, Stanlow Refinery, Star Carr, Steam locomotive, Steelmaking, Stockton and Darlington Railway, Stoke-on-Trent, Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund, Suburb, Sui generis, Sunderland A.F.C., Sunshine duration, Super League, Super League XXIII, Surrey, Surrey County Cricket Club, Survey of English Dialects, Suspenders, Swaledale cheese, Swallows and Amazons, Synod of Whitby, Tacitus, Ted Hughes, Tees Valley, Teesport, Teesside, Temperance bar, Tertiary sector of the economy, Test cricket, Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, The Anarchy, The Beatles, The Blitz, The Co-operative Group, The Condition of the Working Class in England, The Football Association, The Guardian, The Independent, The Leeds Studios, The Midlands, The Northern Echo, The Northern Way, The Railway Children, The Road to Wigan Pier, The Salvation Army, The Secret Garden, The Sun (United Kingdom), The Troubles, The Wash, The Yorkshire Post, Thirsk, This Sporting Life (novel), Thorp, Thou, Throw-in, Tizer, Tom Blenkinsop, Tonsure, Tony Blair, Toponymy of England, Trade union, Trades Union Congress, Traditional Grimsby smoked fish, Tram, TransPennine Express, Transport for Greater Manchester, Transport for the North, Trap-bath split, Treaty of Durham (1139), Treaty of Ripon, Trent and Mersey Canal, Tripe, Trolleybus, Tyne and Wear, Tyne and Wear Metro, Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Executive, Tyneside, UK Independence Party, UK miners' strike (1984–85), United Kingdom, United Kingdom census, 1851, United Kingdom census, 2011, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United Kingdom general election, 2015, United Kingdom government austerity programme, United Kingdom local elections, 2016, United Reformed Church, University of Cambridge, University of Leeds, University of Liverpool, University of Manchester, University of Oxford, University of Sheffield, University of York, University spin-off, Upton Park F.C., Urbanization, Urdu, UTC±00:00, Varieties of Chinese, Vauxhall Ellesmere Port, Video game development, Viking Age, Vimto, VisitBritain, Vote splitting, Warrington, Warrington bomb attacks, Wars of the Roses, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Wast Water, Watford, Watford Gap, Wearside, Welsh Marches, Wensleydale cheese, West Coast Main Line, West Country, West Midlands (region), West of England, West Yorkshire, West Yorkshire Metro, West Yorkshire Urban Area, Westerlies, Westmorland, Wheat, Whippet, Whitby, White Rose of York, Whitley Bay, William the Conqueror, William Wordsworth, Windermere, Winifred Holtby, Wirral Peninsula, Working class, World War I, World War II, Yale University Press, Yan Tan Tethera, Ye (pronoun), York, York Minster, Yorkshire, Yorkshire and the Humber, Yorkshire bagpipe, Yorkshire Carnegie, Yorkshire County Cricket Club, Yorkshire Dales, Yorkshire dialect, Yorkshire Evening Post, Yorkshire Party, Yorkshire pudding, Yorkshire Tea, Yorkshire Wolds, Yorkstone, 1883 FA Cup Final, 1924 County Championship, 1926 United Kingdom general strike, 1979 New Zealand rugby union tour of England, Scotland and Italy, 1992 Manchester bombing, 1996 Manchester bombing, 2001 Bradford riots, 2017–18 English Premiership, 2017–18 Premier League, 3G, 4G, 53rd parallel north. Expand index (842 more) » « Shrink index
A Kestrel for a Knave is a novel by English author Barry Hines, published in 1968.
The A1 is the longest numbered road in the UK, at.
A1(M) is the designation given to a series of four separate motorway sections in England.
William Henry Quilliam (10 April 1856 – 23 April 1932), who changed his name to Abdullah Quilliam and later Henri Marcel Leon or Haroun Mustapha Leon, was a 19th-century convert from Christianity to Islam, noted for founding England's first mosque and Islamic centre.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
The Advanced Manufacturing Park (AMP) is a manufacturing technology park in Rotherham, South Yorkshire.
Affordability of housing in the UK reflects the ability to rent or buy property.
Aidan of Lindisfarne Irish: Naomh Aodhán (died 31 August 651) was an Irish monk and missionary credited with restoring Christianity to Northumbria.
Air Passenger Duty (APD) is an excise duty which is charged on the carriage of passengers flying from a United Kingdom or Isle of Man airport on an aircraft that has an authorised take-off weight of more than 5.7 tonnes or more than twenty seats for passengers.
The Aire and Calder Navigation is the canalised section of the Rivers Aire and Calder in West Yorkshire, England.
Alderley Edge is a village and civil parish in Cheshire, England.
Allerdale is a non-metropolitan district of Cumbria, England, with borough status.
Amateur sports are sports in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration.
Amateur status had a special meaning in English cricket.
Analytics is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data.
The ancient universities are seven extant British and Irish medieval universities and early modern universities founded before the year 1600.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Anglo-Scottish border between England and Scotland runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west.
The Anglo-Scottish Wars comprise the various battles which continued to be fought between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland from the time of the Wars of Independence in the early 14th century through to the latter years of the 16th century.
The "angry young men" were a group of mostly working- and middle-class British playwrights and novelists who became prominent in the 1950s.
Animals in sport are a specific form of working animals.
The Annals (Annales) by Roman historian and senator Tacitus is a history of the Roman Empire from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, the years AD 14–68.
Institutional Anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom has its origins in the English and Irish Reformations under King Henry VIII and the Scottish Reformation led by John Knox.
The Antonine Wall, known to the Romans as Vallum Antonini, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde.
An apron is a garment that is worn over other clothing and covers mainly the front of the body.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
The Archbishop of Liverpool is the ordinary of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Liverpool and metropolitan of the Province of Liverpool (also known as the Northern Province) in England.
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Arctic Monkeys are an English rock band formed in 2002 in High Green, a suburb of Sheffield.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Asda Stores Ltd. trading as Asda, is a British supermarket retailer, headquartered in Leeds, West Yorkshire.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Æthelfrith (died c. 616) was King of Bernicia from c. 593 until his death.
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
The Barrow Blitz is the name given to the Luftwaffe bombings of Barrow-in-Furness, United Kingdom during World War II.
Barrow-in-Furness, commonly known as Barrow, is a town and borough in Cumbria, England.
Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.
Bassetlaw is the northernmost district of Nottinghamshire, England, with a population of 114,143 according to the mid-2014 estimate by the Office for National Statistics.
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646.
The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire, in England on 25 September 1066, between an English army under King Harold Godwinson and an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson.
The Battle of Wakefield took place in Sandal Magna near Wakefield, in West Yorkshire in Northern England, on 30 December 1460.
A battle-axe is a term, generally considered pejorative, for an aggressive, domineering and forceful woman.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Good Food is a magazine published in Great Britain.
BBC North West is the BBC English Region serving Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Lancashire, Merseyside, North Yorkshire (western Craven), West Yorkshire (Walsden), Derbyshire (High Peak), Cumbria (Barrow-in-Furness and South Lakeland) and the Isle of Man.
Beat music, British beat, or Merseybeat (after bands from Liverpool and nearby areas beside the River Mersey) is a pop and rock music genre that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1960s.
Beer head (also head or collar), is the frothy foam on top of beer which is produced by bubbles of gas, typically carbon dioxide, rising to the surface.
Bernicia (Old English: Bernice, Bryneich, Beornice; Latin: Bernicia) was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England.
Berwick-upon-Tweed (Sooth Berwick, Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland.
Dame Beryl Margaret Bainbridge DBE (21 November 1932 – 2 July 2010) was an English writer from Liverpool.
The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace.
Beverley is a historic market town, civil parish and the county town of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Bigod's rebellion of January 1537 was an armed rebellion by English Roman Catholics in Cumberland and Westmorland against King Henry VIII of England and the English Parliament.
Billy Liar is a 1959 novel by Keith Waterhouse, which was later adapted into a play, a film, a musical and a TV series.
Birkenhead is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England.
The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in the Province of York.
The Bishops' Wars (Bellum Episcopale) were conflicts, both political and military, which occurred in 1639 and 1640 centred on the nature of the governance of the Church of Scotland, and the rights and powers of the Crown.
The Black Country is a region of the West Midlands in England, west of Birmingham, and commonly refers to all or part of the four Metropolitan Boroughs of Dudley, Sandwell, Walsall and Wolverhampton.
The black grouse or blackgame or blackcock (Tetrao tetrix) is a large game bird in the grouse family.
Black pudding is a type of blood sausage originating in Great Britain and Ireland.
Blackburn Olympic Football Club was an English football club based in Blackburn, Lancashire in the late 19th century.
Blackburn Rovers Football Club is a professional football club in Blackburn, Lancashire, England, which competes in the Championship, the second tier of the English football league system, following promotion from League One at the end of the 2017–18 season.
Blackburn with Darwen is a unitary authority area in Lancashire, North West England.
Blackpool is a seaside resort on the Lancashire coast in North West England.
Blackpool Airport is an airport on the Fylde coast of Lancashire, England, in the Borough of Fylde, just outside the Borough of Blackpool.
The Blackpool Tramway runs from Blackpool to Fleetwood on the Fylde Coast in Lancashire, England.
A blouse is a loose-fitting upper garment that was formerly worn by workmen, peasants, artists, women, and children.
Blur are an English rock band, formed in London in 1988.
Bolsover is a local government district in Derbyshire, England.
Bonfire Night is a name given to various annual celebrations characterised by bonfires and fireworks.
The Anglo-Scottish border has a long tradition of balladry, such that a whole group of songs exists that are often called "border ballads", because they were collected in that region.
