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A Doll's House (Et dukkehjem; also translated as A Doll House) is a three-act play written by Norway's Henrik Ibsen.
A-ha (usually stylized as a-ha) is a Norwegian band formed in Oslo in 1982.
An academic term (or simply "term") is a portion of an academic year, the time during which an educational institution holds classes.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Adelén Rusillo Steen (born 4 November 1996), known professionally as Adelén, is a Norwegian singer.
Adolph Tidemand (14 August 1814 – 8 August 1876) was a noted Norwegian romantic nationalism painter.
Aftenposten (Norwegian for "The Evening Post") is Norway's largest printed newspaper by circulation.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Agnes Buen Garnås (born 23 October 1946) is a Norwegian folk singer from the county of Telemark.
Ahrensburg is a town in the district of Stormarn, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
The Ahrensburg culture or Ahrensburgian (c.12,900 to 11,700 BP) was a late Upper Paleolithic nomadic hunter culture (or technocomplex) in north-central Europe during the Younger Dryas, the last spell of cold at the end of the Weichsel glaciation resulting in deforestation and the formation of a tundra with bushy arctic white birch and rowan.
Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport.
Aksel Sandemose (né Axel Nielsen; 19 March 1899 – 6 August 1965) was a Danish-Norwegian writer.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Alexander Lange Kielland (18 February 1849 – 6 April 1906) was one of the most famous Norwegian realistic writers of the 19th century.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alta (Áltá; Alattio or Alta) is the most populated municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Fjotolf Hansen (born Anders Behring Breivik (born 13 February 1979), also known by his pseudonym Andrew Berwick, is a Norwegian far-right terrorist who committed the 2011 Norway attacks. On 22 July 2011 he killed eight people by detonating a van bomb amid Regjeringskvartalet in Oslo, then shot dead 69 participants of a Workers' Youth League (AUF) summer camp on the island of Utøya. In August 2012 he was convicted of mass murder, causing a fatal explosion, and terrorism. On the day of the attacks, Breivik electronically distributed a compendium of texts entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence, describing his militant ideology. In them, he lays out a worldview encompassing opposition to Islam and blaming feminism for creating a European "cultural suicide".Jones, Jane Clare., The Guardian, 27 July 2011. The texts call Islam and "Cultural Marxism" the enemy and advocate the deportation of all Muslims from Europe based on the model of the Beneš decrees, while also claiming that feminism exists to destroy European culture. Breivik wrote that his main motive for the atrocities was to market his manifesto. Two teams of court-appointed forensic psychiatrists examined Breivik before his trial. The first report diagnosed Breivik as having paranoid schizophrenia. A second psychiatric evaluation was commissioned following widespread criticism of the first. The second evaluation was published a week before the trial; it concluded that Breivik was not psychotic during the attacks nor during the evaluation. He was instead diagnosed as having narcissistic personality disorder. His trial began on 16 April 2012, with closing arguments made on 22 June 2012. On 24 August 2012, Oslo District Court delivered its verdict, finding Breivik sane and guilty of murdering 77 people. He was sentenced to 21 years in prison, in a form of preventive detention that required a minimum of 10 years incarceration and the possibility of one or more extensions for as long as he is deemed a danger to society. This is the maximum penalty in Norway. Breivik announced that he did not recognize the legitimacy of the court and therefore did not accept its decision—he claims he "cannot" appeal because this would legitimize the authority of the Oslo District Court. While imprisoned, Breivik has identified himself as a fascist and a national socialist, saying he previously exploited counterjihadist rhetoric in order to protect ethno-nationalists. In 2015, he said that he has never personally identified as a Christian, and called his religion Odinism. In 2016, Breivik sued Norwegian Correctional Service, claiming that his solitary confinement violated his human rights and subjected him to degrading treatment and privacy violations. In its judgment of 20 April 2016, the City Court found that Breivik's rights under Article 3 of the Convention had been violated, but not those under Article 8. The government appealed against the City Court's judgment as concerned the finding of a breach of Article 3 of the Convention, while Breivik appealed as concerned the finding that Article 8 had not been breached. On 1 March 2017, the Court of Appeals ruled that neither Article 3 nor Article 8 had been breached. On 8 June 2017, Norway's Supreme Court upheld the verdict of the Court of Appeals. On 30 June 2017, Breivik filed a complaint with the European Court of Human Rights, which the court dismissed on 21 June 2018.
Andrea Een (born January 22, 1947) is a violinist, violist, Hardanger fiddler, poet, and Professor Emerita of Music at St. Olaf College.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Annbjørg Lien (born 15 October 1971 in Ålesund and raised in Mauseidvåg, Norway) is a Norwegian musician, playing the hardingfele (Hardanger fiddle), violin, and nyckelharpa.
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
Aqua is a Danish-Norwegian eurodance group, best known for their 1997 breakthrough single "Barbie Girl".
Arab diaspora refers to descendants of the Arab immigrants who, voluntarily or as refugees, emigrated from their native lands to non-Arab countries, primarily in South America, Europe, North America, and parts of South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and West Africa.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The archaeology of Northern Europe studies the prehistory of Scandinavia and the adjacent North European Plain, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Norway, Denmark, northern Germany, Poland and the Netherlands.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.
Arendal is a municipality in the county of Aust-Agder in southeastern Norway.
Arild Andersen (born 27 October 1945) is a Norwegian jazz musician bassist, known as the most famous Norwegian bass player in the international jazz scene.
Aristocracy of Norway refers to modern and medieval aristocracy in Norway.
Arne Dekke Eide Næss (27 January 1912 – 12 January 2009) was a Norwegian philosopher who coined the term "deep ecology" and was an important intellectual and inspirational figure within the environmental movement of the late twentieth century.
Arne Nordheim (20 June 1931 – 5 June 2010) was a Norwegian composer.
Arne Skouen (18 October 1913 – 24 May 2003) was a Norwegian journalist, author, film director and film producer.
Ole Peter Arnulf Øverland (27 April 1889 – 25 March 1968) was a Norwegian poet and artist.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Indira Gandhi, the 3rd Prime Minister of India, was assassinated at 9:20 a.m. on 31 October 1984, at her Safdarjung Road, New Delhi residence.
Astrid Smeplass (born 29 October 1996) is a Norwegian singer, songwriter and model.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Atle Selberg (14 June 1917 – 6 August 2007) was a Norwegian mathematician known for his work in analytic number theory, and in the theory of automorphic forms, in particular bringing them into relation with spectral theory.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
Avinor AS is a state-owned limited company that operates most of the civil airports in Norway.
Ålesund is a town and municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway.
Øyafestivalen is an annual Norwegian music festival held in Middelalderparken (lit. the Medieval Park), Oslo.
Þiðreks saga af Bern ('the saga of Þiðrekr of Bern', also Þiðrekssaga, Þiðriks saga, Niflunga saga or Vilkina saga, with Anglicisations including Thidreksaga) is an Old Norse chivalric saga centering the character it calls Þiðrekr af Bern, who originated as the historical king Theoderic the Great (454–526), but who attracted a great many unhistorical legends in the Middle Ages.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.
The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second-largest living shark, after the whale shark, and one of three plankton-eating shark species, along with the whale shark and megamouth shark.
The Second Battle of Copenhagen (or the Bombardment of Copenhagen) (16 August – 5 September 1807) was a British bombardment of the Danish capital, Copenhagen in order to capture or destroy the Dano-Norwegian fleet, during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Drøbak Sound took place in Drøbak Sound, the northernmost part of the outer Oslofjord in southern Norway, on 9 April 1940.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Hafrsfjord (Slaget i Hafrsfjord) was a great naval battle fought in Hafrsfjord sometime between 872 and 900 that resulted in the unification of Norway, later known the Kingdom of Norway.
The Battles of Narvik were fought from 9 April to 8 June 1940 as a naval battle in the Ofotfjord and as a land battle in the mountains surrounding the north Norwegian city of Narvik as part of the Norwegian Campaign of the Second World War.
Bærum is a municipality in Akershus County, Norway.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.
Bergen Commuter Rail, sometimes called Vossebanen, is a commuter rail service between Bergen and Arna, Voss and Myrdal, Norway.
Bergljot Hobæk Haff (1 May 1925 – 12 February 2016) was a Norwegian educator and novelist.
Berit Nesheim (born 28 January 1945) is Norwegian film director.
Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter (born September 4, 1981) is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, actress, and businesswoman.
The biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting.
Bjørn Erlend Dæhlie (born 19 June 1967) is a Norwegian businessman and retired cross-country skier.
Bjørnstjerne Martinius Bjørnson (8 December 1832 – 26 April 1910) was a Norwegian writer who received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Literature "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit", becoming the first Norwegian Nobel laureate.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music.
Bodø (Bådåddjo) is a town and a municipality in Nordland county, Norway.
Bohuslän is a Swedish province in Götaland, on the northernmost part of the country's west coast.
Bokmål (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
Bornholm (Burgundaholmr) is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at, thus putting it north of and outside the Antarctic Treaty System.
In his Edda Snorri Sturluson quotes many stanzas attributed to Bragi Boddason the old (Bragi Boddason inn gamli), a 9th Century Norwegian court poet who served several Swedish kings, supposedly including Ragnar Lodbrok, Östen Beli and Björn at Hauge.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Brunost ("brown cheese") is a common, Norwegian name for mysost ("whey cheese"; myseost; mesost; meesjuusto; mysuostur), a family of cheese-related foods made with whey, milk, and/or cream.
Brunstad Christian Church is a worldwide evangelical non-denominational Christian church.
Bryggen (the dock), also known as Tyskebryggen (the German dock), is a series of Hanseatic commercial buildings lining the eastern side of the Vågen harbour in Bergen, Norway.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in Norway has existed since the beginning of the 1970s, after immigration from countries with Buddhist populations, mainly Vietnam.
The Buddhist Federation of Norway (Norwegian: Buddhistforbundet) is an umbrella organization for the different Buddhist groups in Norway.
Jens Christian Bugge Wesseltoft (born 1 February 1964) is a Norwegian jazz musician, pianist, composer and producer, son of the jazz guitarist Erik Wesseltoft.
Burzum was a Norwegian music project founded by Varg Vikernes in 1991.
Buskerud is a county in Norway, bordering Akershus, Oslo, Oppland, Sogn og Fjordane, Hordaland, Telemark and Vestfold.
by:Larm is a music festival and conference held annually at different locations in Norway since 1998.
