185 relations: Adige, Administrative subdivisions of the Papal States from 1816 to 1871, Adriatic Sea, Adriatic Veneti, Age of Discovery, Air pollution, Alpine foothills, Alps, Ancient Rome, Aosta Valley, Apennine Mountains, Area, Austrian Empire, Autonomy, Battle of Legnano, Battle of Parma, Bernina Range, Black Sea, Bologna, Bora (wind), Brenta (river), Brescia, Celts, Central Italy, Charlemagne, Cisalpine Gaul, Citrus, Congress of Vienna, Cottian Alps, Danube, Desiderius, Dolomites, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Ferrara, Duchy of Mantua, Duchy of Milan, Duchy of Modena and Reggio, Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Savoy, Duchy of Spoleto, Duke (Lombard), Early Middle Ages, Economic miracle, Economy of Italy, Emilia-Romagna, Etruscan civilization, Europe, European Parliament, European Union, Expedition of the Thousand, ..., Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Fascism, Ferrara, First French Empire, First-level NUTS of the European Union, Fog, France, Franks, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, French Revolution, Friuli, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Gallia Narbonensis, Gallo-Italic languages, Gaul, Gauls, Genoa, Glacier, Gothic War (535–554), Gran Paradiso, Gross domestic product, Holy Roman Empire, House of Habsburg, House of Valois, Humid continental climate, Humid subtropical climate, Innichen, Italian National Institute of Statistics, Italian resistance movement, Italian Social Republic, Italian unification, Italian Wars, Italo-Dalmatian languages, Italy, Köppen, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire), Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic), Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of the Lombards, Lago di Lei, Lake Como, Lake Garda, Lake Idro, Lake Iseo, Lake Lugano, Lake Maggiore, Lake Orta, Late Middle Ages, Lega Nord, Liberation Day (Italy), Ligures, Liguria, Ligurian Sea, List of mountains of the Alps above 3000 m, Livigno, Lombard banking, Lombard League, Lombards, Lombardy, Maritime republics, Matterhorn, Medieval commune, Mediolanum, Mediterranean climate, Migration Period, Milan, Modena, Modern history, Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, Napoleon, National Liberation Committee for Northern Italy, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, North Sea, Northeast Italy, Northwest Italy, Occitan language, Oceanic climate, Ottoman Empire, Padania, Padanian nationalism, Padua, Papal States, Parma, Pavia, Piave (river), Piedmont, Po (river), Po Valley, Population, Ravenna, Reggio Emilia, Regions of Italy, Renaissance, Reno (river), Republic of Genoa, Republic of Venice, Rhaeto-Romance languages, Rhine, Rimini, Romagna, Roman province, Roman Republic, Rome, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Scaliger, Secession, Second Industrial Revolution, Second Italian War of Independence, Sexten, Siege of Pavia (773–74), Smog, Southern Italy, Spanish Empire, Stelvio Pass, Switzerland, Tagliamento, Treaty of Lodi, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Trieste, Turin, Tuscany, University of Bologna, Venetian Lagoon, Venetian Plain, Veneto, Venice, Verona, Visconti of Milan, Western Roman Empire, World War II, 1629–31 Italian plague. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
The Adige (Etsch; Àdexe; Adisch; Adesc; Athesis; Ἄθεσις) is the second longest river in Italy after the Po, rising in the Alps in the province of South Tyrol near the Italian border with Austria and Switzerland, flowing through most of North-East Italy to the Adriatic Sea.
The delegations as they existed in 1859.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Veneti (in Latin, also Heneti) were an Indo-European people who inhabited northeastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of Veneto.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
The Alpine foothills, or Prealps (Voralpen; Préalpes; Prealpi) can refer generally to any foothills at the base of the European Alps.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Aosta Valley (Valle d'Aosta (official) or Val d'Aosta (usual); Vallée d'Aoste (official) or Val d'Aoste (usual); Val d'Outa (usual); Augschtalann or Ougstalland; Val d'Osta) is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
The Battle of Legnano was fought on May 29, 1176, between the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the Lombard League.
The Battle of Parma was fought on 18 February 1248 between the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and the Guelphs.
The Bernina Range is a mountain range in the Alps of eastern Switzerland and northern Italy.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The bora is a northern to north-eastern katabatic wind in the Adriatic Sea.
The Brenta is an Italian river that runs from Trentino to the Adriatic Sea just south of the Venetian lagoon in the Veneto region, in the north-east of Italy.
Brescia (Lombard: Brèsa,, or; Brixia; Bressa) is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Cottian Alps (Alpes Cottiennes; Alpi Cozie); are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Desiderius (also known as Desiderio in Italian) (died c. 786) was a king of the Lombard Kingdom of northern Italy, ruling from 756 to 774.
The Dolomites (Dolomiti; Ladin: Dolomites; Dolomiten; Dołomiti: Dolomitis) are a mountain range located in northeastern Italy.