The borders of the Roman Empire, which fluctuated throughout the empire's history, were a combination of natural frontiers (most notably the Rhine and Danube rivers) and man-made fortifications which separated the lands of the empire from the countries beyond.
Boulby Mine is a site located just south-east of the village of Boulby, on the north-east coast of the North York Moors in Redcar and Cleveland, England.
Bowling, in cricket, is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman.
Boys from the Blackstuff is a British television drama series of five episodes, originally transmitted from 10 October to 7 November 1982 on BBC2.
Bradford is in the Metropolitan Borough of the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines west of Leeds, and northwest of Wakefield.
The Lakshmi Narayan Hindu Temple in Bradford is the largest Hindu temple (mandir) in Northern England.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
The Brigantes were a Celtic tribe who in pre-Roman times controlled the largest section of what would become Northern England.
Brigantia is the land inhabited by the Brigantes, a British Celtic tribe which occupied the largest territory in ancient Britain.
Britannia Inferior (Latin for "Lower Britain") was a new province carved out of Roman Britain around 197 during the reforms of Septimius Severus.
A British brass band is a musical ensemble comprising a standardized range of brass and percussion instruments.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right and fascist political party in the United Kingdom.
During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.
Broadband for the Rural North (B4RN, read as "BARN") is an innovative community-led project to bring high-speed broadband Internet connectivity to domestic ("FTTH") and business properties in rural Lancashire, in the north west of England.
The Brontës (commonly) were a nineteenth-century literary family, born in the village of Thornton and later associated with the village of Haworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Bronze Age Britain is an era of British history that spanned from c. 2500 until c. 800 BC.
Brown ale is a style of beer with a dark amber or brown colour.
Burnley Football Club is a professional association football club based in Burnley, Lancashire, England.
A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.
Bus deregulation in Great Britain was the transfer of operation of bus services from public bodies to private companies as legislated by the Transport Act 1985.
Charles Prestwich Scott (26 October 1846 – 1 January 1932), usually cited as C. P. Scott, was a British journalist, publisher and politician.
Cabaret Voltaire are an English music group formed in Sheffield in 1973 and initially composed of Stephen Mallinder, Richard H. Kirk, and Chris Watson.
A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for receiving or transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone.
Canal & River Trust was launched on 12 July 2012, taking over the guardianship of British Waterways (the previous government-owned operator) canals, rivers reservoirs and docks in England and Wales.
A canal ring is the name given to a series of canals that make a complete loop.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Caratacus (Brythonic *Caratācos, Middle Welsh Caratawc; Welsh Caradog; Breton Karadeg; Greek Καράτακος; variants Latin Caractacus, Greek Καρτάκης) was a 1st-century AD British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest.
The Carvetii were an Iron Age people and were subsequently identified as a civitas (canton) of Roman Britain living in what is now Cumbria, in North-West England.
The casual subculture is a subsection of foootball culture that is typified by hooliganism and the wearing of expensive designer clothing (known as "clobber").
Cataractonium (Grid Ref:SE225992) was a fort and settlement in Roman Britain.
Dame Catherine Ann Cookson, DBE (née McMullen; 27 June 1906 – 11 June 1998) was an English author.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in England and Wales is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope.
Catterick is a village, civil parish and electoral ward in the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England.
The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
The Central Belt of Scotland is the area of highest population density within Scotland.
Central Lancashire is an area of Lancashire, England.
In politics, centrism—the centre (British English/Canadian English/Australian English) or the center (American English/Philippine English)—is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.
The ceremonial counties, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed.
The Championship is a professional rugby league competition.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard, off-white (or orange if spices such as annatto are added), sometimes sharp-tasting, natural cheese.
Cheshire (archaically the County Palatine of Chester) is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire, Wales and Wrexham county borough to the west.
Cheshire cheese is a dense and crumbly cheese produced in the English county of Cheshire, and four neighbouring counties, Denbighshire and Flintshire in Wales and Shropshire and Staffordshire in England.
The Cheshire Plain is a relatively flat expanse of lowland almost entirely within the county of Cheshire in North West England.
The Cheshire Ring is a canal cruising circuit or canal ring, which includes sections of six canals in and around Cheshire and Greater Manchester in North West England: the Ashton Canal, Peak Forest Canal, Macclesfield Canal, Trent and Mersey Canal, Bridgewater Canal and Rochdale Canal.
Chester (Caer) is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales.
Chesterfield is a market town and borough in Derbyshire, England.
The Cheviot Hills (/'tʃiːvɪət/) are a range of rolling hills straddling the Anglo-Scottish border between Northumberland and the Scottish Borders.
Chicken parmigiana, or chicken parmesan (also referred to colloquially in the United States as 'chicken parm' and in Australia as a 'parmy', 'parmi' or 'parma'), is a popular Italian-American dish.
Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children.
A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of Chinese or Han people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting.
Chinatown is an area of Liverpool that is an ethnic enclave home to the oldest Chinese community in Europe.
Chinatown in Manchester, England is an ethnic enclave in the city centre.
The Chinatown in Newcastle is a district of Newcastle upon Tyne, located to the west of the city on the edge of the shopping and commercial centre, mostly along Stowell Street.
Christopher Anton Rea (born 4 March 1951) is a British rock and blues singer-songwriter and guitarist, recognisable for his distinctive, husky-gravel voice and slide guitar playing.
Revivalism is increased spiritual interest or renewal in the life of a church congregation or society, with a local, national or global effect.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
The Cities and Local Government Devolution Act 2016 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom designed to introduce directly-elected mayors to combined local authorities in England and Wales and to devolve housing, transport, planning and policing powers to them.
The Clean Air Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in response to London's Great Smog of 1952.
Cleethorpes is a seaside resort on the estuary of the Humber in North East Lincolnshire with a population of nearly 40,000 in 2011.
The Cleveland Hills are a range of hills on the north-west edge of the North York Moors in North Yorkshire, England, overlooking Cleveland and Teesside.
Clocking Off is a British television drama series which was broadcast on BBC One for four series from 2000 to 2003.
A British clog is a wooden soled clog from Great Britain.
Clog dancing is a form of step dance characterised by the wearing of inflexible, wooden soled clogs.
Coal mining in the United Kingdom dates back to Roman times and occurred in many different parts of the country.
The Cod Wars (Þorskastríðin, "the cod strife", or Landhelgisstríðin, "the wars for the territorial waters") were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland on fishing rights in the North Atlantic.
The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union (EU).
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter.
ConnachtPage five of An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Contaetha agus Cúigí) 2003 clearly lists the official spellings of the names of the four provinces of the country with Connacht listed for both languages; when used without the term 'The province of' / 'Cúige'.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
In statistics, controlling for a variable is the attempt to reduce the effect of confounding variables in an observational study or experiment.
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.
The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846.
A corner kick is the method of restarting play in a game of association football when the ball goes out of play over the goal line, without a goal being scored, and having last been touched by a member of the defending team.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Coronation Street (also informally referred to as Corrie) is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960.
Corporate services are activities that combine or consolidate certain enterprise-wide needed support services, provided based on specialized knowledge, best practices, and technology to serve internal (and sometimes external) customers and business partners.
The Council of the North was an administrative body set up in 1472 by King Edward IV of England, the first Yorkist monarch to hold the Crown of England, to improve government control and economic prosperity, to benefit all of Northern England.
The County Championship, currently known as the Specsavers County Championship for sponsorship reasons, is the domestic first-class cricket competition in England and Wales and is organised by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB).
Inter-county cricket matches are known to have been played since the early 18th century, involving teams that are representative of the historic counties of England and Wales.
County Durham (locally) is a county in North East England.
Creswell Crags is an enclosed limestone gorge on the border between Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, England, near the villages of Creswell and Whitwell.
The Creswellian is a British Upper Palaeolithic culture named after the type site of Creswell Crags in Derbyshire by Dorothy Garrod in 1926.
Crewe ('Cryw' in Welsh) is a railway town and civil parish within the borough of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
The Cross Country Route is a long-distance UK rail route that has in its central part superseded the Midland Railway.
Cross Fell is the highest mountain in the Pennine Hills of Northern England and the highest point in England outside the Lake District.
In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities (culture).
The Beatles were an English rock band, formed in Liverpool in 1960.
Cultural tourism is the subset of tourism concerned with a traveler's engagement with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life.
The culture of England is defined by the idiosyncratic cultural norms of England and the English people.
Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
Cumberland sausage is a form of sausage that originated in the ancient county of Cumberland, England, now part of Cumbria.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
The Cumbrian dialect is a local Northern English dialect in decline, spoken in Cumbria (including historic Cumberland and Westmorland) and surrounding northern England, not to be confused with the area's extinct Celtic language, Cumbric.
Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.
The Curry Mile is a nickname for the part of Wilmslow Road running through the centre of Rusholme in south Manchester, England.
Cuthbert (c. 634 – 20 March 687) is a saint of the early Northumbrian church in the Celtic tradition.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903.
The Daily Star is a daily tabloid newspaper published from Monday to Saturday in the United Kingdom since 2 November 1978.
Dandelion and burdock is a beverage consumed in the British Isles since the Middle Ages.
The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
Danny Dorling (born 16 January 1968) is a British social geographer and is the Halford Mackinder Professor of Geography of the School of Geography and the Environment of the University of Oxford.
In telecommunications, data-transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baudrate), or data blocks per unit time passing through a communication link in a data-transmission system.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
Dazed (formerly Dazed & Confused) is a bi-monthly British style magazine founded in 1991.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
Deira (Old English: Derenrice or Dere) was a Celtic kingdom – first recorded (but much older) by the Anglo-Saxons in 559 AD and lasted til 664 AD, in Northern England that was first recorded when Anglian warriors invaded the Derwent Valley in the third quarter of the fifth century.