Jacobine Camilla Collett (born Wergeland) (23 January 1813 – 6 March 1895) was a Norwegian writer, often referred to as the first Norwegian feminist.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Norway is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope, the Curia in Rome and the Scandinavian Bishops Conference.
Cato Maximilian Guldberg (11 August 1836 – 14 January 1902) was a Norwegian mathematician and chemist. Guldberg is best known as a pioneer in physical chemistry.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Centre Party (Senterpartiet, Sp) is an agrarian centrist political party in Norway.
Charles XIII & II also Carl, Karl XIII (7 October 1748 – 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden (as Charles XIII) from 1809 and King of Norway (as Charles II) from 1814 until his death.
Charles XIV and III John or Carl John, (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl Johan; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death, and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Norway is the judicial leader of the Supreme Court of Norway.
Christel Alsos Monsen (born 20 December 1984), is a Norwegian singer originating from Fauske.
The Christian Democratic Party (Bokmål: Kristelig Folkeparti, Nynorsk: Kristeleg Folkeparti, KrF), is a Christian democratic political party in Norway founded in 1933.
Christian Heinrich Grosch (21 January 1801 – 4 May 1865) was a Norwegian architect.
Christian II (1 July 1481 – 25 January 1559) was a Scandinavian monarch under the Kalmar Union.
Christian Krohg (13 August 1852 – 16 October 1925) was a Norwegian naturalist painter, illustrator, author and journalist.
Peter Christian Hersleb Kjerschow Michelsen (15 March 1857 – 29 June 1925) was a Norwegian shipping magnate and statesman.
Christian mythology is the body of myths associated with Christianity.
Christian VIII (18 September 1786 – 20 January 1848) was the King of Denmark from 1839 to 1848 and, as Christian Frederick, King of Norway in 1814.
The Christianization of Scandinavia as well as other Nordic countries and the Baltic countries, took place between the 8th and the 12th centuries.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas.
Church arson is the burning or attempting to burn of religious property.
The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke in Bokmål and Den norske kyrkja in Nynorsk) is a Lutheran denomination of Protestant Christianity that serves as the people's church of Norway, as set forth in the Constitution of Norway.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
A civil union, also referred to by a variety of other names, is a legally recognized arrangement similar to marriage.
The civil war era in Norway (Norwegian: borgerkrigstiden) began in 1130 and ended in 1240.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commandos also known as British Commandos were formed during the Second World War in June 1940, following a request from the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, for a force that could carry out raids against German-occupied Europe.
The Common Security and Defence Policy, CSDP, whose structures are sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union) is the EU's policy arrangements and related institutions in the fields of defence and crisis management. The implementation of the CSDP involves the deployment of military or civilian missions for peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with contributions from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. The Union's High Representative (HR/VP), currently Federica Mogherini, is responsible for proposing and implementing CSDP decisions. Such decisions are adopted by the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC), generally requiring unanimity. The CSDP structures, headed by the HR/VP, comprise relevant sections of the External Action Service (EEAS)—including the Military Staff (EUMS) with its operational headquarters (MPCC)—a number of FAC preparatory bodies—such as the Military Committee (EUMC)—as well as four agencies, including the Defence Agency (EDA).
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km (10 miles) and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis.
In Christianity, confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in baptism.
Confirmation in the Lutheran Church is a public profession of faith prepared for by long and careful instruction.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Conservative Party (Høyre, Høgre, H, literally "Right") is a conservative.
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
The Constitution of Norway (complete name: the Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway; official name in Danish: Kongeriget Norges Grundlov; Norwegian Bokmål: Kongeriket Norges Grunnlov; Norwegian Nynorsk: Kongeriket Noregs Grunnlov) was first adopted on 16 May and subsequently signed and dated on 17 May 1814 by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Convention of Moss was a cease fire agreement, signed on 14 August 1814 between the Swedish King and the Norwegian government.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Sara Cecilia Görvell Fabricius (20 December 1880 — 3 April 1974), better known by her pen name Cora Sandel, was a Norwegian writer and painter who lived most of her adult life abroad.
The Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; céramique cordée; touwbekercultuur) comprises a broad archaeological horizon of Europe between 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of State (Norwegian: Statsrådet), is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister, and functions as the collective decision-making organ constituting the executive branch of the Kingdom.
Norway is divided into 18 administrative regions, called counties (singular fylke, plural fylker (Bokmål) / fylke (Nynorsk) from Old Norse: fylki from the word "folk"); until 1918, they were known as amter.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
The County Governor (Fylkesmannen) is a Norwegian government agency that represents 17 of the Norwegian counties.
Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dag Solstad (born 16 July 1941) is a Norwegian novelist, short-story writer, and dramatist whose work has been translated into several languages.
Dagbladet (lit.: The Daily Magazine) is Norway's sixth largest newspaper with a circulation of 46,250 copies in 2016, down from a peak of 228,834 in 1994.
Dagens Næringsliv (Norwegian for "Today's Business"), commonly known as DN, is a Norwegian newspaper specializing in business news.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Darkthrone is a heavy metal band from Kolbotn, Norway.
Deep ecology is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Demetria Devonne Lovato (born August 20, 1992) is an American singer, songwriter and actress.
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.
Norway has three dependent territories (biland), all uninhabited and located in the Southern Hemisphere.
A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.
Die Another Day is a 2002 British spy film, the twentieth film in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, as well as the fourth and final film to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.
Dimmu Borgir is a Norwegian symphonic black metal band from Oslo, Norway, formed in 1993.
The dissolution of the union (Unionsoppløsningen; Unionsoppløysinga; Landsmål: Unionsoppløysingi; Unionsupplösningen) between the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden under the House of Bernadotte, was set in motion by a resolution of the Norwegian Parliament (the Storting) on 7 June 1905.
DNB ASA (formerly DnB NOR ASA) is Norway's largest financial services group with total combined assets of more than NOK 1.9 trillion and a market capitalisation NOK 164 billion as per 20 May 2016.
A double-track railway usually involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single-track railway where trains in both directions share the same track.
Drammen is a city in Buskerud, Norway.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
The earless seals, phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage, Pinnipedia.
The Earls of Lade (ladejarl (singular), ladejarler (plural); Old Norse variant of Lade: Hlaðir) were a dynasty of rulers of Earldom of Lade, present day Trøndelag and Hålogaland in Norway from the 9th century to the 11th century.
The early 1990s Norwegian black metal scene is credited with creating the modern black metal genre and produced some of the most acclaimed and influential artists in extreme metal.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
Eastern Norway (Bokmål: Østlandet, Nynorsk: Austlandet) is the geographical region of the south-eastern part of Norway.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Norway is a small minority religion in Norway with 11,205 official members in 2012, up from 2,315 in 2000.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
Education in Norway is mandatory for all children aged 6–16.
Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 18434 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist.
Edvard Ingjald Moser (born 27 April 1962) is a Norwegian psychologist and neuroscientist, who is a scientific member of the Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology near Munich, Germany.
Edvard Munch (12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter and printmaker whose intensely evocative treatment of psychological themes built upon some of the main tenets of late 19th-century Symbolism and greatly influenced German Expressionism in the early 20th century.
The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
(10 May 1897 – 19 September 1987) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party of Norway.
Ekofisk is an oil field in block 2/4 of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea about southwest of Stavanger.
Ekstremsportveko (Extreme Sports Week), or "Veko" as it is commonly called by the locals, is a festival held annually in Voss, Norway.
Emperor is a Norwegian black metal band formed in 1991, regarded as highly influential by critics and emerging black metal bands.
Just like trade unions being represented by workers for promoting their economic and social interests,in the same manner employer's join employers organisation.An employers' organization or employers' association is a collective organization of manufacturers, retailers, or other employers of wage labor.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Since the discovery of North Sea oil in Norwegian waters during the late 1960s, exports of oil and gas have become very important elements of the economy of Norway.
The Engelbrekt rebellion was a rebellion in 1434–1436 led by Swedish nobleman Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson against Eric of Pomerania, the king of the Kalmar Union.
Enslaved is a Norwegian extreme metal band formed by Ivar Bjørnson and Grutle Kjellson in Haugesund in June 1991.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
Epcot (originally named EPCOT Center) is a theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida.
Equinor ASA (formerly Statoil and StatoilHydro) is a Norwegian multinational energy company headquartered in Stavanger, Norway.
Eric of Pomerania KG (1381 or 1382 – 24 September 1459) was the ruler of the Kalmar Union from 1396 until 1439, succeeding his adoptive mother, Queen Margaret I. He is numbered Eric III as King of Norway (1389–1442), Eric VII as King of Denmark (1396–1439) and Eric XIII as King of Sweden (1396–1434, 1436–39).
Erik Fosnes Hansen (born 6 June 1965) is a Norwegian writer.
Erik Grønseth (13 September 1925 – 8 October 2005) was a Norwegian sociologist, Professor of Sociology at the University of Oslo from 1971 to 1989, and "one of the post-war pioneers of sociology" in Norway.
Erik Skjoldbjærg (born December 14, 1964 in Tromsø, Norway) is a Norwegian director and writer best known for co-writing and directing the film Insomnia and directing Prozac Nation.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Erna Solberg (born 24 February 1961) is a Norwegian politician serving as Prime Minister of Norway since October 2013 and Leader of the Conservative Party since May 2004.
Espen Lind (born 13 May 1971) is a Norwegian record producer, songwriter, singer, and multi-instrumentalist.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia.
Euro Health Consumer Index (EHCI) is a comparison of European health care systems based on waiting times, results, and generosity.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Defence Agency (EDA) is an agency of the European Union (EU) that promotes and facilitates integration between member states within the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP).
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
E 39 is the designation of a 1330 km long north-south road in Norway and Denmark, running from Klett just south of Trondheim to Aalborg, via Orkanger, Vinjeøra, Halsa...
European route E6 (Europavei 6, Europaväg 6, or simply E6) is the main north-south road through Norway, and the west coast of Sweden.
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Women's Handball Championship is the official competition for senior women's national handball teams of Europe, and takes place every two years.
The Evangelical Lutheran Free Church, or the Free Church as it is commonly known (Den Evangelisk Lutherske Frikirke, shortened Frikirken), is a nationwide Lutheran church in Norway consisting of 81 congregations and 21,817 baptized members.