The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard duchy in the Italian peninsula, centered on Benevento, a city in Southern Italy.
The Duchy of Ferrara (Ducato di Ferrara) was a sovereign state in what is now northern Italy.
The Duchy of Mantua was a duchy in Lombardy, Northern Italy, subject to the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.
The Duchy of Modena and Reggio (Ducato di Modena e Reggio, Ducatus Mutinae et Regii) was a small northwestern Italian state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break during the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1814) when Emperor Napoleon I reorganized the states and republics of renaissance-era Italy, then under the domination of his French Empire.
The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which was conquered by the Papal States in 1512.
From 1416 to 1860, the Duchy of Savoy (Duché de Savoie, Ducato di Savoia) was a state in Western Europe.
The Duchy of Spoleto (Italian: Ducato di Spoleto, Latin: Dŭcā́tus Spōlḗtĭī) was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in central Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald.
Among the Lombards, the duke or dux was the man who acted as political and military commander of a set of "military families" (the Fara), irrespective of any territorial appropriation.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Economic miracle is an informal economic term commonly used to refer to a period of dramatic economic development that is entirely unexpected or unexpectedly strong.
The economy of Italy is the 3rd-largest national economy in the eurozone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and the 12th-largest by GDP (PPP).
Emilia-Romagna (Emilian and Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative Region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Expedition of the Thousand (Italian Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento that took place in 1860.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Ferrara (Ferrarese: Fràra) is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics, (NUTS, for the French nomenclature d'unités territoriales statistiques), is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative divisions of countries for statistical purposes.
Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity.
Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Friûl-Vignesie Julie; Furlanija-Julijska krajina, Friaul-Julisch Venetien; Friul-Venesia Julia; Friul-Unieja Julia) is one of the 20 regions of Italy, and one of five autonomous regions with special statute.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
The Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
The Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy took place from 535 until 554 in the Italian peninsula, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
The Gran Paradiso (Grand Paradis) is a mountain in the Graian Alps in Italy, located between the Aosta Valley and Piedmont regions.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
Innichen (San Candido) is a market town and comune (municipality) in South Tyrol in northern Italy.
The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.
The Italian resistance movement (Resistenza italiana or just la Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of World War II.
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.
The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages spoken in Italy, Corsica (France) and formerly in Dalmatia (Croatia).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Köppen is a German surname.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Königreich Lombardo–Venetien; Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century.
Lago di Lei is a reservoir in the Valle di Lei, powering the Hinterrhein storage power stations.
Lake Como (Lago di Como or locally in Italian, also known as Lario, after the Latin name of the lake; Lagh de Còmm in Lombard; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy.
Lake Garda (Lago di Garda or Lago Benàco, Benacus; Lach de Garda; Łago de Garda) is the largest lake in Italy.
Lake Idro (Lago d'Idro, also Eridio from Eridius lacus, Lac d'Ider, Idrosee) is an Italian prealpine lake of glacial origin situated largely within the Province of Brescia (Lombardy) and in part in Trentino.
Lake Iseo or Lago d'Iseo or Sebino is the fourth largest lake in Lombardy, Italy, fed by the Oglio river.
Lake Lugano (Lago di Lugano or Ceresio, from Ceresius lacus; Luganersee) is a glacial lake which is situated on the border between southern Switzerland and northern Italy.
Lake Maggiore (Lago Maggiore, literally 'Greater Lake') or Lago Verbàno (Lacus Verbanus) is a large lake located on the south side of the Alps.
Lake Orta (Italian: Lago d’Orta) is a lake in northern Italy, west of Lake Maggiore.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Lega Nord (LN; italic), whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (Northern League for the Independence of Padania), is a regionalist political party in Italy.
Italy's Liberation Day (Festa della liberazione), also known as the Anniversary of the Liberation (Anniversario della liberazione d'Italia), Anniversary of the Resistance (anniversario della Resistenza), or simply 25 April is a national Italian holiday commemorating the end of Nazi occupation of the Country during World War II and the victory of the Resistance.
The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
The Ligurian Sea (Mar Ligure; Mer Ligurienne) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between the Italian Riviera (Liguria) and the island of Corsica.
This page contains a table listing by elevation all 537 mountains of the Alps that exceed 3000 m and have a topographic prominence of at least 300 m. The list is continued down to 2500 m elevation on this page and down to 2000 m elevation on this page.
Livigno (Livigno, local Livígn, Luwin) is a town and comune in the province of Sondrio, in the region of Lombardy, Italy, located in the Italian Alps, near the Swiss border.
Lombard banking refers to the historical use of the term "Lombard" for a mount of piety style of pawn shop in the Middle Ages, a type of banking that originated with the prosperous northern Italian region of Lombardy.
The Lombard League (Italian and Lombard: Lega Lombarda) was a medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the Pope, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors to assert influence over the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages.
The Matterhorn (Matterhorn; Cervino; Mont Cervin) is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy.