The Department for Transport (DfT) is the government department responsible for the English transport network and a limited number of transport matters in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland that have not been devolved.
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England.
Derbyshire Dales or is a local government district in Derbyshire, England.
Designer clothing is clothing that bears the logo of a recognizable fashion designer.
Deva Victrix, or simply Deva, was a legionary fortress and town in the Roman province of Britannia on the site of the modern city of Chester.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.
The village and parish of Doddington are on the east side of the Milfield Plain, nearly 3 miles north of the town of Wooler, in the county of Northumberland, England.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
Domestic tourism is tourism involving residents of one country traveling only within that country.
Doncaster is a large market town in South Yorkshire, England.
Doncaster Rugby Football Club are a rugby union club representing the town of Doncaster, England. The first XV are known as the "Doncaster Knights", and play in the RFU Championship. Being the most promoted side in English history has led to huge changes at the Castle Park ground and within the team structure. Castle Park Conference and Function centre is a multimillion-pound development and is among the top conference venues in Doncaster, while remaining a supportive place for amateur rugby in the Borough. The club motto "rugby for all" sees amateur side Doncaster Phoenix compete at the same ground, as well as the ladies side Doncaster Demons and every age group from under-7 to under-17s.
Doncaster Sheffield Airport, formerly named Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, is an international airport located at the former RAF Finningley station, in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster within South Yorkshire, England.
Maxim Brewery is a beer brewing company based in Houghton-le-Spring, United Kingdom.
A dress (also known as a frock or a gown) is a garment consisting of a skirt with an attached bodice (or a matching bodice giving the effect of a one-piece garment).
Driven grouse shooting is the hunting of the red grouse, a field sport of the United Kingdom.
A dual carriageway (British English) or divided highway (American English) is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation.
Durham County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales.
Durham Tees Valley Airport is an international airport located just east of Darlington in County Durham, north-east England, about south-west of Middlesbrough and south of Durham.
Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.
Durham (locally) is a historic city and the county town of County Durham in North East England.
The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerage of England and of Great Britain, succeeding the title Earl of Northumbria.
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.
The East Coast Main Line (ECML) is a major railway link between London and Edinburgh via Peterborough, Doncaster, York, Darlington, Durham and Newcastle; it is presently electrified along the whole route.
The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Yorkshire, is a ceremonial county in the North of England.
Eboracum (Latin /ebo'rakum/, English or) was a fort and city in the Roman province of Britannia.
The economy of England is the largest economy of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
The Edict of Expulsion was a royal decree issued by King Edward I of England on 18 July 1290, expelling all Jews from the Kingdom of England.
Electropop is a variant of synth-pop that places more emphasis on a harder, electronic sound.
Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, (née Stevenson; 29 September 1810 – 12 November 1865), often referred to as Mrs Gaskell, was an English novelist, biographer, and short story writer.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elmet (Elfed) was an area of what later became the West Riding of Yorkshire, and an independent Brittonic kingdom between about the 5th century and early 7th century.
Emmerdale (known as Emmerdale Farm until 1989) is a British soap opera set in Emmerdale (known as Beckindale until 1994), a fictional village in the Yorkshire Dales.
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages.
The English Football League (EFL) is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales.
The Northumbrian language or Northumbria English is an English language or dialect of English ("Northumbrian Language" may only refer to the broadly spoken Northumbrian whereas Northumbrian English may just refer to the Standard English as spoken in Northumbria and featuring various Northumbrian words and forms), and a variant of Northern English with the Geordie dialect being one of the subsets of Northumbrian the others being Northern (north of the River Coquet), Western (from Allendale through Hexham up to Kielder), Southern or Pitmatic (the mining towns such as Ashington and much of Durham) Mackem (Wearside) and Smoggie (Teesside). It is spoken mainly if not exclusively in the modern day counties of Northumberland, Tyne and Wear and Durham.
In English, possessive words or phrases exist for nouns and most pronouns, as well as some noun phrases.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
An eruv (עירוב, "mixture", also transliterated as eiruv or erub, plural: eruvin) is a ritual enclosure that some Jewish communities, and especially Orthodox Jewish communities, construct in their neighborhoods as a way to permit Jewish residents or visitors to carry certain objects outside their own homes on Sabbath and Yom Kippur.
In sociology, an ethnic enclave is a geographic area with high ethnic concentration, characteristic cultural identity, and economic activity.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The European Investment Bank (EIB) is the European Union's nonprofit long-term lending institution established in 1958 under the Treaty of Rome.
The European Parliament election was the United Kingdom's component of the 2009 European Parliament election, the voting for which was held on Thursday 4 June 2009.
The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) is a fund allocated by the European Union.
Euroscepticism (also known as EU-scepticism) means criticism of the European Union (EU) and European integration.
The Evening Chronicle is a daily, evening newspaper produced in Newcastle upon Tyne, covering Tyne and Wear, southern Northumberland and northern County Durham.
Everton Football Club is a football club in Liverpool, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
A fat rascal, closely related to the historical turf cake, is a type of cake, similar to a scone or rock cake in both taste and ingredients.
Federmesser group is an archaeological umbrella term including the late Upper Paleolithic to Mesolithic cultures of the Northern European Plain, dating to between 14,000 and 12,800 years ago (the late Magdalenian).
A fen is one of the main types of wetland, the others being grassy marshes, forested swamps, and peaty bogs.
Ferret-legging was an endurance test or stunt in which ferrets were trapped in trousers worn by a participant.
The Ferriby Boats are three Bronze Age Britain sewn plank-built boats, parts of which were discovered at North Ferriby in the East Riding of the English county of Yorkshire.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.
The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars").
First-class cricket is an official classification of the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket.
Fish and chips is a hot dish of English origin consisting of fried battered fish and hot potato chips.
A flat cap is a rounded cap with a small stiff brim in front.
Fleetwood is a town and civil parish within the Wyre district of Lancashire, England, lying at the northwest corner of the Fylde.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
Fluvio refers to things related to rivers and glacial refers to something that is of ice.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Fountains Abbey is one of the largest and best preserved ruined Cistercian monasteries in England.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne.
Gatwick Airport (also known as London Gatwick) is a major international airport near Crawley in southeast England, south of Central London.
The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Gentlemen v Players was a first-class cricket match generally held in England twice or more a year for well over a century.
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.
Geordie is a nickname for a person from the Tyneside area of North East England, and the dialect spoken by its inhabitants.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Glasgow Corporation Tramways were formerly one of the largest urban tramway systems in Europe.
The Glorious Twelfth is the twelfth day of August, the start of the shooting season for red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica), and to a lesser extent the ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The Golden Triangle is an area of affluent towns and villages in Cheshire such as Wilmslow, Mottram St.
The Golden Triangle is a term commonly used by estate agents for the area of West and North Yorkshire lying between Harrogate, York and North Leeds.
Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).
Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Depression in the United Kingdom, also known as the Great Slump, was a period of national economic downturn in the 1930s, which had its origins in the global Great Depression.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
Great Lever Football Club were an English football club founded in 1877.
The Great North Road was the main highway between London and Scotland.
The Great Raid of 1322 was a major raid on Northern England, carried out by Robert the Bruce during the First Scottish War of Independence between 30 September and 2 November 1322, resulting in the Battle of Old Byland.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Greater London is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London, as well as a county for the purposes of the lieutenancies.
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2,782,100.
The Greater Manchester Built-up Area is an area of land defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), consisting of the large conurbation that encompasses the urban element of the city of Manchester and the continuous metropolitan area that spreads outwards from it, forming much of Greater Manchester in North West England.
The Greater Manchester Statutory City Region (sometimes called the Greater Manchester City Region or more commonly as the Manchester City Region) is a pilot administrative division of England, consisting of Greater Manchester plus five other borough divisions.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
Greyhound racing is an organized, competitive sport in which greyhound dogs are raced around a track.
Grimsby, also known as Great Grimsby, is a large coastal English town and seaport in North East Lincolnshire, of which it is the administrative centre.
Grit in psychology is a positive, non-cognitive trait based on an individual's perseverance of effort combined with the passion for a particular long-term goal or end state (a powerful motivation to achieve an objective).
In economics, gross value added (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy.
A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.
In meteorology, haar or sea fret is a cold sea fog.
Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
Halewood Body & Assembly is a Jaguar Land Rover production facility in Halewood, Merseyside, England.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Harald Sigurdsson (– 25 September 1066), given the epithet Hardrada (harðráði, modern Norwegian: Hardråde, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the sagas, was King of Norway (as Harald III) from 1046 to 1066.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
Harold Godwinson (– 14 October 1066), often called Harold II, was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.
Harrogate is a spa town in North Yorkshire, England.
The Harrying of the North was a series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror in the winter of 1069–70 to subjugate northern England.
Headscarves or head scarves are scarves covering most or all of the top of a person's, usually women, hair and her head, leaving the face uncovered.
Health technology is defined by the World Health Organization as the application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem and improve quality of life.
Heathrow Airport (also known as London Heathrow) is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain in the Early Middle Ages.
Henry of Scotland (Eanric mac Dabíd, 1114 – 12 June 1152) was heir apparent to the Kingdom of Alba.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Cultural heritage tourism (or just heritage tourism or diaspora tourism) is a branch of tourism oriented towards the cultural heritage of the location where tourism is occurring.
High Peak is a borough in Derbyshire, England.
High Speed 2 (HS2) is a planned high-speed railway in the United Kingdom, directly linking London, Birmingham, the East Midlands, Leeds and Manchester.
Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau.
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.
The Hillsborough disaster was a human crush at Hillsborough football stadium in Sheffield, England on 15 April 1989, during the 1988–89 FA Cup semi-final game between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest.
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.
The historic counties of England are areas that were established for administration by the Normans, in many cases based on earlier kingdoms and shires created by the Anglo-Saxons and others.
The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperatives.
The formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has involved personal and political union across Great Britain and the wider British Isles.
By the end of 18th century, the rapidly growing town of Manchester, England, had a small Jewish community, some of whose members had set up businesses, and a place of worship.
Hitachi Newton Aycliffe is a railway rolling stock assembly plant owned by Hitachi Rail Europe, situated in Newton Aycliffe, County Durham, in the North East of England.
Hollyoaks is a British soap opera, first broadcast on Channel 4 on 23 October 1995.
The home counties are the counties of England that surround London (although several of them do not border it).
The home nations, refers collectively to England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (countries of the United Kingdom), and in certain sports (e.g. rugby football) contexts, to England, Scotland, Wales and the whole island of Ireland.
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.
Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and connotes positive and virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, straightforwardness, including straightforwardness of conduct, along with the absence of lying, cheating, theft, etc.
The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet.
A housewife (also known as a homekeeper) is a woman whose work is running or managing her family's home—caring for her children; buying, cooking, and storing food for the family; buying goods that the family needs in everyday life; housekeeping and maintaining the home; and making clothes for the family—and who is not employed outside the home.
The Hull Blitz was the Nazi German bombing campaign targeting the English port city of Kingston upon Hull during the Second World War.
The Hull Daily Mail is a daily newspaper for Kingston upon Hull, in the East Riding of Yorkshire.
Humanists UK, known from 1967 until May 2017 as the British Humanist Association (BHA), is a charitable organisation which promotes Humanism and aims to represent "people who seek to live good lives without religious or superstitious beliefs" in the United Kingdom by campaigning on issues relating to humanism, secularism, and human rights.
The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.
The Humber Refinery is a British oil refinery in South Killingholme, North Lincolnshire.
The Humberhead Levels is a national character area covering a large expanse of flat, low-lying land towards the western end of the Humber estuary in northern England.
Humberside was a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county in Northern England from 1 April 1974 until 1 April 1996.
Humberside Airport is an international airport situated at Kirmington in the Borough of North Lincolnshire, England, west of Grimsby and around from both Kingston upon Hull and Scunthorpe, on the A18.
Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Immigrant languages are languages spoken by immigrant communities.
The Independent Methodist Connexion is a British group of Non-Conformist congregations that have their roots in the 18th century revival.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United Kingdom in the 1970s.
An indirect free kick is a method of restarting play in a game of association football.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industrial tourism is tourism in which the desired destination includes industrial sites peculiar to a particular location.
Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.
Integrated ticketing allows a person to make a journey that involves transfers within or between different transport modes with a single ticket that is valid for the complete journey, modes being buses, trains, subways, ferries, etc.
An Internet exchange point (IX or IXP) is the physical infrastructure through which Internet service providers (ISPs) and content delivery networks (CDNs) exchange Internet traffic between their networks (autonomous systems).
Interwar Britain (1919–1939) was a period of peace and relative economic stagnation.
Interwar unemployment and poverty in the United Kingdom describes a period of poverty in Interwar Britain between the end of the First World War in 1918 and the start of the Second World War in 1939.
Irish migration to Great Britain has occurred from the earliest recorded history to the present.
The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Italian Americans (italoamericani or italo-americani) are an ethnic group consisting of Americans who have ancestry from Italy.
John "Jack" Sharp (15 February 1878 in Hereford – 28 January 1938 in Wavertree, Liverpool) was an English sportsman who is most famous for his eleven-season playing career at Everton F.C. from 1899–1910.
The Jarrow March of 5 – 31 October 1936, also known as the Jarrow Crusade, was an organised protest against the unemployment and poverty suffered in the English Tyneside town of Jarrow during the 1930s.
Jeanette Winterson, CBE (born 27 August 1959) is an award-winning English writer, who became famous with her first book, Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit, a semi-autobiographical novel about a sensitive teenage girl rebelling against conventional values.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Kaiser Chiefs are an English indie rock band from Leeds who formed in 2000 as Parva, releasing one studio album, 22, in 2003, before renaming and establishing themselves in their current name that same year.
KCOM Group (formerly known as Kingston Communications and latterly KC) is a UK communications and IT services provider.
Kellingley Colliery was a deep coal mine in North Yorkshire, England, east of Ferrybridge power station.
The King's Manor is a Grade I listed building in York, England, and is part of the University of York.
The Kingdom of Lindsey or Linnuis (Lindesege) was a lesser Anglo-Saxon kingdom, which was absorbed into Northumbria in the 7th century.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Kirk is found as an element in many place names in Scotland, England, and North America.
Kirklees is a local government district of West Yorkshire, England, governed by Kirklees Council with the status of a metropolitan borough.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.
Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
The Lancashire bagpipe or Lancashire greatpipe has been attested in literature, and commentators have noticed that the Lancashire bagpipe was also believed proof against witchcraft.
The Lancashire Coalfield in North West England was one of the most important British coalfields.
Lancashire Cricket Club, one of eighteen first-class county clubs in the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales, represents the historic county of Lancashire.
Lancashire hotpot is a stew originating from Lancashire in the North West of England.
Lancaster University, also officially known as the University of Lancaster, is a public research university in the City of Lancaster, Lancashire, England.
Lancaster is the county town of Lancashire, England. It is on the River Lune and has a population of 52,234; the wider City of Lancaster local government district has a population of 138,375. Long a commercial, cultural and educational centre, Lancaster gives Lancashire its name. The House of Lancaster was a branch of the English royal family, whilst the Duchy of Lancaster holds large estates on behalf of Elizabeth II, who is also the Duke of Lancaster. Lancaster is an ancient settlement, dominated by Lancaster Castle, Lancaster Priory Church and the Ashton Memorial. It is also home to Lancaster University and a campus of the University of Cumbria.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
Last Tango in Halifax is a British comedy-drama series that broadcast on BBC One, beginning November 2012 and ending with a two-part Christmas special in December 2016.
The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules that help define association football.
In common law systems that rely on testimony by witnesses, a leading question or suggestive interrogation is a question that suggests the particular answer or contains the information the examiner is looking to have confirmed.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
The Leeds Blitz comprised nine air raids on the city of Leeds, the United Kingdom's third largest city, by the Nazi German Luftwaffe.
Leeds Bradford Airport is located at Yeadon, in the City of Leeds Metropolitan District in West Yorkshire, England, northwest of Leeds city centre itself, and from Bradford city centre.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
Leyland Trucks is the leading medium and heavy duty truck manufacturer in the United Kingdom, and is based in the town of Leyland, Lancashire.
The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast tram is a form of urban rail transport using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.
The Lincolnshire Wolds is a range of hills in the county of Lincolnshire, England.
The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, also known simply as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland.
The Lindisfarne Gospels (London, British Library Cotton MS Nero D.IV) is an illuminated manuscript gospel book probably produced around the years 715-720 in the monastery at Lindisfarne, off the coast of Northumberland, which is now in the British Library in London.
Lindsey Oil Refinery is an oil refinery in North Killingholme, Lincolnshire, England owned by Total S.A..
The Catholic dioceses in Great Britain are organised by two separate hierarchies: the Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales, and the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland.
Within England and Wales there are thirteen areas known as national parks, each administered by its own national park authority, a special purpose local authority, the role of which as set out in the Environment Act 1995 is: to conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage of the National Parks. and to promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of the National Parks by the public. The national park authority for each park addresses these aims in partnership with other organisations, such as the National Trust.
This is a list of the main sporting local derbies and other sports rivalries in the UK.
This is a list of supermarket chains in the United Kingdom.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was a railway opened on 15 September 1830 between the Lancashire towns of Liverpool and Manchester in England.
The Liverpool Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of the English city of Liverpool and its surrounding area, during the Second World War by the German Luftwaffe.
Liverpool City Council is the governing body for the city of Liverpool in Merseyside, England.
The Liverpool Echo is a newspaper published by Trinity Mirror based in Old Hall Street, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
Liverpool Football Club is a professional football club in Liverpool, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football.
Liverpool John Lennon Airport is an international airport serving North West England.
Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral, officially known as the Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King, is the seat of the Archbishop of Liverpool and the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Liverpool in Liverpool, England.
The Liverpool Muslim Institute was founded by the Liverpudlian Abdullah Quilliam in 1887.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (also known as ''no-frills'', ''discount'' or budget carrier or airline, or LCC) is an airline without most of the traditional services provided in the fare, resulting in lower fares and fewer comforts.
Lower Allithwaite is a civil parish in the South Lakeland district of the English county of Cumbria.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
The M1 is a motorway in England connecting London to Leeds, where it joins the A1(M) near Aberford, to connect to Newcastle.
The M6 motorway runs from junction 19 of the M1 at the Catthorpe Interchange, near Rugby via Birmingham then heads north, passing Stoke-on-Trent, Liverpool, Manchester, Preston, Lancaster, Carlisle and terminating at the Gretna junction (J45).
The M62 coach bombing occurred on 4 February 1974 on the M62 motorway in northern England, when a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb exploded in a coach carrying off-duty British Armed Forces personnel and their family members.
The M62 is a west–east trans-Pennine motorway in Northern England, connecting Liverpool and Hull via Manchester and Leeds; of the route is shared with the M60 orbital motorway around Manchester.