Extreme sports are recreational activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk.
Eyvindr Finnsson skáldaspillir was a 10th-century Norwegian skald.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
Fårikål is a traditional Norwegian dish and also considered the national dish of the country.
Førde is a municipality in the county of Sogn og Fjordane, Norway.
The Federation of International Bandy (FIB; Fédération internationale de bandy, Международная федерация хоккея с мячом, Internationella Bandyförbundet) is the international governing body for the sport of bandy, including the variant called rink bandy.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The World Chess Federation, FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), awards several performance-based titles to chess players, up to and including the highly prized Grandmaster title.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
The FIFA Women's World Cup is an international football competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finn Erling Kydland (born 1 December 1943) is a Norwegian economist known for his contributions to business cycle theory.
Finnmark (italic; Finnmark; Фи́ннмарк, Fínnmark) is a county ("fylke") in the extreme northeastern part of Norway.
The Finnmark Act (Finnmarksloven in Norwegian) of 2005 transferred about 96% (about 46,000 km2) of the area in the Finnmark county in Norway to the inhabitants of Finnmark.
Finnmarksvidda (Finnmárkkoduottar; Finnmark plateau/highland) is Norway's largest plateau, with an area greater than.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
Flytoget, the Airport Express Train (Flytoget) is a Norwegian high-speed airport rail link connecting Oslo Airport, Gardermoen to Oslo Central Station in nineteen minutes.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
A women's Olympic Football Tournament was held for the second time as part of the 2000 Summer Olympics.
Association football has been included in every Summer Olympic Games as a men's competition sport, except 1896 and 1932.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
Forest Finns (Metsäsuomalaiset, Skogfinner, Skogsfinnar) were Finnish migrants from Savonia and Northern Tavastia in Finland who settled in forest areas of Sweden proper and Norway during the late 16th and early-to-mid-17th centuries, and traditionally pursued slash-and-burn agriculture, a method used for turning forests into farmlands.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
The Fosna/Hensbacka (c. 8300 BCE – 7300 BCE, or 12000 cal BP – 10500 cal BP), were two very similar Late Palaeolithic/early Mesolithic cultures in Scandinavia, and are often subsumed under the name Fosna–Hensbacka culture.
Thomas Fredrik Weybye Barth (22 December 1928 – 24 January 2016) was a Norwegian social anthropologist who published several ethnographic books with a clear formalist view.
Fredrik Carl Stormer (born July 12, 1957) is a jazz drummer and entrepreneur based in Oslo, Norway and is named after his great grandfather the Norwegian mathematician.
Fredrikstad (previously Frederiksstad; literally Fredrik's Town) is a city and municipality in Østfold county, Norway.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
The Norwegian armed forces in exile (Utefronten, "Forces Abroad") were remnants of the armed forces of Norway that continued to fight the Axis powers from Allied countries, such as Britain and Canada, after they had escaped the German conquest of Norway during World War II.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Frits Thaulow (Christiania, 20 October 1847 – Volendam, 5 November 1906) was a Norwegian Impressionist painter, best known for his naturalistic depictions of landscape.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Gender Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud (Likestillings- og diskrimineringsombudet) is a Norwegian ombudsman for gender equality and anti-discrimination, and is appointed for a term of six years by the King-in-Council, in effect by the Government of Norway.
Georg Johannesen (22 February 1931 – 24 December 2005) was a Norwegian author and professor at the University of Bergen.
The German occupation of Norway began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway.
Germanic religion refers to the indigenous religion of the Germanic peoples from the Iron Age until Christianisation during the Middle Ages.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
is a town and a municipality in Oppland county, Norway.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.
Global Integrity is an independent, nonprofit organization tracking governance and corruption trends around the world using local teams of researchers and journalists to monitor openness and accountability.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
Gneiss is a common distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
Gorgoroth is a Norwegian black metal band based in Bergen.
The Government Pension Fund of Norway comprises two entirely separate sovereign wealth funds owned by the government of Norway.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Famine of 1695–97, or simply the Great Famine, was a catastrophic famine that affected present Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden: at the time, all of these areas belonged to the Swedish Empire with the exception of Norway, which was a Danish province.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Gro Harlem Brundtland (born Gro Harlem, 20 April 1939) is a Norwegian politician, who served three terms as Prime Minister of Norway (1981, 1986–89, and 1990–96) and as Director-General of the World Health Organization from 1998 to 2003.
Growth of the Soil (Norwegian Markens Grøde), is a novel by Knut Hamsun which won him the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Gunvor Hofmo (30 June 1921 – 17 October 1995) was a Norwegian writer, often considered one of Norway's most influential modernist poets.
A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.
Gutorm Gjessing (4 April 1906 – 27 April 1979) was a Norwegian archaeologist and ethnographer.
Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, commonly referred to as Gyldendal N.F. and in Norway often only as Gyldendal, is one of the largest Norwegian publishing houses.
Haakon Haakonsson (c. March/April 1204 – 16 December 1263) (Old Norse: Hákon Hákonarson; Norwegian: Håkon Håkonsson), sometimes called Haakon the Old in contrast to his son with the same name, and known in modern regnal lists as Haakon IV, was the King of Norway from 1217 to 1263.
Haakon Haraldsson (c. 920–961), also Haakon the Good (Old Norse: Hákon góði, Norwegian: Håkon den gode) and Haakon Adalsteinfostre (Old Norse: Hákon Aðalsteinsfóstri, Norwegian: Håkon Adalsteinsfostre), was the king of Norway from 934 to 961.
Haakon V Magnusson (10 April 1270 – 8 May 1319) (Old Norse: Hákon Magnússon; Norwegian: Håkon Magnusson) was king of Norway from 1299 until 1319.
Haakon VI of Norway (Håkon, Håkan; 1340–1380), also known as Håkan Magnusson, was King of Norway from 1343 until his death and King of Sweden between 1362 and 1364.
Haakon VII (born Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel; 3 August 187221 September 1957), known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, was a Danish prince who became the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the union with Sweden.
Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway (Haakon Magnus; born 20 July 1973) is the only son and younger child of King Harald V and heir apparent to the throne of Norway.
Habitability is the conformance of a residence or abode to the implied warranty of habitability.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Halibut is a common name principally applied to the two flatfish in the genus Hippoglossus from the family of right-eye flounders.
Hamar is a town in Hamar Municipality in Hedmark county, Norway.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Handball competitions at the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics were held from 9 to 24 August at the Olympic Sports Centre Gymnasium and National Indoor Stadium.
The handball tournaments at the 2012 Olympic Games in London was held from 28 July to 12 August in the Olympic Park.
Hans Fredrik Gude (13 March 1825 – 17 August 1903) was a Norwegian romanticist painter and is considered along with Johan Christian Dahl to be one of Norway's foremost landscape painters.
Hans Herbjørnsrud (born 2 January 1938 in Heddal) is a Norwegian author of short stories.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Harald Fairhair (Old Norse: Haraldr Hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald Hårfagre, (literally "Harald Hair-pleasant"); 850 – 932) is remembered by medieval historians as the first King of Norway.
Harald Oskar Sohlberg (29 September 1869 – 19 June 1935) was a Norwegian Neo-romantic painter.
Harald V (born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway, having ascended the throne following the death of his father on 17 January 1991.
A Hardanger fiddle (or in hardingfele) is a traditional stringed instrument used originally to play the music of Norway.
Hardangerjøkulen (Hardanger Glacier) is the sixth largest glacier in mainland Norway.
Harriet Backer (21 January 1845 – 25 March 1932) was a Norwegian painter who achieved recognition in her own time and was a pioneer among female artists both in the Nordic countries and in Europe generally.
Harriet Holter (11 April 1922 – 18 December 1997) was a Norwegian social psychologist.
is the second-most populated municipality in Troms county, Norway.
Härjedalen (Herjedalen) is a historical province or landskap in the centre of Sweden.
A hörgr (Old Norse, plural hörgar) or hearg (Old English) was a type of altar or cult site, possibly consisting of a heap of stones, used in Norse religion, as opposed to a roofed hall used as a ''hof'' (temple).
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Health Consumer Powerhouse is a Swedish health policy think tank which specialises in comparing healthcare systems throughout Europe.
In Norway, all hospitals are funded by the public as part of the national budget.
Heathenry, also termed Heathenism or Germanic Neopaganism, is a modern Pagan religion.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
Henrik Johan Ibsen (20 March 1828 – 23 May 1906) was a Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet.
Henrik Arnold Thaulow Wergeland (17 June 1808 – 12 July 1845) was a Norwegian writer, most celebrated for his poetry but also a prolific playwright, polemicist, historian, and linguist.
Herbjørg Wassmo (born 6 December 1942) is a Norwegian author.
Hermansverk or Leikanger is a large village in the municipality of Leikanger in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.
Higher education in Norway is offered by a range of eight universities, nine specialised universities, 24 university colleges as well as a range of private university colleges.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
In Norway 0.17% of the total population (or about 8,900 people as of 2016) are Hindus, up from 5900 five years earlier and 3700 10 years earlier.
Historia Norwegiæ is a short history of Norway written in Latin by an anonymous monk.
The history of Norway has been influenced to an extraordinary degree by the terrain and the climate of the region.
The Jews in Norway are one of the country's smallest ethnic and religious minorities.
Hjalmar "Hjallis" Johan Andersen (12 March 1923 – 27 March 2013) was a speed skater from Norway who won three gold medals at the 1952 Winter Olympic Games of Oslo, Norway.
The Hjortspring boat is a vessel designed as a large canoe, from the Scandinavian Pre-Roman Iron Age.
A heathen hof or Germanic pagan temple was a temple building of Germanic religion; a few have also been built for use in modern heathenry.
The honors music for a person, office or rank is music played on formal or ceremonial occasions in the presence of the person, office-holder, or rank-holder, especially by a military band.
Hordaland is a county in Norway, bordering Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud, Telemark, and Rogaland counties.
Horder may refer to.
Hornindalsvatnet is Norway's and Europe's deepest lake, officially measured to a depth of.
The House of Glücksburg (also spelled Glücksborg), shortened from House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, is a Dano-German branch of the House of Oldenburg, members of which have reigned at various times in Denmark, Norway, Greece and several northern German states.
The House of Oldenburg is a European dynasty of North German origin.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The IHF World Women's Handball Championship has been organized by the International Handball Federation since 1957.