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Modena (Mutna; Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco), meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia's Caucasus peaks.
The Monte Rosa (or synonymously used as a pleonasm: Monte Rosa massif (massiccio del Monte Rosa; Monte Rosa-Massiv; massif du Mont Rose) is a mountain massif located in the eastern part of the Pennine Alps. It is located between Switzerland (Valais) and Italy (Piedmont and Aosta Valley). Monte Rosa is the second highest mountain in the Alps and western Europe.John Ball, A Guide to the Western Alps, pp. 308-314 Monte Rosa is a huge ice-covered mountain in the Alps, located on the watershed between central and southern Europe. Its main summit, named Dufourspitze in honor of the surveyor Guillaume-Henri Dufour, culminates at above sea level and is followed by the five nearly equally high subsidiary summits of Dunantspitze, Grenzgipfel, Nordend, Zumsteinspitze and Signalkuppe. Monte Rosa is the highest mountain of both Switzerland and the Pennine Alps and is also the second-highest mountain of the Alps and Europe outside the Caucasus. The north-west side of the central Monte Rosa massif, with its enormous ice slopes and seracs, constitutes the boundary and upper basin of the large Gorner Glacier, which descends towards Zermatt and merges with its nowadays much larger tributary, the Grenzgletscher (Border Glacier), right below the Monte Rosa Hut on the lower end of the visible western wing. The Grenzgletscher is an impressive glacier formation between the western wing of the mountain and Liskamm, a ridge on its southwestern side on the Swiss-Italian border. On the eastern side, in Italy, the mountain falls away in an almost vertical wall of granite and ice, the biggest in Europe, overlooking Macugnaga and several smaller glaciers. Monte Rosa was studied by pioneering geologists and explorers, including Leonardo da Vinci in the late fifteenth century and Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the late eighteenth century. Following a long series of attempts beginning in the early nineteenth century, Monte Rosa's summit, then still called Höchste Spitze (Highest Peak), was first reached in 1855 from Zermatt by a party of eight climbers led by three guides. The great east wall was first climbed in 1872, from Macugnaga. Each summer a large number of climbers set out from the Monte Rosa Hut on the mountain's west wing for one of its summits via the normal route or for the Margherita Hut on the Signalkuppe (Punta Gnifetti), used as a research station. Many tourists and hikers also come each year to the Gornergrat on the north-west side of the massif, to see the panorama that extends over the giants of the Alps, from Monte Rosa to the Matterhorn.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Committee of National Liberation for Northern Italy (Italian: CLNAI or Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale Alta Italia) was set up by partisans behind German lines in the Italian Social Republic, a Nazi German puppet state in Northern Italy.
The Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS; French: Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries for statistical purposes.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Northeast Italy (Italia nord-orientale or just Nord-est) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
Northwest Italy (Italia nord-occidentale or just Nord-ovest) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Padania is an alternative name for the Po Valley, a major plain in the north of Italy.
Padanian nationalism is an ideology and a regionalist movement demanding more autonomy, or even independence from Italy, for Padania or Northern Italy.
Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Parma (Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.
Pavia (Lombard: Pavia; Ticinum; Medieval Latin: Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po.
The Piave (Plavis) is a river in northern Italy.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.
The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain (Pianura Padana, or Val Padana) is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
Reggio Emilia (also; Rèz, Regium Lepidi) is a city in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region.
The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Reno is a river of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rimini (Rémin; Ariminum) is a city of about 150,000 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini.
Romagna (Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (Dutch: Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut or KNMI) is the Dutch national weather forecasting service, which has its headquarters in De Bilt, in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands.
The noble family of the Scaliger (also Scaligeri, from de Scalis or della Scala) were Lords of Verona.
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
Sexten (Sesto) is a comune in South Tyrol in northern Italy.
The Siege or Battle of Pavia was fought in 773–774 in northern Italy, near Ticinum (modern Pavia), and resulted in the victory of the Franks under Charlemagne against the Lombards under king Desiderius.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Stelvio Pass (Passo dello Stelvio, Giogo dello Stèlvio; Stilfser Joch) is a mountain pass in northern Italy, at an elevation of above sea level.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Tagliamento is a braided river in north-east Italy, flowing from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea at a point between Trieste and Venice.
The Treaty of Lodi, also known as the Peace of Lodi was a peace agreement between Milan, Naples, and Florence signed on 9 April 1454 at Lodi in Lombardy, on the banks of the Adda.
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (Trentino-Alto Adige,; Trentino-Südtirol; Trentin-Südtirol) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe.
The Venetian Lagoon (Laguna di Venezia; Łaguna de Venesia) is an enclosed bay of the Adriatic Sea, in northern Italy, in which the city of Venice is situated.
The Venetian Plain, or Venetian-Friulan Plain (Pianura Veneta or Pianura Veneto-friulana) is a major geographical feature of Italy.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Visconti is the family name of important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Italian Plague of 1629–31 was a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague which ravaged northern and central Italy.