Madchester was a music and cultural scene that developed in the Manchester area of North West England in the late 1980s, in which artists merged alternative rock with acid house culture and other sources, including psychedelia and 1960s pop.
Mamucium, also known as Mancunium, is a former Roman fort in the Castlefield area of Manchester in North West England.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manchester Airport is an international airport in Ringway, Manchester, England, south-west of Manchester city centre.
The Manchester Blitz (also known as the Christmas Blitz) was the heavy bombing of the city of Manchester and its surrounding areas in North West England during the Second World War by the Nazi German Luftwaffe.
Manchester City Council is the local government authority for Manchester, a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England.
Manchester City Football Club is a football club in Manchester, England.
Mancunian (or Manc) is the dialect spoken in Manchester, North West England, and its environs.
The Manchester Evening News (MEN) is a regional daily newspaper covering Greater Manchester in North West England.
Manchester Liberalism, Manchester School, Manchester Capitalism and Manchesterism are terms for the political, economic and social movements of the 19th century that originated in Manchester, England.
Metrolink (also known as Manchester Metrolink) is a tram/light rail system in Greater Manchester, England.
Manchester Network Access Point was a Manchester-based internet exchange point (IXP).
Manchester Reform Synagogue, a member of the Movement for Reform Judaism, is one of the oldest Reform synagogues in the United Kingdom.
The Manchester Ship Canal is a inland waterway in the North West of England linking Manchester to the Irish Sea.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
A marine layer is an air mass which develops over the surface of a large body of water such as the ocean or large lake in the presence of a temperature inversion.
Marylebone Cricket Club, generally known as the MCC, is a cricket club founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord's cricket ground, which it owns, in St John's Wood, London, England.
Matriarchy is a social system in which females (most notably in mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree.
Maxïmo Park are an English alternative rock band, formed in 2000 in Newcastle upon Tyne.
A meat pie is a pie with a filling of meat and often other savory ingredients.
MediaCityUK is a mixed-use property development on the banks of the Manchester Ship Canal in Salford and Trafford, Greater Manchester, England.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
Merseyside is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 1.38 million.
Merseytravel is the passenger transport executive responsible for the coordination of public transport in the Liverpool City Region, North West England.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level administrative division of England.
Middle Eastern cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East.
Middlesbrough is a large post-industrial town on the south bank of the River Tees in North Yorkshire, north-east England, founded in 1830.
Middlesbrough Football Club is a professional association football club based in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England.
Middlesex County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales.
The Middleton Railway is the world's oldest continuously working public railway, situated in the English city of Leeds.
The Trotskyist group Militant (also known as the Militant tendency) took control of the Liverpool City Council through much of the 1980s, defining the city's politics.
A military band is a group of personnel that performs musical duties for military functions, usually for the armed forces.
Millstones or mill stones are stones used in gristmills, for grinding wheat or other grains.
Millstone Grit is the name given to any of a number of coarse-grained sandstones of Carboniferous age which occur in the British Isles.
A Ministry of Transport or Transportation is a ministry responsible for transportation within a country.
Mobile broadband is the marketing term for wireless Internet access through a portable modem, USB wireless modem, tablet/smartphone or other mobile device.
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.
Morecambe is a town on Morecambe Bay in Lancashire, England, which had a population of 34,768 at the 2011 Census.
Wm Morrison Supermarkets plc, trading as Morrisons, is the fourth largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, and is headquartered in Bradford, West Yorkshire, England.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Motown is an American record company.
Reform Judaism (formally, The Movement for Reform Judaism and, until 2005, known as Reform Synagogues of Great Britain) is one of the two World Union for Progressive Judaism-affiliated denominations in Britain.
The Index of Multiple Deprivation is a UK government qualitative study of deprived areas in English local councils.
A municipal bus company is an operator of bus services owned by the local government authority.
Mushy peas are dried marrowfat peas which are first soaked overnight in water with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), then rinsed in fresh water and simmered with a little sugar and salt until they form a thick green lumpy mash.
Here Northumbria is taken to mean Northumberland, the northernmost county of England, and County Durham, as is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary.
The N8 Research Partnership is a partnership created in 2007 of the eight research-intensive universities in Northern England - Durham, Lancaster, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Sheffield and York.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Graphene Institute is a research institute and building at the University of Manchester that is focused on the research of graphene.
The National Grid is the high-voltage electric power transmission network in Great Britain, connecting power stations and major substations and ensuring that electricity generated anywhere in GB (England, Scotland and Wales) can be used to satisfy demand elsewhere.
There are a number of National Museums in the United Kingdom, which are owned and operated by the state.
The national parks of England and Wales are areas of relatively undeveloped and scenic landscape that are designated under the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act (2016).
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Negative equity occurs when the value of an asset used to secure a loan is less than the outstanding balance on the loan.
New Brighton is a seaside resort forming part of the town of Wallasey within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England.
New Yorkshire was a musical movement identified by UK music magazine NME in 2005, in response to the success of Yorkshire bands such as Arctic Monkeys, The Cribs, and Kaiser Chiefs at the time.
The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, which is known as the country's national sport.
Newcastle International Airport is an international airport located near the main area of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, about 6.5 miles (10.5km) north-west of the city centre.
The Newcastle Blitz refers to the strategic bombing of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England by the Nazi German Luftwaffe during the second world war.
Newcastle Brown Ale is a brown ale, originally produced in Newcastle upon Tyne, but now brewed by Heineken at the Zoeterwoude Brewery in the Netherlands.
Newcastle City Council is the local government authority for Newcastle upon Tyne, a city in Tyne and Wear, England.
The Newcastle Falcons (formerly Gosforth FC/Newcastle Gosforth until 1996) is an English rugby union team that plays in the English Premiership.
Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football.
Newcastle University (officially, the University of Newcastle upon Tyne) is a public research university in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North-East of England.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
Nissan Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd, or NMUK, is a car manufacturing plant in Sunderland.
A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).
A non-denominational person or organization is not restricted to any particular or specific religious denomination.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Norse funerals, or the burial customs of Viking Age North Germanic Norsemen (early medieval Scandinavians), are known both from archaeology and from historical accounts such as the Icelandic sagas, Old Norse poetry, and notably from the account of Ahmad ibn Fadlan.
North and South is a social novel by English writer Elizabeth Gaskell.
North East Derbyshire is a local government district in Derbyshire, England.
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The North East England devolution referendum was an all postal ballot referendum that took place on 4 November 2004 throughout North East England on whether or not to establish an elected assembly for the region.
North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire in England.
The North East of England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC) is an economic cluster created following the industrial cluster ideas and strategy of Michael Porter.
The North East Party (NEP) is a regionalist political party in North East England founded in 2014 by 16 people including the former Labour MP Hilton Dawson and 7 members of the FAIR party.
North Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in Lincolnshire, England, with a population of 167,446 at the 2011 census.
The North Pennine Ring is a canal ring which crosses the Pennines between Manchester, Leeds and Castleford.
The North of England and South of England cricket teams appeared in first-class cricket between the 1836 and 1961 seasons, most often in matches against each other but also individually in games against touring teams, Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) and others.
North Wales (Gogledd Cymru) is an unofficial region of Wales.
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.
The North York Moors is a national park in North Yorkshire, England, containing one of the largest expanses of heather moorland in the United Kingdom.
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county (or shire county) and larger ceremonial county in England.
Northallerton is a market town and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England.
Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire in the East Midlands of England.
In England, the term North–South divide refers to the cultural, economic, and social differences between.
Northern, the trading name of Arriva Rail North, is a train operating company in Northern England.
The Northern Forest is a proposed forest in England to encompass five community forests.
The Northern Hub is a rail programme in Northern England to improve and increase train services and reduce journey times between its major cities and towns by electrifying lines and removing a major rail bottleneck in Manchester.
The Northern Party was a regionalist political party in Northern England, founded by leader Michael Dawson and former Blackpool MP Harold Elletson in March 2015 to contest five marginal seats in Lancashire at the 2015 general election.
The Northern Powerhouse is a proposal to boost economic growth in the North of England by the 2010-15 coalition government and 2015-2017 Conservative government in the United Kingdom, particularly in the "Core Cities" of Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Sheffield, Hull and Newcastle.
Northern Powerhouse Rail (NPR) also known as High Speed 3 (HS3) or Crossrail for the North is a proposed railway network that aims to improve connectivity in the north of England, connecting Liverpool, Manchester, Manchester Airport, Leeds, Huddersfield, Sheffield, Newcastle, and Hull, as well as other significant economic centres.
Northern soul is a music and dance movement that emerged in Northern England in the late 1960s from the British mod scene, based on a particular style of black American soul music, especially in the mid-1960s, with a heavy beat and fast tempo.
Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
The Northumberland and Durham Coalfield is a coalfield in North East England, otherwise known as the Durham and Northumberland Coalfield or the Great Northern Coalfield.
Northumberland National Park is the northernmost national park in England.
The Northumbrian Renaissance or Northumbria's Golden Age is the name given to a period of cultural flowering in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, broadly speaking from the mid-seventh to the mid-eighth centuries.
Northumbrian was a dialect of Old English spoken in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria.
The Northumbrian smallpipes (also known as the Northumbrian pipes) are bellows-blown bagpipes from North East England, particularly Northumberland and Tyne and Wear.
Nottinghamshire (pronounced or; abbreviated Notts) is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west.
Oasis were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1991.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
Oatmeal is made of hulled oat grains – groats – that have either been milled (ground), steel-cut, or rolled.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
Offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser.
Open-pit coal mining in the United Kingdom is in decline.
The Loyal Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal order based primarily in Northern Ireland.
Ormskirk is a market town in West Lancashire, England, north of Liverpool, northwest of St Helens, southeast of Southport and southwest of Preston.