Immortal is a black metal band from Bergen, Norway, founded in 1991 by frontman and guitarist Abbath Doom Occulta (Olve Eikemo) and guitarist Demonaz Doom Occulta (Harald Nævdal).
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Ina Christine Wroldsen (born 29 May 1984), previous known mononymously as Ina, is a Norwegian singer and songwriter.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
The Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 is an International Labour Organization Convention, also known as ILO-convention 169, or C169.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and usually also retail (individual) investors; an IPO is underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchanges.
Elena Alexandra Apostoleanu (born 16 October 1986), known professionally as Inna, is a Romanian singer and songwriter.
Insomnia is a 1997 Norwegian thriller film about a police detective investigating a murder in a town located above the Arctic Circle.
International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.
The international E-road network is a numbering system for roads in Europe developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
The Iraqi people (Arabic: العراقيون ʿIrāqiyyūn, Kurdish: گهلی عیراق Îraqîyan, ܥܡܐ ܥܝܪܩܝܐ ʿIrāqāyā, Iraklılar) are the citizens of the modern country of Iraq. Arabs have had a large presence in Mesopotamia since the Sasanian Empire (224–637). Arabic was spoken by the majority in the Kingdom of Araba in the first and second centuries, and by Arabs in al-Hirah from the third century. Arabs were common in Mesopotamia at the time of the Seleucid Empire (3rd century BC).Ramirez-Faria, 2007, p. 33. The first Arab kingdom outside Arabia was established in Iraq's Al-Hirah in the third century. Arabic was a minority language in northern Iraq in the eighth century BC, from the eighth century following the Muslim conquest of Persia, it became the dominant language of Iraqi Muslims because Arabic was the language of the Quran and of the Abbasid Caliphate. Kurds who are Iraqi citizens live in the Zagros Mountains of northeast Iraq to the east of the upper Tigris. Arabic and Kurdish are Iraq's national languages.
Iraqis in Norway make up approximately 32,304 people.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Islam in Norway is a minority religion and the second largest religion in Norway after Christianity.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
Ivar Giaever (Giæver,; born April 5, 1929) is a Norwegian-American physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Leo Esaki and Brian Josephson "for their discoveries regarding tunnelling phenomena in solids".
Ivo Caprino (17 February 1920 – 8 February 2001) was a Norwegian film director and writer, best known for his puppet films.
(audio help) (In English: "Yes, we love this country"), also known by the title "Song For Norway", is a patriotic anthem, which has been commonly regarded as the de facto national anthem of Norway since early 20th century, after being used alongside Sønner av Norge since the 1860s.
Jaga Jazzist (also known as Jaga) is an experimental jazz band from Norway that rose to prominence when the BBC named their second album, A Livingroom Hush (Smalltown Supersound/Ninja Tune), the best jazz album of 2002.
Jan Erik Vold (born 18 October 1939) is a Norwegian lyric poet, jazz vocal reciter, translator and author.
Jan Garbarek (born 4 March 1947) is a Norwegian jazz saxophonist who is also active in classical music and world music.
Jan Kjærstad (born 6 March 1953 in Oslo) is a Norwegian author.
Jan Mayen is a Norwegian volcanic island situated in the Arctic Ocean.
(25 November 1930 – 17 September 1997) was a Norwegian lawyer and politician from the Conservative Party.
Jämtland (Norwegian: Jemtland,; Latin: Iemptia) or Jamtland is a historical province (landskap) in the centre of Sweden in northern Europe.
The Jæren Line (Jærbanen) long railway line between Stavanger and Egersund in Jæren, Norway.
Jørgen Engebretsen Moe (22 April 1813–27 March 1882) was a Norwegian folklorist, bishop, poet, and author.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jennifer Lynn Lopez (born July 24, 1969) is an American singer, actress, dancer and producer.
Jens Ingvald Bjørneboe (9 October 1920 – 9 May 1976) was a Norwegian writer whose work spanned a number of literary formats.
Jens Stoltenberg (born 16 March 1959) is a Norwegian politician.
Johan Collett Müller Borgen (28 April 1902 – 16 October 1979) was a Norwegian author, journalist and critic.
Johan Falkberget, born Johan Petter Lillebakken, (30 September 1879 – 5 April 1967) was a Norwegian author.
Johan Vincent Galtung (born 24 October 1930) is a Norwegian sociologist, mathematician, and the principal founder of the discipline of peace and conflict studies.
Johan Severin Svendsen (30 September 184014 June 1911) was a Norwegian composer, conductor and violinist.
Johann Olav Koss, (born 29 October 1968) is a former speed skater from Norway.
John O'Keefe, (born November 18, 1939) is an American-British neuroscientist and a professor at the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour and the Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at University College London.
Jon Olav Fosse (born 29 September 1959) is a Norwegian author and dramatist.
Jonas Lauritz Idemil Lie (6 November 1833 – 5 July 1908) was a Norwegian novelist, poet, and playwright who, together with Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson and Alexander Kielland, is considered to have been one of the Four Greats of 19th century Norwegian literature.
Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (23 May 1898 – 8 May 1945) was a Nazi leader, best known as the Reichskommissar for Norway during the German occupation of Norway and the Quisling regime.
Jostein Gaarder (born 8 August 1952) is a Norwegian intellectual and author of several novels, short stories and children's books.
The judiciary of Norway is hierarchical with the Supreme Court at the apex.
Julie Bergan (born April 12, 1994) is a Norwegian singer and songwriter.
Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt (before 2005 known as Norsk senter for kvensk språk og kultur) is a center for Kven culture and language.
The Kalmar Union or Union of Kalmaris (Danish, Norwegian and Kalmarunionen; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of Finland's populated areas), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas dependencies (then including Iceland, Greenland,Nominal possession, there was no European contact with the island during the Kalmar Union period the Faroe Islands and the Northern Isles).
Karasjok or Kárášjohka (Northern Sami) or Kaarasjoki (Finnish) is a municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.
Karl Ove Knausgård (born 6 December 1968) is a Norwegian author, known for six autobiographical novels, titled My Struggle (Min Kamp).
Kåre Isaachsen Willoch (born 3 October 1928) is a former Norwegian politician from the Conservative Party.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
In August 1814, after a loss in the Swedish–Norwegian War, Kingdom of Norway was forced to join in a personal union with Kingdom of Sweden, thereby becoming subject to a naval blockade by the British Empire, but remaining largely autonomous within the union.
The terms Norwegian Empire,A Short History of Norway https://archive.is/mU1jM Hereditary Kingdom of Norway (Old Norse: Norégveldi, Bokmål: Norgesveldet, Nynorsk: Noregsveldet) and Norwegian Realm refer to the Kingdom of Norway's peak of power at the 13th century after a long period of civil war before 1240.
Kirsten Marie Bråten Berg (born 7 January 1950 in Arendal, Norway) is a Norwegian traditional folk singer, silversmith and government scholar.
Kirsten Malfrid Flagstad (12 July 1895 – 7 December 1962) was a Norwegian opera singer and a highly regarded Wagnerian soprano.
Kitsch (loanword from German), also called cheesiness or tackiness, is art or other objects that appeal to popular rather than high art tastes.
Kitty Lange Kielland (8 October 1843 – 1 October 1914) was a Norwegian landscape painter.
Kjartan Fløgstad (born 7 June 1944) is a Norwegian author.
Kjell Askildsen (born 30 September 1929) is a Norwegian writer probably best known for his minimalistic short stories.
Kjell Aukrust (19 March 1920 – 24 December 2002) was a Norwegian author, poet and artist.
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who was one of the most important of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
Knut Alvsson (1455 – 18 August 1502) was a Norwegian nobleman and landowner.
Knut Erik Jensen (born 8 October 1940 in Honningsvåg, Finnmark) is a Norwegian film director, best known for his documentary Cool and Crazy.
Knut Hamsun (August 4, 1859 – February 19, 1952) was a major Norwegian writer, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920.
The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.
The Komsa culture (Komsakulturen) was a Mesolithic culture of hunter-gatherers that existed from around 10,000 BC in Northern Norway.
Kon-Tiki is a Norwegian-Swedish documentary film about the Kon-Tiki expedition led by Norwegian explorer and writer Thor Heyerdahl in 1947, released in Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark in 1950, followed by the United States in 1951.
Kongesangen ("King's Song") is Norway's royal anthem.
Kongsberg is a town and municipality in Buskerud county, Norway.
Konungs skuggsjá (Old Norse for "King's mirror"; Latin: Speculum regale, modern Norwegian: Kongsspegelen (Nynorsk) or Kongespeilet (Bokmål)) is a Norwegian educational text from around 1250, an example of speculum literature that deals with politics and morality.
The National Criminal Investigation Service (Den nasjonale enhet for bekjempelse av organisert og annen alvorlig kriminalitet, previously Kriminalpolitisentralen), commonly known as Kripos, is a special agency of the Norwegian Police Service.
Kristiansand, historically Christianssand and Christiansand, is a city and municipality in Norway.
Kristin Lavransdatter is a trilogy of historical novels written by Nobel laureate Sigrid Undset.
Kurdistan Province (استان کردستان, Ostān-e Kordestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Kvelertak is a Norwegian heavy metal band from Stavanger, formed in 2007.
The Kven language (kvääni or kväänin kieli; kainu or kainun kieli) is a Finnish dialect spoken in northern Norway by the Kven people.
Kvens (Kven/Finnish: kveeni, Norwegian: kvener, Swedish: kväner, Northern Sami: kveanat) are a Finnic ethnic minority in Norway who are descended from Finnish peasants and fishermen who emigrated from the northern parts of Finland and Sweden to Northern Norway in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet, A/Ap), formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway.
Lars Onsager (November 27, 1903 – October 5, 1976) was a Norwegian-born American physical chemist and theoretical physicist.
Lars Saabye Christensen, (born 21 September 1953 in Oslo) is a Norwegian/Danish author.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
Lefse is a traditional soft Norwegian flatbread.
The Legatum Institute is an independent educational charity based in London, UK, run by Baroness Philippa Stroud, a Conservative member of the House of Lords.
The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking developed by the Legatum Institute, a division of the private investment firm Legatum.
Leif Ove Andsnes (born 7 April 1970) is a Norwegian pianist and chamber musician.