Ostend (Oostende, or; Ostende; Ostende) is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders.
Oswald (c 604 – 5 August 641/642Bede gives the year of Oswald's death as 642, however there is some question as to whether what Bede considered 642 is the same as what would now be considered 642. R. L. Poole (Studies in Chronology and History, 1934) put forward the theory that Bede's years began in September, and if this theory is followed (as it was, for instance, by Frank Stenton in his notable history Anglo-Saxon England, first published in 1943), then the date of the Battle of Heavenfield (and the beginning of Oswald's reign) is pushed back from 634 to 633. Thus, if Oswald subsequently reigned for eight years, he would have actually been killed in 641. Poole's theory has been contested, however, and arguments have been made that Bede began his year on 25 December or 1 January, in which case Bede's years would be accurate as he gives them.) was King of Northumbria from 634 until his death, and is venerated as a saint, of whom there was a particular cult in the Middle Ages.
Our Friends in the North is a British television drama serial produced by the BBC.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
Owenism is the utopian socialist philosophy of 19th-century social reformer Robert Owen and his followers and successors, who are known as Owenites.
Oxbridge is a portmanteau of "Oxford" and "Cambridge"; the two oldest, most prestigious, and consistently most highly-ranked universities in the United Kingdom.
The Professor of Poetry is an academic appointment at the University of Oxford.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A package tour, package vacation, or package holiday comprises transport and accommodation advertised and sold together by a vendor known as a tour operator.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
A parish council is a civil local authority found in England and is the first tier of local government.
The Parisi were a British Celtic tribe located somewhere within the present-day East Riding of Yorkshire, in England, known from a single brief reference by Ptolemy in his Geographica of about AD 150.
Parkin or perkin is a gingerbread cake traditionally made with oatmeal and black treacle, which originated in northern England.
The Parmo or Teesside Parmesan is a breaded cutlet dish originating in Middlesbrough and a popular item of take-away food in the North East of England.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
In the United Kingdom, passenger transport executives (PTEs) are local government bodies which are responsible for public transport within large urban areas.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
The Peak District is an upland area in England at the southern end of the Pennines.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
The Pennines, also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of mountains and hills in England separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England.
The People's Republic of South Yorkshire or the Socialist Republic of South Yorkshire is the nickname often given to South Yorkshire under the left-wing local governments of the 1980s, especially the municipal socialist administration of Sheffield City Council led by David Blunkett, used by both detractors and supporters of the councils.
A percentage point or percent point (pp) is the unit for the arithmetic difference of two percentages.
The Personal Rule (also known as the Eleven Years' Tyranny) was the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland ruled without recourse to Parliament.
The Peterloo Massacre occurred at St Peter's Field, Manchester, England, on 16 August 1819, when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation.
Most dialects of modern English have two high back vowels: the near-close near-back rounded vowel found in words like foot, and the close back rounded vowel (realized as central in many dialects) found in words like goose.
The Pier Head (properly, George's Pier Head) is a riverside location in the city centre of Liverpool, England.
Pigeon racing is the sport of releasing specially trained racing pigeons, which then return to their homes over a carefully measured distance.
The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular uprising that began in Yorkshire in October 1536, before spreading to other parts of Northern England including Cumberland, Northumberland and north Lancashire, under the leadership of lawyer Robert Aske.
Pitmatic (originally "pitmatical"), also colloquially known as "yakka", is a dialect of English used in the counties of Northumberland and Durham in England.
The term plate glass university or plateglass university refers to a group of universities in the United Kingdom established or promoted to university status in the 1960s.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The British Poet Laureate is an honorary position appointed by the monarch of the United Kingdom on the advice of the Prime Minister.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
The Port of Grimsby is located on the south bank of the Humber Estuary at Grimsby in North East Lincolnshire.
The Port of Immingham, also known as Immingham Docks, is a major east coast port, located on the south bank of the Humber Estuary west of Grimsby, near the town of Immingham.
The Port of Liverpool is the enclosed dock system that runs from Brunswick Dock in Liverpool to Seaforth Dock, Seaforth, on the east side of the River Mersey and the Birkenhead Docks between Birkenhead and Wallasey on the west side of the river.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system.
Premiership Rugby (officially known as Gallagher Premiership Rugby, or the Gallagher Premiership due to sponsorship reasons) is an English professional rugby union competition.
The Preston By-pass was Britain's first motorway.
Preston North End Football Club (often shortened to PNE) is a professional football club in Preston, Lancashire, who play in the Championship, the second tier of the English football league system.
Preston is the administrative centre of Lancashire, England, on the north bank of the River Ribble.
Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.
The Primitive Methodist Church is a body of Holiness Christians within the Methodist tradition, which began in England in the early 19th century, with the influence of American evangelist Lorenzo Dow (1777–1834).
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
Association football is the world's most popular sport, and is worth US$600 billion worldwide.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
The Province of York is one of two ecclesiastical provinces making up the Church of England and consists of 12 dioceses which cover the northern third of England and the Isle of Man.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
A public school in England and Wales is a long-established, student-selective, fee-charging independent secondary school that caters primarily for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18, and whose head teacher is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC).
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Pulp were an English rock band formed in Sheffield in 1978.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Quintus Petillius Cerialis Caesius Rufus, otherwise known as Quintus Petillius Cerialis (born ca. AD 30—died after AD 83) was a Roman general and administrator who served in Britain during Boudica's rebellion and who went on to participate in the civil wars after the death of Nero.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Rail freight transport is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
A rave (from the verb: to rave) is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property typically featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music.
Recusancy was the state of those who refused to attend Anglican services during the history of England and Wales and of Ireland; these individuals were known as recusants.
Red brick university (or redbrick university) is a term originally used to refer to nine civic universities founded in the major industrial cities of England in the 19th century, but with the 1960s proliferation of universities and the reclassification of polytechnics in the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, it is sometimes used more broadly to refer to British universities founded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in major cities.
The red grouse, Lagopus lagopus scotica, is a medium-sized bird of the grouse family which is found in heather moorland in Great Britain and Ireland.
The Red Rose of Lancaster (a rose gules) is the county flower of Lancashire.
The borough of Redcar & Cleveland is a unitary authority area of North Yorkshire in the North East of England, consisting of Redcar, Saltburn-by-the-Sea, Guisborough, and small towns such as Brotton, Eston, Skelton and Loftus.
Reformed Baptists (sometimes known as Particular Baptists or Calvinistic Baptists) are Baptists that hold to a Calvinist soteriology.
The regional chambers of England were a group of indirectly elected regional bodies that were created by the provisions of the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998.
In politics, regionalism is a political ideology that focuses on the national or normative interests of a particular region, group of regions or another subnational entity.
The regions of England, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England.
The resettlement of the Jews in England was an informal arrangement during the Commonwealth of England in the mid-1650s, which allowed Jews to practise their faith openly.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
The RFU Championship, known for sponsorship reasons as the Greene King IPA Championship from 2013–14, is the second tier of the English rugby union league system and was founded in September 1987.
Rheged was one of the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd ("Old North"), the Brittonic-speaking region of what is now Northern England and southern Scotland, during the post-Roman era and Early Middle Ages.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
The Rhubarb Triangle is a triangle in West Yorkshire, England between Wakefield, Morley and Rothwell famous for producing early forced rhubarb.
Rhyl (Y Rhyl) is a Welsh seaside resort town and community in the county of Denbighshire.
Richmond is a market town and civil parish in North Yorkshire, England and the administrative centre of the district of Richmondshire.
The Rising of the North of 1569, also called the Revolt of the Northern Earls or Northern Rebellion, was an unsuccessful attempt by Catholic nobles from Northern England to depose Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.
The River Lune (archaically sometimes Loyne) is a river in length in Cumbria and Lancashire, England.
The River Mersey is a river in the North West of England.
The River Tees is in northern England.
The River Trent is the third-longest river in the United Kingdom.
The River Tyne is a river in North East England and its length (excluding tributaries) is.
The River Wharfe is a river in Yorkshire, England.
Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; Early Scots: Robert Brus; Robertus Brussius), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329.
Rochdale is a town in Greater Manchester, England, at the foothills of the South Pennines on the River Roch, northwest of Oldham and northeast of Manchester.
Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ships are vessels designed to carry wheeled cargo, such as cars, trucks, semi-trailer trucks, trailers, and railroad cars, that are driven on and off the ship on their own wheels or using a platform vehicle, such as a self-propelled modular transporter.
The Diocese of Nottingham, England, is a Roman Catholic diocese of the Latin Rite and a suffragan in the ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Diocese of Westminster.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Shrewsbury is a Roman Catholic diocese which encompasses the pre-1974 counties of Shropshire and Cheshire in the North West and West Midlands of England.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
Roman roads in Britannia were initially designed for military use, created by the Roman Army during the nearly four centuries (43 – 410 AD) that Britannia was a province of the Roman Empire.
Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century.
Room at the Top is a novel by John Braine, first published in the United Kingdom by Eyre & Spottiswoode in 1957, about the rise of an ambitious young man of humble origin, and the socio-economic struggles undergone in realising his social ambitions in post-war Britain.
The Roses Match refers to any game of cricket played between Yorkshire County Cricket Club and Lancashire County Cricket Club.
The term "Roses rivalry" can refer to sporting rivalries between teams from the English counties of Lancashire and Yorkshire.
Rotherham Rugby Union Football Club, or Rotherham Titans is a professional rugby union team from Rotherham, South Yorkshire, currently playing in the third tier of the English rugby union league system, following their relegation from the RFU Championship at the end of the 2017-18 season.
Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.
The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league in England.