Lene Marlin (born Lene Marlin Pedersen, 17 August 1980, Tromsø, Norway) is a Norwegian singer and musician.
Lene Nystrøm Rasted (born Lene Grawford Nystrøm on 2 October 1973), better known by her stage name Lene, is a Norwegian musician and singer-songwriter who is the lead vocalist of the Danish eurodance group Aqua.
Leona Louise Lewis (born 3 April 1985) is a British singer, songwriter and animal welfare campaigner.
Norway, like most of Scandinavia, is very liberal in regards to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights.
The Liberal Party (Venstre, V, meaning "left") is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Norway.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Lier is a municipality in Buskerud county, Norway.
Lillehammer is a town and municipality in Oppland county, Norway.
Lilyhammer is a Norwegian-American television series starring Steven Van Zandt about a former New York-based gangster named Frank "The Fixer" Tagliano trying to start a new life in isolated Lillehammer, Norway.
Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, also known simply as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland.
Lionel Brockman Richie Jr. (born June 20, 1949) is an American singer, songwriter, actor and record producer.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and territories by land borders.
This is a list of countries by order of appearance in the Fragile States Index (formerly the Failed States Index) of the United States think tank Fund for Peace.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This is a list of countries by household final consumption expenditure per capita, that is, the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households during one year, divided by the country's average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients.
This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2016 Human Development Report.
This article includes 3 lists of countries of the world and their total expenditure on health per capita.
This is a list of the top creditor nations of the world sorted by their net international investment positions (NIIPs) per capita.
These are the largest glaciers on mainland Norway.
A list of the historic capitals of Kingdom of Norway.
Norway is divided into 18 administrative regions, called counties (fylker in Norwegian, singular: fylke), and 422 municipalities (kommuner/-ar, singular: kommune – cf. communes).
The list of Norwegian monarchs (kongerekken or kongerekka) begins in 872: the traditional dating of the Battle of Hafrsfjord, after which victorious King Harald Fairhair merged several petty kingdoms into that of his father.
This is a list of current and former territorial possessions of Norway.
This is a list of the 100 busiest airports in the Nordic countries by passengers per year, aircraft movements per year and freight & mail tonnes per year.
Below is a list of towns and cities in Norway.
This list of universities in Norway presents the country's universities, giving their locations, abbreviated titles (in Norwegian), and years of establishment.
Lofoten is an archipelago and a traditional district in the county of Nordland, Norway.
The Logistics Performance Index (LPI) is an interactive benchmarking tool created by the World Bank to help countries identify the challenges and opportunities they face in their performance on trade logistics and what they can do to improve their performance.
Speed skating (also long track speed skating) is the Olympic discipline of speed skating where competitors are timed while crossing a set distance.
Lovatnet is a lake in the municipality of Stryn in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.
The Love Parade (Loveparade) was a popular electronic dance music festival and technoparade that originated in 1989 in West Berlin, Germany.
The Lovebugs are a Swiss rock band from Basel, Switzerland founded in 1992.
Ludvig Holberg, Baron of Holberg (3 December 1684 – 28 January 1754) was a writer, essayist, philosopher, historian and playwright born in Bergen, Norway, during the time of the Dano-Norwegian dual monarchy.
Lule Sami (julevsámegiella) is a Uralic, Sami language spoken in Lule Lappmark, i.e. around the Lule River, Sweden and in the northern parts of Nordland county in Norway, especially Tysfjord municipality, where Lule Sami is an official language.
Lutefisk (Norwegian) or lutfisk (Swedish) (pronounced in Northern and Central Norway, in Southern Norway, in Sweden and in Finland (lipeäkala)) is a traditional dish of some Nordic countries.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
M2M was a Norwegian pop music duo comprising Marit Larsen and Marion Raven.
Maelstrom was a log flume dark ride attraction located in the Epcot theme park at Walt Disney World Resort in Florida.
Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen (born 30 November 1990) is a Norwegian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion.
Magnus IV (April or May 1316 – 1 December 1374; Swedish Magnus Eriksson) was King of Sweden from 1319 to 1364, King of Norway as Magnus VII (including Iceland and Greenland) from 1319 to 1343, and ruler of Scania from 1332 to 1360.
Marcus Møller Thrane (14 October 1817 – 30 April 1890) was a Norwegian author, journalist, and the leader of the first labour movement in Norway. It was later known as the Thrane movement (Thranebevegelsen).
Margaret Berger (born 11 October 1985) is a Norwegian singer, songwriter, music director, and DJ.
Margaret I (Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Margareta Valdemarsdotter, Margrét Valdimarsdóttir; 15 March 1353 – 28 October 1412) was queen consort of Norway (1363–1380) and Sweden (1363–1364) and later ruler in her own right of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, from which later period there are ambiguities regarding her specific titles.
Mari Boine, previously known as Mari Boine Persen, (born 8 November 1956) is a Norwegian Sami musician known for having added jazz and rock to the yoiks of her native people.
Maria Arredondo (born 6 July 1985 in Vennesla, Norway) is a Norwegian pop singer.
Maria Viktoria Mena (born 19 February 1986) is a Norwegian pop artist, best known for her single "You're the Only One" which charted in multiple countries.
Marion Elise Ravn (born May 25, 1984), known as Marion Raven, is a Norwegian singer and songwriter.
Marit Bjørgen (born 21 March 1980) is a retired Norwegian cross-country skier.
Marit Elisabeth Larsen is a Norwegian singer and songwriter.
Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.
Market share is the percentage of a market (defined in terms of either units or revenue) accounted for by a specific entity.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
Maud of Wales, (Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria; 26 November 1869 – 20 November 1938) was Queen of Norway as spouse of King Haakon VII.
May-Britt Moser (born 4 January 1963) is a Norwegian psychologist, neuroscientist, and head of department of the Centre for Neural Computation at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).
Mayhem is a Norwegian black metal band formed in 1984 in Oslo.
Median income is the amount that divides the income distribution into two equal groups, half having income above that amount, and half having income below that amount.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
The Meeting of Notables (Norwegian: notabelmøtet or stormannsmøtet) was a meeting that took place before Norway declared independence from Denmark in 1814.
A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Michael Schulte (born 17 July 1963 in Aachen, Germany) is a professor and chair of Nordic linguistics at the University of Agder in Norway.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.
The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Defence (Det kgl.) is a Norwegian government ministry in charge of the formation and implementation of national security and defence policy, and for the overall management and control of the activities of subordinate agencies.
Royal Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research (Kunnskapsdepartementet, lit. Ministry of Knowledge) is a Norwegian government ministry responsible for education, research and kindergartens.
The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Norwegian (Bokmål): Det kongelige Utenriksdepartement; Norwegian (Nynorsk): Det kongelege Utanriksdepartement) is the foreign ministry of the Kingdom of Norway.
The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Transportation and Communications (Norwegian (Bokmål): Samferdselsdepartementet; New Norwegian: Samferdsledepartementet) is a Norwegian ministry established in 1946, and is responsible for transportation and communication infrastructure in Norway.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Mjøsa is Norway's largest lake, as well as one of the deepest lakes in Norway and in Europe.
Molde is a town and municipality in Romsdal in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway.
The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
Moroccans (Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Moster is an island in Bømlo municipality in Hordaland county, Norway.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
Norway is a rather sparsely populated country in Europe (5 million inhabitants in an area of some excluding Svalbard and Jan-Mayen), but even so its music and its musical life are as complex as those of most other countries.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nasjonal Samling (NS; literally "National Union") was a Norwegian far-right party active from 1933 to 1945.
Norway does not have an official national anthem, but over the last 200 years, a number of anthems have been commonly regarded as de facto national anthems.
The National Authority for Investigation and Prosecution of Economic and Environmental Crime (Økokrim) is Norway's central unit for fighting economic and environmental crimes.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
National Police Directorate (Politidirektoratet) a government agency subordinate to the Ministry of Justice and Public Security which heads the Norwegian Police Service.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nepheline syenite is a holocrystalline plutonic rock that consists largely of nepheline and alkali feldspar.
The World Economic Forum's Networked Readiness Index (NRI), also referred to as Technology Readiness, measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology (ICT).
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicolai Wergeland (9 November 1780, in Hosanger (now Osterøy) – 25 March 1848, in Eidsvoll) was a Norwegian priest, writer and politician, and a member of the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll that wrote the Constitution of Norway on 17 May 1814.
Nidaros, Niðarós or Niðaróss was the medieval name of Trondheim when it was the capital of Norway's first Christian kings.
Nidaros Cathedral (Nidarosdomen / Nidaros Domkirke) is a Church of Norway cathedral located in the city of Trondheim in Trøndelag county, Norway.
Niels Henrik Abel (5 August 1802 – 6 April 1829) was a Norwegian mathematician who made pioneering contributions in a variety of fields.
Nils Christie (24 February 1928 – 27 May 2015) was a Norwegian sociologist and criminologist.
Nils Gaup (born 12 April 1955) is a Sámi film director from Norway.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden).
Nordland (Nordlánda) is a county in Norway in the Northern Norway region, bordering Troms in the north, Trøndelag in the south, Norrbotten County in Sweden to the east, Västerbotten County to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean (Norwegian Sea) to the west.
Nore is a village in the municipality of Nore og Uvdal in the county of Buskerud, Norway.
Norefjorden is a lake in the municipality of Nore og Uvdal in Buskerud county, Norway.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
Norsk Hydro ASA (often referred to as just Hydro) is a Norwegian aluminium and renewable energy company, headquartered in Oslo.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Northern Norway (Nord-Norge, Nord-Noreg; Davvi-Norga) is a geographical region of Norway, consisting of the three northernmost counties Nordland, Troms and Finnmark, in total about 35% of the Norwegian mainland.
Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.
The Norwegian Shipping and Trade Mission (Nortraship) was established in London in April 1940 to administer the Norwegian merchant fleet outside German-controlled areas.
Norway national bandy team (Norges herrelandslag i bandy) represents Norway in the sport of bandy.
The Norway men's national football team (Norges herrelandslag i fotball, or informally Landslaget) represents Norway in international association football and is controlled by the Football Association of Norway, the governing body for football in Norway.
The Norway Pavilion is a Norwegian-themed pavilion that is part of the World Showcase, within Epcot at Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida, United States.
The Norwegian women's national bandy team in 2006 Norway women's national bandy team represent Norway in the Women's Bandy World Championship.
The Norway women's national football team is controlled by the Football Association of Norway.
The Norway women's national handball team is the national team of Norway.
Although the Kingdom of Norway is not a member state of the European Union (EU), it is closely associated with the Union through its membership in the European Economic Area (EEA), by virtue of being a founding member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), one of the historically two dominant western European trade blocs.
Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA, trading as Norwegian, is a Norwegian low-cost airline.
Norwegian Americans (norskamerikanere) are Americans with ancestral roots from Norway.
The Norwegian, Finnish & Swedish Travellers (romanifolket, tatere, sigøynere; resande, zigenare, tattare; romanisæl, romanoar, rom(m)ani, tavringer/ar, tattare) are a group or branch of the Romani people who have been resident in Norway, Finland, and Sweden for some 500 years, as distinct from other Romanies who arrived starting in the late 19th century.
The Norwegian Armed Forces (Forsvaret, "The Defence") is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Norway.
Norway achieved full independence in 1905, and in the first century of its short life has contributed to three major conflicts, World War II, the Cold War and the War on Terror.
The Norwegian Association for Women's Rights (Norsk Kvinnesaksforening; NKF) is a Norwegian nonpartisan political advocacy organisation and Norway's oldest and preeminent women's and girls' rights organisation.
The Norwegian Campaign (9 April to 10 June 1940) was fought in Norway between Norway, the Allies and Germany in World War II after the latter's invasion of the country.
Norwegian Canadians refer to Canadian citizens who identify themselves as being of full or partial Norwegian ancestry, or people who emigrated from Norway and reside in Canada.
Norwegian Constitution Day is the national day of Norway and is an official public holiday observed on May 17 each year.
The Norwegian Cyber Defence Force (Cyberforsvaret) is a branch of the Norwegian Armed Forces responsible for military communications and defensive and offensive cyberwarfare in Norway.
A referendum on joining the European Union was held in Norway on 27 and 28 November 1994.
The Norwegian heavy water sabotage (Tungtvannsaksjonen, Tungtvassaksjonen) was a series of operations undertaken by Norwegian saboteurs during World War II to prevent the German nuclear weapon project from acquiring heavy water (deuterium oxide), which could have been used by the Germans to produce nuclear weapons.
The Norwegian Home Guard (Heimevernet – "HV"), is a rapid mobilisation force in the Norwegian military.
The Norwegian Humanist Association (Human-Etisk Forbund, HEF) is one of the largest secular humanist associations in the world, with 84,300 members.
Norwegian Independent Company 1 (NOR.I.C.1, pronounced Norisén (approx. "noor-ee-sehn") in Norwegian) was a British Special Operations Executive (SOE) group formed in March 1941 originally for the purpose of performing commando raids during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany.
The krone (sign: kr; code: NOK), plural kroner, is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
The Norwegian language conflict (målstriden, språkstriden or sprogstriden) is an ongoing controversy within Norwegian culture and politics related to the written versions of the Norwegian language.
The Norwegian National Rail Administration (Jernbaneverket) was a government agency responsible for owning, maintaining, operating and developing the Norwegian railway network, including the track, stations, classification yards, traffic management and timetables.
Parliamentary elections were held in Norway on 11 and 12 September 2005.
The 2009 parliamentary election was held in Norway on 13 and 14 September 2009.
A parliamentary election was held in Norway on 8 and 9 September 2013.
Norwegian Passports are issued to nationals of Norway for the purpose of international travel.
The Norwegian Police Security Service (Politiets sikkerhetstjeneste (PST), Politiets tryggingsteneste (PTT)) is the police security agency of Norway, somewhat comparable to the British MI5 (Security Service).
The Norwegian Police Service (Politi- og lensmannsetaten) is the Norwegian civilian police agency.
The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (Statens vegvesen) is a Norwegian government agency responsible for the state and county public roads in the country.
The Norwegian resistance to the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany began after Operation Weserübung in 1940 and ended in 1945.
Norwegian romantic nationalism (Nasjonalromantikken) was a movement in Norway between 1840 and 1867 in art, literature, and popular culture that emphasized the aesthetics of Norwegian nature and the uniqueness of the Norwegian national identity.
The Norwegian Royal Family is the family of the Norwegian monarch.
The Norwegian Sea (Norskehavet) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean, northwest of Norway.
Norwegian Sign Language, or NSL (Norwegian: norsk tegnspråk, NTS), is the principal sign language in Norway.
Norges Statsbaner AS, trading as NSB AS and known in English as the Norwegian State Railways, is a government-owned railway company which operates most passenger train services in Norway.
Norwegian Vietnamese or Vietnamese Norwegian refers to citizens or naturalized residents of Norway of Vietnamese descent.
The Norwegian Women's Lobby (NWL; Norges kvinnelobby) is a politically independent human rights political advocacy organisation, and is the umbrella organisation for the Norwegian women's rights organisations.
Norwegianization (Fornorsking av samer) was an official policy carried out by the Norwegian government directed at the Sami and later the Kven people of northern Norway to assimilate non-Norwegian-speaking native populations into an ethnically and culturally uniform Norwegian population.
Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.
Pakistani Norwegians are Norwegians of Pakistani descent.
NRK (an abbreviation of the Norwegian: Norsk rikskringkasting AS, generally expressed in English as the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation) is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company, and the largest media organisation in Norway.
NSB Night Train (Norwegian: Nattog) is a night sleeping car service provided by the Norwegian State Railways (NSB) on four routes; Oslo - Bergen (Bergen Line), Oslo - Stavanger (Sørland Line), Oslo - Trondheim (Dovre Line) and Trondheim - Bodø (the Nordland Line).
Nynorsk (translates to New Norwegian or New Norse) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Odd Hassel (17 May 1897 – 11 May 1981) was a Norwegian physical chemist and Nobel Laureate.
Odd Nerdrum (born 8 April 1944) is a Swedish-born, Norwegian figurative painter whose work is held by museums worldwide.
Odd Nordstoga (born 10 December 1972) is a folk singer, musician, actor and editor from Vinje in Telemark, Norway.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The OECD Better Life Index, in May 2011 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development following a decade of work on this issue, is a first attempt to bring together internationally comparable measures of well-being in line with the recommendations of the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress also known as the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission.
Ohthere of Hålogaland (Ottar fra Hålogaland) was a Viking Age Norwegian seafarer known only from an account of his travels that he gave to King Alfred (r. 871–99) of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex in about 890 AD.
Olaf Jacob Martin Luther Breda Bull (10 November 1883 - 29 June 1933) was a Norwegian poet.
Olaf II Haakonsson (1370 – 23 August 1387) was King of Denmark as Olaf II (1376–1387) and King of Norway as Olaf IV (1380–1387).
Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – 29 July 1030), later known as St.
Olaf Tryggvason (960s – 9 September 1000) was King of Norway from 995 to 1000.
Olav Duun (November 21, 1876 – September 13, 1939) was a noteworthy author of Norwegian fiction.
Olav Håkonson Hauge (18 August 1908 – 23 May 1994) was a Norwegian horticulturist, translator and poet.
Olav Jørgen Hegge (died August 26, 2005) was a Norwegian Hardanger fiddler and folk dancer with American ties.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Moster Church (Moster gamle kyrkje) is a parish church in Bømlo municipality in Hordaland county, Norway, and it is one of the oldest churches in all of Norway.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Norse religion developed from early Germanic religion during the Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic people separated into a distinct branch of the Germanic peoples.
Ole Einar Bjørndalen (born 27 January 1974) is a retired Norwegian professional biathlete, often referred to by the nickname, the "King of Biathlon".
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
One Direction are an English-Irish pop boy band based in London, composed of Niall Horan, Liam Payne, Harry Styles, Louis Tomlinson, and, until his departure from the band in 2015, Zayn Malik.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to remove militant religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab.
Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.
Oppland is a county in Norway, bordering Trøndelag, Møre og Romsdal, Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud, Akershus, Oslo and Hedmark.
There is a fast-growing Oriental Church in Bergen, Norway, named Saint Michael's Orthodox Church, with 147 members in 2010 (up from 98 in 2009).
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; (DOP), 13 September 1993.
Oslo Airport (Oslo Lufthavn) is the main international airport serving Oslo, Norway, the capital and most populous city in the country.
Oslo Commuter Rail (NSB Lokaltog Østlandet) is a commuter rail centered in Oslo, Norway, connecting the capital to six counties in Eastern Norway.
Oslo Freedom Forum (OFF) is a series of global conferences run by the New York-based non-profit Human Rights Foundation under the slogan “Challenging Power.” OFF was founded in 2009 as a one-time event and has taken place annually ever since.
Oslo Stock Exchange (Oslo Børs) (OSE: OSLO) is the only independent stock exchange within the Nordic countries and offers Norway’s only regulated markets for securities trading today. The stock exchange offers a full product range including equities, derivatives and fixed income instruments.
The Oslofjord (Oslo Fjord) is an inlet in the south-east of Norway, stretching from an imaginary line between the Torbjørnskjær and Færder lighthouses and down to Langesund in the south to Oslo in the north.
The following outline provides an overview of, and topical guide to, the Kingdom of Norway. Norway is a sovereign constitutional monarchy, located principally in the western part of Scandinavia in Northern Europe.
Paal Nilssen-Love (born 24 December 1974) is a Norwegian drummer and composer active in the jazz and free jazz genres.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Pathfinder (original title in Sami: Ofelaš and in Norwegian: Veiviseren) is a 1987 Norwegian action-adventure film written and directed by Nils Gaup.
Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyzes violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending conflicts (including social conflicts), with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more desirable human condition.
Peer Gynt is a five-act play in verse by the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen published in 1867.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peter Christen Asbjørnsen (15 January 18126 January 1885) was a Norwegian writer and scholar.
Peter I Island (остров Петра I, Peter I Øy) is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Bellingshausen Sea, from Antarctica.
Peter Waage (29 June 1833 – 13 January 1900) was a Norwegian chemist and professor.
Petoro is a company that is wholly owned by the Government of Norway.
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.
Petter Pettersen Dass (c. 1647 – 17 August 1707) was a Lutheran priest and the foremost Norwegian poet of his generation, writing both baroque hymns and topographical poetry.
The petty kingdoms of Norway were the entities from which the later Kingdom of Norway was founded.