The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the governing body for rugby union in England.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The Russell Group is a self-selected association of twenty-four public research universities in the United Kingdom.
Sale Sharks is an English professional rugby union club from the Greater Manchester that plays in the English Premiership.
Salford is a town in the City of Salford, North West England.
Cheshire is a county in North West England.
Samuel Smith's Old Brewery, popularly known as Samuel Smith's or Sam Smith's, is an independent British brewery in Tadcaster, North Yorkshire, England.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
The Sankey Canal in North West England connects St Helens to the River Mersey at Spike Island.
A satellite town or satellite city is a concept in urban planning that refers essentially to smaller metropolitan areas which are located somewhat near to, but are mostly independent of larger metropolitan areas.
Scafell Pike or is the highest mountain in England, at an elevation of above sea level.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
A scone is a baked good, usually made of wheat, or oatmeal with baking powder as a leavening agent and baked on sheet pans.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.
Scunthorpe is a large industrial town in North Lincolnshire, England.
A sea breeze or onshore breeze is any wind that blows from a large body of water toward or onto a landmass; it develops due to differences in air pressure created by the differing heat capacities of water and dry land.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
Seathwaite Fell is an area of the Lake District in Cumbria, England.
Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.
Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments.
Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.
Shameless is a British comedy-drama series set in Manchester on the fictional Chatsworth council estate.
A shawl (from lang-Urdu شال shāl, which may be from दुशाला duśālā, ultimately from Sanskrit: शाटी śāṭī) is a simple item of clothing, loosely worn over the shoulders, upper body and arms, and sometimes also over the head.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
The Sheffield Blitz is the name given to the worst nights of German Luftwaffe bombing in Sheffield, England, during the Second World War.
Sheffield, Brightside and Hillsborough is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament by Gill Furniss, a member of the Labour Party.
Sheffield City Council is the city council for the metropolitan borough of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England.
The Sheffield City Region Combined Authority (formally the Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham and Sheffield Combined Authority) is the combined authority for South Yorkshire in England, with powers over transport (public transport and major trunk roads only), economic development and regeneration.
Sheffield Football Club is an English football club from Sheffield, South Yorkshire, although now based in Dronfield, Derbyshire.
Sheffield Hallam is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2017 by Jared O'Mara.
The Sheffield Rules was a code of football devised and played in the English city of Sheffield between 1857 and 1877.
The Sheffield Supertram (officially the Stagecoach Supertram) is a light rail tram system in the city of Sheffield, England.
Sheffield Tramway was an extensive tramway network serving the English city of Sheffield and its suburbs.
The Sheffield Urban Area is a conurbation in the North of England with a population of 685,368 according to the 2011 census.
A shibboleth is any custom or tradition, particularly a speech pattern, that distinguishes one group of people (an ingroup) from others (outgroups).
A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and repaired.
Simon Robert Armitage CBE (born 26 May 1963) is an English poet, playwright and novelist.
A singing hinny or singin' hinny is a type of bannock, griddle cake or scone, made in the north of England, especially Northumberland and the coal-mining areas of the North East.
A skirt is the lower part of a dress or gown, covering the person from the waist downwards, or a separate outer garment serving this purpose.
Slum clearance, slum eviction or slum removal is an urban renewal strategy used to transform low income settlements with poor reputation into another type of development or housing.
A soap opera or soaper is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction presented in serial format on television, radio and in novels, featuring the lives of many characters and focusing on emotional relationships to the point of melodrama.
Social realism is the term used for work produced by painters, printmakers, photographers, writers and filmmakers that aims to draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working class and to voice the authors' critique of the social structures behind these conditions.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
Soft water is surface water that contains low concentrations of ions and in particular is low in ions of calcium and magnesium.
The Solway Plain or Solway Basin is a coastal plain in the northwest of Cumbria, England and stretching over the Scottish border to the low-lying area around Gretna and Annan It is an area generally lying north and west of Carlisle along the Solway Firth and drained by the rivers Esk and Lyne.
South Asian cuisine includes the cuisines from South Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) comprising the traditional cuisines from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives and when included in the definition, also that of Afghanistan.
The South Pennine Ring is an English canal ring which crosses the Pennines between Manchester and Huddersfield.
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England.
The South Yorkshire Coalfield is so named from its position within Yorkshire.
The South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive is the passenger transport executive for South Yorkshire in England.
Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, refers roughly to the southern counties of England.
Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.
The spoke-hub distribution paradigm is a form of transport topology optimization in which traffic routes are organized as a series of 'spokes' that connect outlying points to a central 'hub.' Simple forms of this distribution/connection model may be contrasted with point-to-point transit systems in which each point has a direct route to every other point, and which was the principal method of transporting passengers and freight until the 1970s.
Sportswear is an American fashion term originally used to describe separates, but which, since the 1930s, has come to be applied to day and evening fashions of varying degrees of formality that demonstrate a specific relaxed approach to their design, while remaining appropriate for a wide range of social occasions.
In linguistics, a sprachraum ("language space") is a geographical region where a common first language (mother tongue), with dialect varieties, or group of languages is spoken.
Springfields is a nuclear fuel production installation in Salwick, near Preston in Lancashire, England.
St Helens is a large town in Merseyside, England.
Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England.
Stanlow Refinery is an oil refinery owned by Essar Energy in Ellesmere Port, North West England.
Star Carr is a Mesolithic archaeological site in North Yorkshire, England.
A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine.
Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap.
The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR) was a railway company that operated in north-east England from 1825 to 1863.
Stoke-on-Trent (often abbreviated to Stoke) is a city and unitary authority area in Staffordshire, England, with an area of.
The Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund are financial tools set up to implement the regional policy of the European Union.
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city.
Sui generis is a Latin phrase that means "of its (his, her, their) own kind; in a class by itself; unique." A number of disciplines use the term to refer to unique entities.
Sunderland Association Football Club is an English professional football club based in the city of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear.
Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year) for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years.
Super League (currently known as the Betfred Super League for sponsorship reasons) is the top-level professional rugby league club competition in the Northern hemisphere.
The 2018 Super League season, known as the Betfred Super League XXIII for sponsor reasons, is the 23rd season of Super League and 124th season of rugby league in Britain. Twelve teams compete over 23 rounds, including the Magic Weekend, which took place at St James' Park, Newcastle upon Tyne, after which the eight highest enter the Super League play-offs for a place in the Super League Grand Final. The four lowest teams then enter the qualifying play-offs, along with the four highest teams from the Championship, to determine which teams will play again in Super League XXIV. Leeds Rhinos are the current champions, after beating Castleford Tigers 24–6 in last year's Final, in front of a sell out crowd of 72,827 at Old Trafford, to win a record 8th super league championship. Super League XXIII features twelve teams, the fourth year in which this number has taken part. This is also the third year since promotion and relegation was reintroduced into the competition, seeing Hull KR promoted and Leigh Centurions relegated from last season. This season also saw the first Super League game played outside Europe, as Wigan Warriors faced Hull at WIN Stadium in Wollongong, Australia on Saturday 10 February 2018, which Wigan won, 24–10.
Surrey is a county in South East England, and one of the home counties.
Surrey County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales.
The Survey of English Dialects was undertaken between 1950 and 1961 under the direction of Professor Harold Orton of the English department of the University of Leeds.
Suspenders (American English, Canadian English) or braces (British English, Australian English) are fabric or leather straps worn over the shoulders to hold up trousers.
Swaledale is a full fat hard cheese produced in the town of Richmond in Swaledale, North Yorkshire, England.
Swallows and Amazons is the first book in the ''Swallows and Amazons'' series by English author Arthur Ransome; it was first published in 1930, with the action taking place in the summer of 1929 in the Lake District.
The Synod of Whitby (664 A.D.) was a Northumbrian synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practised by Irish monks at Iona and its satellite institutions.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Edward James Hughes (17 August 1930 – 28 October 1998) was an English poet and children's writer.
The Tees Valley is a city region and combined authority area in the North East of England nestled between North Yorkshire and County Durham and consisting of the following five unitary authorities: Darlington, Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland and Stockton-on-Tees, the latter four previously formed the non-metropolitan county of Cleveland between 1974 and 1996.
Teesport is a large sea port located in the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland, in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, Northern England.
Teesside is the conurbation in the north east of England around the urban centre of Middlesbrough that is primarily made up of the towns Billingham, Redcar, Stockton-on-Tees, Thornaby and surrounding settlements near the River Tees.
A temperance bar is a type of bar that does not serve alcoholic beverages.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket and is considered its highest standard.
Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centred in south Lancashire and the towns on both sides of the Pennines.
The Anarchy was a civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order.
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The Co-operative Group, trading as the Co-op, is a British consumer co-operative with a diverse family of retail businesses including food retail and wholesale; electrical retail; financial services; insurance services; legal services and funeralcare, with in excess of 4,200 locations.
The Condition of the Working Class in England (German: Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England) is an 1845 book by the German philosopher Friedrich Engels, a study of the industrial working class in Victorian England.
The Football Association (FA) is the governing body of association football in England, the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Leeds Studios (also known as the Yorkshire Television Studios or YTV Studios) is a television production complex on Kirkstall Road in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The Northern Echo is a regional daily morning newspaper, based in the town of Darlington in North East England; serving County Durham and Teesside.
The Northern Way was a collaboration initiated in February 2004 between the three northern regional development agencies (RDAs), Northwest Development Agency, One NorthEast and Yorkshire Forward at the instigation of the then Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott to focus on issues important for the whole of the North of England with a dimension larger than could be tackled by one region alone — for example, transport infrastructure, or marketing the North internationally.