Phillips Petroleum Company was an American oil company incorporated in 1917 that expanded into petroleum refining, marketing and transportation, natural gas gathering and the chemicals sectors.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
In Norway, Pinnekjøtt, lit: Stick Meat, is a main course dinner dish of lamb or mutton.
The fleet of plug-in electric vehicles in Norway is the largest per capita in the world, with Oslo recognized as the EV capital of the world.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, which is different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
The pool frog (Pelophylax lessonae) is a European frog.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
The Prime Minister of Norway (statsminister, literally the "minister of the state") is the head of government of Norway and the most powerful person in Norwegian politics.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet, Framstegspartiet, commonly abbreviated as FrP) is a political party in Norway.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land) is a c. 2.7 million-square-kilometre (1 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway.
The Quisling regime or Quisling government are common names used to refer to the fascist collaborationist government led by Vidkun Quisling in German-occupied Norway during the Second World War.
Robert Fitzroy 'Roy' Foster, FBA, FRHistS, FRSL (born 16 January 1949), publishing as R. F. Foster, is an Irish historian and academic.
Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch (3 March 1895 – 31 January 1973) was a Norwegian economist and the co-recipient of the first Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1969 (with Jan Tinbergen).
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
Raspeball, also known in some areas as klubb, kumle, komle, kompe or potetball is a potato dumpling, a traditional Norwegian dish.
Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand.
Röyksopp are a Norwegian electronic music duo from Tromsø, formed in 1998.
(Plassje) is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.
Røst is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway.
A realm is a community or territory over which a sovereign rules; It is commonly used to describe a kingdom or other monarchical or dynastic state.
Rechtsstaat is a doctrine in continental European legal thinking, originating in German jurisprudence.
The Reformation in Denmark–Norway and Holstein was the transition from Roman Catholicism to Lutheranism in the realms ruled by the Danish-based House of Oldenburg in the first half of the sixteenth century.
Regjeringskvartalet (the Government quarter) is a collection of buildings located in the centre of Norway's capital city Oslo, housing several offices for the Norwegian Government.
Reichskommissar (rendered as Commissioner of the Empire or as Reich - or Imperial Commissioner), in German history, was an official gubernatorial title used for various public offices during the period of the German Empire and the Nazi Third Reich.
The Reichskommissariat Norwegen was the civilian occupation regime set up by Nazi Germany in German-occupied Norway during World War II.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The right to education has been recognized as a human right in a number of international conventions, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights which recognizes a right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all, in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education, ideally by the progressive introduction of free higher education.
The right to work is the concept that people have a human right to work, or engage in productive employment, and may not be prevented from doing so.
Robyn Rihanna Fenty (born 20 February 1988) is a Barbadian singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman.
Rikard Nordraak (12 June 1842 – 20 March 1866) was a Norwegian composer.
is a municipality in Hedmark county, Norway.
The Rock art of Alta (Helleristningene i Alta) are located in and around the municipality of Alta in the county of Finnmark in northern Norway.
Norway has produced a number of famous rock bands, including Titanic, a-ha and Kaizers Orchestra.
Rogaland is a county in Western Norway, bordering Hordaland, Telemark, Aust-Agder, and Vest-Agder counties.
Rolf Jacobsen (8 March 1907 – 20 February 1994) was a Norwegian author.
The Archdiocese of Nidaros (or Niðaróss) was the metropolitan see covering Norway in the later Middle Ages.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Romsdalsfjord or Romsdal Fjord (Romsdalsfjorden) is the ninth-longest fjord in Norway.
Rotherhithe is a residential district in south east London, England, and part of the London Borough of Southwark.
A royal descent is a genealogical line of descent from a past or present monarch.
The Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) (Luftforsvaret) is the air force of Norway.
The Royal Norwegian Navy (Norwegian: Sjøforsvaret, "the naval defence (forces)") is the branch of the Norwegian Armed Forces responsible for naval operations of the state of Norway.
The Royal Palace (Slottet or formally Det kongelige slott) in Oslo was built in the first half of the 19th century as the Norwegian residence of the French-born King Charles III of Norway, who reigned as king of Norway and Sweden.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Norway on 1 January 2009, when a gender-neutral marriage bill was enacted after being passed by the Norwegian Parliament in June 2008.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
The Sami Parliament of Norway (Sametinget, Sámediggi, Sámedigge, Saemiedigkie, Sääʹmteʹǧǧ) is the representative body for people of Sami heritage in Norway.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Traditional Sámi spiritual practices and beliefs can vary considerably from region to region within Sápmi.
is the most populous city and municipality in Vestfold County, Norway.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sarpsborg, historically Borg, is a city and municipality in Østfold county, Norway.
The Satyricon, or Satyricon liber (The Book of Satyrlike Adventures), is a Latin work of fiction believed to have been written by Gaius Petronius, though the manuscript tradition identifies the author as Titus Petronius.
The Save the Children Fund, commonly known as Save the Children, is an international non-governmental organisation that promotes children's rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries.
The Save the Children State of the World's Mothers report (SOWM report) is an annual report by the Save the Children USA, which compiles statistics on the health of mothers and children and uses them to produce rankings of more than 170 countries, showing where mothers fare best and where they face the greatest hardships.
Sápmi, in English commonly known as Lapland, is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people, traditionally known in English as Lapps.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scandinavian Airlines, usually known as SAS, is the flag carrier of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, which together form mainland Scandinavia.
The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula.
The Scandinavian Peninsula (Skandinaviska halvön; Den skandinaviske halvøy; Skandinavian niemimaa; ?; Скандинавский полуостров, Skandinavsky poluostrov) is a peninsula of Eurasia located in Northern Europe, which generally comprises the mainland of Sweden, the mainland of Norway (with the exception of a small coastal area bordering Russia), the northwestern area of Finland, as well as a narrow area in the west of the Pechengsky District of Russia.
Scandoromani (romani, romani, romani rakripa alt. tavringens rakripa), also known as Tavringer Romani and the Tattare language, is a North Germanic based Para-Romani.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll (born 2 February 1977) is a Colombian singer, songwriter, and dancer.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
Sigrid Undset (20 May 1882 – 10 June 1949) was a Norwegian novelist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1928.
Sigurd Hoel (14 December 1890 – 14 October 1960) was a Norwegian author and publishing consultant, born in Nord-Odal.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
The Skagerrak is a strait running between the southeast coast of Norway, the southwest coast of Sweden, and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea.
The term skald, or skáld (Old Norse:, later;, meaning "poet"), is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age and Middle Ages.
Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the longest jump after descending from a specially designed ramp on their skis.
Skien is a city and municipality in Telemark county, Norway.
Skjåk is a municipality in Oppland county, Norway.
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.
Smalahove (also called smalehovud, sau(d)ehau(d) or skjelte) is a Western Norwegian traditional dish made from a sheep's head, originally eaten before Christmas.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
The Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti, Sosialistalas Gurutbellodat) or SV, is a democratic socialist political party in Norway.
Socially responsible investing (SRI), or social investment, also known as sustainable, socially conscious, "green" or ethical investing, is any investment strategy which seeks to consider both financial return and social/environmental good to bring about a positive change.
Sogn og Fjordane (English: Sogn and Fjordane) is a county in western Norway, bordering Møre og Romsdal, Oppland, Buskerud, and Hordaland.
The Sognefjord or Sognefjorden, nicknamed the King of the Fjords, is the largest and deepest fjord in Norway.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
Sonja Henie (8 April 1912 – 12 October 1969) was a Norwegian figure skater and film star.
Sophie Michelle Ellis-Bextor (born 10 April 1979) is an English singer, songwriter and model.
Marius Sophus Lie (17 December 1842 – 18 February 1899) was a Norwegian mathematician.
The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.
Southern Norway (Sørlandet; lit. "The Southland") is the geographical region (landsdel) along the Skagerrak coast of southern Norway.
Southern or South Sami (åarjelsaemien gïele) is the southwestern-most of the Sami languages.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
A sovereign wealth fund (SWF) or sovereign investment fund is a state-owned investment fund that invests in real and financial assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, precious metals, or in alternative investments such as private equity fund or hedge funds.
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
Spies Like Us is a 1985 American comedy film directed by John Landis and starring Chevy Chase, Dan Aykroyd, Steve Forrest, and Donna Dixon.
In economics, stagflation, a portmanteau of stagnation and inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.
Stargate is a Norwegian record producing and songwriting team composed of Tor Erik Hermansen (born 14 October 1972) and Mikkel Storleer Eriksen (born 10 December 1972), based in Los Angeles.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
State's Direct Financial Interest (SDFI) (Norwegian: Statens direkte økonomiske engasjement (SDØE)) is a portfolio of the Norwegian government's directly owned exploration and production licenses for petroleum and natural gas on the Norwegian continental shelf.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
Statistics Norway (Statistisk sentralbyrå, abbreviated to SSB) is the Norwegian statistics bureau.
Statkraft is a hydropower company, fully owned by the Norwegian state.
Stavanger is a city and municipality in Norway.
A stave church is a medieval wooden Christian church building once common in north-western Europe.
Stein Mehren (16 May 1935 – 28 July 2017) was a Norwegian poet, essayist and playwright.
Stein Rokkan (July 4, 1921 – July 22, 1979) was a Norwegian political scientist and sociologist.
Steinkjer is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
The stone ship or ship setting was an early burial custom in Scandinavia, Northern Germany and the Baltic states.
The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Stryn is a municipality in the county of Sogn og Fjordane, Norway.
The Subantarctic is a region in the southern hemisphere, located immediately north of the Antarctic region.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
The line of succession to the Norwegian throne consists of people entitled to become head of state of Norway.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
Supersilent is a Norwegian avant-garde-improvisational music group formed at Nattjazz in Bergen in 1997 when the trio Veslefrekk was asked to play with Deathprod.
The Supreme Court of Norway (Norwegian Bokmål: (Norges) Høyesterett; Norwegian Nynorsk: (Noregs) Høgsterett; lit. ‘Highest Court’) was established in 1815 on the basis of section 88 in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway, which prescribes an independent judiciary.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
Svalbard and Jan Mayen (Svalbard og Jan Mayen, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2: SJ, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3: SJM, ISO 3166-1 numeric: 744) is a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1 of two parts of Norway under separate jurisdictions—Svalbard and Jan Mayen.
The Svalbard Treaty (originally the Spitsbergen Treaty) recognises the sovereignty of Norway over the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, at the time called Spitsbergen.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The Swedish–Norwegian War, also known as the Campaign against Norway (Fälttåget mot Norge), War with Sweden 1814 (Krigen med Sverige 1814), or the Norwegian War of Independence, was a war fought between Sweden and Norway in the summer of 1814.
Tarjei Vesaas (20 August 1897 – 15 March 1970) was a Norwegian poet and novelist.
Tønsberg is a city and municipality in Vestfold county, southern Norway, located around south-southwest of Oslo on the western coast of the Oslofjord near its mouth onto the Skagerrak.
Telenor ASA is a Norwegian multinational telecommunications company headquartered at Fornebu in Bærum, close to Oslo.
Before 1992, telephone numbers would consist of a 2 or 3-digit area code, and a 5 or 6-digit subscriber number.
Terje Rypdal (born 23 August 1947) is a Norwegian guitarist and composer.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Empire Strikes Back (also known as Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back) is a 1980 American epic space opera film directed by Irvin Kershner.
The Golden Compass is a 2007 fantasy adventure film based on Northern Lights, the first novel in Philip Pullman's trilogy His Dark Materials.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Heroes of Telemark is a British 1965 Eastman Color war film directed by Anthony Mann based on the true story of the Norwegian heavy water sabotage during World War II from Skis Against the Atom, the memoirs of Norwegian resistance soldier Knut Haukelid.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Other Side of Sunday (Søndagsengler) is a 1996 Norwegian film directed by Berit Nesheim, starring Marie Theisen and Bjørn Sundquist.
The Pinchcliffe Grand Prix (Flåklypa Grand Prix) is a Norwegian stop motion-animated feature film directed by Ivo Caprino.
The Saturdays are a British-Irish girl group based in London, England.
The Scream (Skrik) is the popular name given to each of four versions of a composition, created as both paintings and pastels, by Norwegian Expressionist artist Edvard Munch between 1893 and 1910.
The Telegraphist (Telegrafisten) is a 1993 Norwegian film directed by Erik Gustavson.
The Wild Duck (original Norwegian title: Vildanden) is an 1884 play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen.
A thing, also known as Alþing, was the governing assembly of a northern Germanic society, made up of the free people of the community presided over by lawspeakers.
Thomas Mathiesen (born 5 October 1933) is a Norwegian sociologist.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
Tone Damli Aaberge (born 12 April 1988) is a Norwegian singer.
Tone Wilhelmsen Trøen (born 23 February 1966) is a Norwegian politician from the Conservative Party who is a member of the Storting and the current President of the Storting.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Toril Marie Øie (born 17 July 1960) is Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Norway.
Tove Stang Dahl (9 November 1938 – 11 February 1993) (née Tove Thiis Stang) was a Norwegian legal scholar, criminologist, Professor of Law at the Faculty of Law, University of Oslo from 1988 until her death, and a pioneer of feminist jurisprudence.
The trade-to-GDP ratio is an indicator of the relative importance of international trade in the economy of a country.
Trafalgar Square is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross.
In economics, a market is transparent if much is known by many about: What products and services or capital assets are available, market depth (quantity available), what price, and where.
Trøndelag is a county in the central part of Norway.
The Trøndelag Commuter Rail (NSB Lokaltog Trøndelag, previously Trønderbanen) is a commuter train service operating in Trøndelag county, Norway.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The Treaty of Kiel (Kieltraktaten) or Peace of Kiel (Swedish and Kielfreden or freden i Kiel) was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side on 14 January 1814 in Kiel.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
Troms (italic; Tromssa) is a county in Northern Norway.
Tromsø (Romsa; Tromssa; Tromssa) is a city and municipality in Troms county, Norway.
Trondheim (historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem) is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.
The Trondheim Fjord or Trondheimsfjorden, an inlet of the Norwegian Sea, is Norway's third-longest fjord at long.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Truls Olaf Otterbech Mørk (born 25 April 1961) is a Norwegian cellist.
Trygve Magnus Haavelmo (13 December 1911 – 28 July 1999), born in Skedsmo, Norway, was an influential economist with main research interests centered on the field of econometrics.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The 2000 UEFA European Football Championship, also known as Euro 2000, was the 11th UEFA European Football Championship, which is held every four years and organised by UEFA, association football's governing body in Europe.
The UEFA European Championship (known informally as the Euros) is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.
The UEFA European Women's Championship, also called the UEFA Women's Euro and unofficially the "European Cup", held every fourth year, is the main competition in women's association football between national teams of the UEFA Confederation.
The 1993 UEFA Women's Championship, also referred to as Women's Euro 1993 was a football tournament that happened between 1991 and 1993 (with the qualifying round).
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The Unification of Norway (Norwegian Bokmål: Rikssamlingen) is the process by which Norway merged from several petty kingdoms into a single kingdom, predecessor to modern Kingdom of Norway.
Sweden and Norway or Sweden–Norway (Svensk-norska unionen; Den svensk-norske union), officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, or as the United Kingdoms, was a personal union of the separate kingdoms of Sweden and Norway under a common monarch and common foreign policy that lasted from 1814 until its amicable and peaceful dissolution in 1905.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The units of transportation measurement describes the unit of measurement used to measure the quantity and traffic of transportation used in transportation statistics, planning, and their related fields.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status.
The University of Agder (Universitetet i Agder), formerly known as Agder College and Agder University College, is a public university with campuses in Kristiansand and Grimstad, Norway.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Urnes Stave Church (Urnes stavkyrkje) is a 12th-century stave church at Ornes, along the Lustrafjorden in the municipality of Luster in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.
Utøya is an island in the Tyrifjorden lake in Hole municipality, in the county of Buskerud, Norway.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Vadsø (Čáhcesuolu; Vesisaari) is a municipality in Finnmark County, Norway.
Valdemar IV Atterdag (the epithet meaning "A New Dawn"), or Waldemar (132024 October 1375; Valdemar Atterdag), was King of Denmark from 1340 to 1375.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Værøy is an island and municipality in Nordland county, Norway.
Vemork is the name of a hydroelectric power plant outside Rjukan in Tinn, Norway.
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
The Victual Brothers (Vitalienbrüder) were a loosely organized guild of privateers who later turned to piracy.
Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (18 July 1887 – 24 October 1945) was a Norwegian military officer and politician who nominally headed the government of Norway during the occupation of the country by Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vikings is a historical drama television series written and created by Michael Hirst for the History channel.
Johan Vilhelm Aubert (7 June 1922 – 19 July 1988) was an influential Norwegian sociologist.
Vinland, Vineland or Winland (Vínland) is the name for North American land explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.
is a municipality and a traditional district in Hordaland county, Norway.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
The Walt Disney World Resort, commonly known as Walt Disney World, or often just as Disney World, is an entertainment complex in Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, Florida, near Orlando and Kissimmee, Florida.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
Waterford (from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a city in Ireland.
"Weichselian glaciation" is the local name of the last glacial period and its associated glaciation in Northern Europe.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Western Norway (Vestlandet, Vest-Norge, Vest-Noreg) is the region along the Atlantic coast of southern Norway.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Whaling in Norway involves subsidized hunting of minke whales for use as animal and human food in Norway and for export to Japan.
Wibutee (initiated 1998 in Trondheim, originally a trio named Triangle 1996–98) is a jazz band from Norway, mixing influences from current electronic (dance) music, jazz rock and improvisation.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.
The Workers' Youth League (Arbeidernes Ungdomsfylking, Arbeidaranes Ungdomsfylking, or AUF) is Norway's largest political youth organization and is affiliated with the Norwegian Labour Party.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network which contains rankings of national happiness and analysis of the data from various perspectives.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Ylvis is a Norwegian comedy duo consisting of brothers Vegard and Bård Ylvisåker.
.bv is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) reserved for the uninhabited Norwegian dependent territory of Bouvet Island.
.no is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Norway.
is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) reserved for the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen.
The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in St. Louis, Missouri, in the United States from August 29 until September 3, 1904, as part of an extended sports program lasting from July 1 to November 23, 1904, at what is now known as Francis Field on the campus of Washington University in St. Louis.
The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from 4 to 19 June 1938.
The 1952 Winter Olympics (Norwegian: Vinter-OL 1952), officially known as the VI Olympic Winter Games (French: Les VIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), took place in Oslo, Norway, from 14 to 25 February.
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
The 1980 Summer Olympics boycott was one part of a number of actions initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
The 1987 European Competition for Women's Football took place in Norway.
The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States from 17 June to 17 July 1994.
The 1994 Winter Olympics (Olympiske vinterleker 1994), officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway.
The 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup, the second edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup, was held in Sweden and won by Norway.
The 1998 EHF European Women's Handball Championship was held in the Netherlands from 11–20 December.
The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
The 1999 World Women's Handball Championship, the 14th of its kind, was held between November 29 and December 12, 1999, and was jointly hosted by Denmark and Norway, with the finals being played in Lillehammer, Norway.
The 2004 EHF European Women's Handball Championship was held in Hungary from 9–19 December, it was won by Norway after beating Denmark 27–25 in the final match.
The 2006 EHF European Women's Handball Championship was held in Sweden from 7–17 December.
The 2008 EHF European Women's Handball Championship was held in the Republic of Macedonia from 2–14 December, it was won by Norway after beating Spain 34–21 in the final match.
The 2010 European Women's Handball Championship was held in Denmark and Norway from 7–19 December.
The 2011 Norway attacks, referred to in Norway as 22 July (Norwegian: 22. juli), the date of the events, were two sequential lone wolf terrorist attacks by Anders Behring Breivik against the government, the civilian population, and a Workers' Youth League (AUF)-run summer camp.
The 2011 World Women's Handball Championship, the 20th event hosted by the International Handball Federation, was held in Brazil from 2 to 18 December 2011.
The 2014 European Women's Handball Championship was the eleventh continental tournament for women's national teams, organized by the European Handball Federation.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The meridian 32° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 4° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 57th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 57 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 81st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 81 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane, in the Arctic.
Etymology of Norway, Human rights in Norway, ISO 3166-1:NO, Kingdom of Norway, Kongeriket Noreg, Kongeriket Norge, NORWAY, Name of Norway, Noreg, Noregur, Norwegia, Norwegian kingdom, Norwegian state, Royal Kingdom of Norway, Sport in Norway.