The Railway Children is a children's book by Edith Nesbit, originally serialised in The London Magazine during 1905 and first published in book form in 1906.
The Road to Wigan Pier is a book by the British writer George Orwell, first published in 1937.
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church and an international charitable organisation structured in a quasi-military fashion.
The Secret Garden is a children's novel by Frances Hodgson Burnett first published as a book in 1911, after a version was published as an American magazine serial beginning in 1910.
The Sun is a tabloid newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
The Wash is a largely rectangular bay and estuary at the north-west corner of East Anglia on the East coast of England, where Norfolk meets Lincolnshire.
The Yorkshire Post is a daily broadsheet newspaper, published in Leeds in northern England.
Thirsk is a small market town and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England.
This Sporting Life is a 1960 novel by the English writer David Storey.
Thorp is a Middle English word for a hamlet or small village, from Old English (Anglo-Saxon)/Old Norse þorp (also thorp).
The word thou is a second person singular pronoun in English.
A throw-in is a method of restarting play in a game of football (or soccer) when the ball has exited the side of the field of play.
Tizer is a red-coloured, citrus-flavoured soft drink bottled in Cumbernauld and sold in the United Kingdom.
Thomas Francis Blenkinsop (born 14 August 1980) is a former British Labour Party politician and former Member of Parliament (MP) for Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland.
Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
The toponymy of England, like the English language itself, derives from various linguistic origins.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Trades Union Congress (TUC) is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in England and Wales, representing the majority of trade unions.
Traditional Grimsby smoked fish are regionally processed fish food products from the British fishing town of Grimsby, England.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
TransPennine Express (legally known as First TransPennine Express Limited) First TransPennine Express Limited is a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup operating the TransPennine Express franchise.
Transport for Greater Manchester (TfGM) is the public body responsible for co-ordinating transport services throughout Greater Manchester, in North West England.
Transport for the North (TfN) is the first sub-national transport body in the UK since the 1 April 2018.
The split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in mainstream and southeastern accents of English in England (including Received Pronunciation), in New Zealand English and South African English, and also to a lesser extent in Australian English as well as older Northeastern New England English (notably, older Boston accents), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened in certain environments and ultimately merged with the long of father.
The second treaty of Durham was a peace treaty concluded between kings Stephen of England and David I of Scotland, on 9 April 1139.
The Treaty of Ripon was an agreement signed by Charles I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Scottish Covenanters on 26 October 1640, in the aftermath of the Second Bishops' War.
The Trent and Mersey Canal is a in the East Midlands, West Midlands, and north-west of England.
Tripe is a type of edible lining from the stomachs of various farm animals.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in the North East region of England around the mouths of the rivers Tyne and Wear.
The Tyne and Wear Metro, referred to locally as simply The Metro, is a rapid transit and light rail system in North East England, serving Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside, North Tyneside and Sunderland in the Tyne and Wear region.
Nexus is the passenger transport executive responsible for the coordination of public transport in Tyne and Wear, England.
Tyneside is a conurbation on the banks of the River Tyne in North East England which includes Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, Tynemouth, Wallsend, South Shields, and Jarrow.
The UK Independence Party (UKIP) is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom.
The miners' strike of 1984–85 was a major industrial action to shut down the British coal industry in an attempt to prevent colliery closures.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom Census of 1851 recorded the people residing in every household on the night of Sunday 30 March 1851, and was the second of the UK censuses to include details of household members.
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons.
The United Kingdom government austerity programme is a fiscal policy undertaken in response to the Great Recession.
The 2016 United Kingdom local elections were held on Thursday 5 May 2016 were a series of local elections which were held in 124 local councils and also saw 4 mayoral elections in England which also coincided with elections to the Scottish Parliament, the Welsh Assembly, the Northern Ireland Assembly, the London Assembly, the London mayoral election and the England and Wales Police and crime commissioners.
The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian church in the United Kingdom.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Leeds is a Russell Group university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Sheffield (informally Sheffield University) is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England.
The University of York (abbreviated as Ebor or York for post-nominals) is a collegiate plate glass research university located in the city of York, England.
University spin-offs transform technological inventions developed from university research that are likely to remain unexploited otherwise.
Upton Park Football Club was an amateur football club from Upton Park, London in the late 19th and early 20th century, now defunct.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
UTC±00:00 is the following time.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Vauxhall Ellesmere Port is a motor vehicle assembly plant, located in the town of Ellesmere Port, south of the Wirral Peninsula in Cheshire, England.
Video game development is the process of creating a video game.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
Vimto is a soft drink sold in the United Kingdom.
VisitBritain is the name used by the British Tourist Authority, the tourist board of Great Britain incorporated under the Development of Tourism Act 1969.
Vote splitting is an electoral effect in which the distribution of votes among multiple similar candidates reduces the chance of winning for any of the similar candidates, and increases the chance of winning for a dissimilar candidate.
Warrington is a large town and unitary authority area in Cheshire, England, on the banks of the River Mersey, east of Liverpool, and west of Manchester.
The Warrington bombings were two separate bomb attacks that took place during early 1993 in Warrington, England.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651.
Wast Water or Wastwater is a lake located in Wasdale, a valley in the western part of the Lake District National Park, England.
Watford is a town and borough in North West London, England, situated northwest of central London and inside the circumference of the M25 motorway.
Watford Gap is a low-lying point between two hills, close to the village of Watford, Northamptonshire, England.
Wearside is an area of North East England centred on the continuous urban area of Sunderland by the River Wear, and in the wider sense, including separate neighbouring settlements such as Seaham.
The Welsh Marches (Y Mers) is an imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom.
Wensleydale is a style of cheese originally produced in Wensleydale, North Yorkshire, England, but now mostly made in large commercial creameries throughout the UK.
The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important railway corridors in the United Kingdom, connecting the major cities of London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, and Glasgow.
The West Country is a loosely defined area of south western England.
The West Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The West of England is a loose and locationally unspecific term sometimes given to the area surrounding the city and county of Bristol, England, and also sometimes applied more widely and in other parts of South West England.
West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England.
Metro is the passenger information brand used by the West Yorkshire Combined Authority in England.
The West Yorkshire Built-up Area, previously known as the West Yorkshire Urban Area is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to refer to a conurbation in West Yorkshire, England, based on the cities of Leeds, Bradford and Wakefield, and the large towns of Huddersfield and Halifax.
The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.
Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland;R. Wilkinson The British Isles, Sheet The British Isles. even older spellings are Westmerland and Westmereland) is a historic county in north west England.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The Whippet (also English Whippet or Snap dog) is a dog breed of medium-size.
Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Borough of Scarborough and English county of North Yorkshire.
The White Rose of York (also called the Rose alba or rose argent), a white heraldic rose, is the symbol of the House of York and has since been adopted as a symbol of Yorkshire as a whole.
Whitley Bay is a seaside town on the north east coast of England.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
Windermere is the largest natural lake in England.
Winifred Holtby (23 June 1898 – 29 September 1935) was an English novelist and journalist, now best known for her novel South Riding, which was posthumously published in 1936.
Wirral, also known as The Wirral, is a peninsula in northwest England.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yan Tan Tethera is a sheep-counting rhyme/system traditionally used by shepherds in Northern England and earlier in some other parts of Britain.
Ye is a second-person, plural, personal pronoun (nominative), spelled in Old English as "ge".
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York, England, and is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe.
Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The Yorkshire bagpipe is a type of bagpipe once native to the county of Yorkshire in northern England.
Yorkshire Carnegie (formerly Leeds Carnegie, Leeds Tykes and Leeds RUFC) are an English rugby union club in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, who play in the RFU Championship.
Yorkshire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales.
The Yorkshire Dales is an upland area of the Pennines in Northern England in the historic county of Yorkshire, most of it in the Yorkshire Dales National Park created in 1954.
The Yorkshire dialect (also Broad Yorkshire, Tyke, Yorkie, or Yorkshire English) is an English dialect of Northern England spoken in England's historic county of Yorkshire.
The Yorkshire Evening Post is a daily evening publication (delivered to newsagents every morning) published by Yorkshire Post Newspapers in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
The Yorkshire Party is a regionalist political party in Yorkshire, a historic county of England.
Yorkshire pudding is a common British side dish baked pudding made from batter consisting of eggs, flour, and milk or water.
Yorkshire Tea is a black tea blend produced by The Bettys & Taylors Group.
The Yorkshire Wolds are low hills in the counties of East Riding of Yorkshire and North Yorkshire in north-eastern England.
Yorkstone or York stone is a variety of sandstone, specifically from quarries in Yorkshire that have been worked since mediaeval times.
The 1883 FA Cup Final was contested by Blackburn Olympic and Old Etonians at the Kennington Oval.
The 1924 County Championship was the 31st officially organised running of the County Championship.
The 1926 general strike in the United Kingdom was a general strike that lasted 9 days, from 3 May 1926 to 12 May 1926.
The 1979 New Zealand rugby union tour of England, Scotland and Italy was a series of eleven matches played by the New Zealand national rugby union team (the All Blacks) in England, Scotland and Italy in October and November 1979.
The 1992 Manchester bombing was an attack by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on Thursday 3 December 1992.
The 1996 Manchester bombing was an attack carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on Saturday 15 June 1996.
The Bradford Riots were a short but intense period of rioting which began on 7 July 2001, in Bradford, West Yorkshire, England.
The 2017–18 English Premiership was the 31st season of the top flight of English domestic rugby union competition and the eighth and final to be sponsored by Aviva, with naming rights being purchased by Gallagher.
The 2017–18 Premier League was the 26th season of the Premier League, the top English professional league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 1992.
3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.
4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology, succeeding 3G.
The 53rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 53 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.