208 relations: A, Accusative case, Active voice, Adjective, Adverb, Afrikaans, Aftenposten, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Arne Torp, Attested language, Attributive verb, Å, Æ, Ø, B, Bergen, Bergens Tidende, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Bokmål, British Isles, C, Cataphora, Comparative, Comparison (grammar), Comparison of American and British English, Comparison of Norwegian Bokmål and Standard Danish, Compound (linguistics), Conjunction (grammar), Conservative (language), D, Dagbladet, Danish language, Dano-Norwegian, Dative case, Declension, Definiteness, Demonstrative, Dental consonant, Determiner, Diacritic, Dialect continuum, Dutch language, E, Eastern Norway, Elder Futhark, Encyclopædia Britannica, English language, Estimator, F, ..., Faroe Islands, Faroese language, Finite verb, Flap consonant, French language, Fricative consonant, G, German language, Germanic languages, Germanic strong verb, Germanic weak verb, Glottal consonant, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Greenland, Gudbrandsdalen, H, Hallingdal, Hanseatic League, Høgnorsk, Head (linguistics), I, Iceland, Icelandic language, Imperative mood, Imperfective aspect, Infinitive, Inflection, Interjection, Intonation (linguistics), Ivar Aasen, Ivar Aasen-sambandet, J, Jan Terje Faarlund, Justiciar, K, Knud Knudsen (linguist), Koiné language, L, Labial consonant, Language, Language Council of Norway, Language interpretation, Lars Vikør, Latin script, Linguistic purism, Loanword, Low German, M, Martin Luther, Maximum likelihood estimation, Middle Low German, Minnesota, Modern Norwegian, Mutual intelligibility, N, Nasal consonant, Nationalism, Nominative case, Nonfinite verb, Nordic Council, Nordic countries, Nordic Language Convention, Nordland, Noregs Mållag, Norman conquest of England, Normandy, Norsk Ordbok (Nynorsk), North Dakota, North Germanic languages, Norway, Norwegian Academy, Norwegian dialects, Norwegian language conflict, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian Sign Language, Norwegians, Noun, NRK, Nynorsk, O, Olav Beito, Old English, Old Gutnish, Old Norse, Old Norwegian, Old Swedish, Orthography, P, Palato-alveolar consonant, Part of speech, Participle, Passive voice, Past tense, Perfective aspect, Pitch-accent language, Pontic–Caspian steppe, Possessive, Preposition and postposition, Present tense, Pronoun, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Norse language, Q, R, Realis mood, Reformation, Relative pronoun, Retroflex consonant, Riksmål, Riksmål Society, Runes, Runestone, Russenorsk, Russia, S, Sami languages, Sandhi, Scandinavia, Scandinavian Braille, Setesdal, Stavanger Aftenblad, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Subjunctive mood, Supreme court, Swedish language, Syntactic expletive, T, Telemark, Tone (linguistics), Translation, Trøndelag, U, Upper German, Urban East Norwegian, V, V2 word order, Valdres, Velar consonant, Verb, Verbal noun, Verdens Gang, Viking Age, W, West Frisian language, West Germanic languages, X, Y, Younger Futhark, Z, Zebra. Expand index (158 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Aftenposten (Norwegian for "The Evening Post") is Norway's largest printed newspaper by circulation.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arne Torp (born 14 October 1942 in Holt, East Agder, Norway) is a Norwegian professor of North Germanic languages in the Department of Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies at the University of Oslo.
In linguistics, attested languages are languages (living or dead) that have been documented and for which the evidence has survived to the present day.
An attributive verb is a verb that modifies (expresses an attribute of) a noun in the manner of an attributive adjective, rather than express an independent idea as a predicate.
Å (lower case: å) — represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages.
Æ (minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named æsc or ash, formed from the letters a and e, originally a ligature representing the Latin diphthong ae.
Ø (or minuscule: ø) is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Southern Sami languages.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.
Bergens Tidende is Norway's fifth-largest newspaper, and the country's largest newspaper outside Oslo.
Bjørnstjerne Martinius Bjørnson (8 December 1832 – 26 April 1910) was a Norwegian writer who received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Literature "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit", becoming the first Norwegian Nobel laureate.
Bokmål (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, cataphora (from Greek, καταφορά, kataphora, “a downward motion” from κατά, kata, “downwards” and φέρω, pherō, “I carry”) is the use of an expression or word that co-refers with a later, more specific, expression in the discourse.
In linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality, or degree.
Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.
The English language was first introduced to the Americas by British colonization, beginning in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
Danish and Norwegian Bokmål (the most common standard form of written Norwegian) are both descended from the Old Norse, the common ancestor of all North Germanic languages spoken today.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Dagbladet (lit.: The Daily Magazine) is Norway's sixth largest newspaper with a circulation of 46,250 copies in 2016, down from a peak of 228,834 in 1994.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Dano-Norwegian (Danish and Norwegian: dansk-norsk) is a koiné that evolved among the urban elite in Norwegian cities during the later years of the union between the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway (1536/1537–1814).
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Eastern Norway (Bokmål: Østlandet, Nynorsk: Austlandet) is the geographical region of the south-eastern part of Norway.
The Elder Futhark (also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In statistics, an estimator is a rule for calculating an estimate of a given quantity based on observed data: thus the rule (the estimator), the quantity of interest (the estimand) and its result (the estimate) are distinguished.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
In the Germanic languages, a strong verb is a verb that marks its past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut).
In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm (the regular verbs), but they are not historically the oldest or most original group.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Gudbrandsdalen (Gudbrand Valley) is a valley and traditional district in the Norwegian county of Oppland.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
Hallingdal (Halling Valley) is a valley as well as a traditional district located in Buskerud county in Norway.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Høgnorsk, meaning "High Norwegian", is a term for varieties of the Norwegian language form Nynorsk that reject most of the official reforms that have been introduced since the creation of Landsmål.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
Ivar Andreas Aasen (5 August 1813 – 23 September 1896) was a Norwegian philologist, lexicographer, playwright, and poet.
Ivar Aasen-sambandet (The Ivar Aasen Union) is an umbrella organization of associations and individuals promoting the use of the Høgnorsk variant of the Norwegian language.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Jan Terje Faarlund (born 3 May 1943) is a Norwegian linguist and professor emeritus of North Germanic languages at the University of Oslo.
In Medieval England and Scotland the Chief Justiciar (later known simply as the Justiciar) was roughly equivalent to a modern Prime Minister as the monarch's chief minister.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Knud Knudsen (January 6, 1812 - March 30, 1895) was a Norwegian educator, author, linguist and philologist.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The Language Council of Norway (Språkrådet) is the consultative body of the Norwegian state on language issues.
Interpretation or interpreting is a translational activity in which one produces a first and final translation on the basis of a one-time exposure to an utterance in a source language.
Lars Sigurdsson Vikør (born 30 April 1946) is a Norwegian linguist, translator and educator.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
In statistics, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method of estimating the parameters of a statistical model, given observations.
Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
Modern Norwegian (moderne norsk) is the Norwegian language that emerged after the Middle Norwegian transition period (1350-1536) and Dano-Norwegian.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
A nonfinite verb is of any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; they cannot perform action as the root of an independent clause.
The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The Nordic Language Convention is a convention of linguistic rights that came into force on 1 March 1987, under the auspices of the Nordic Council.
Nordland (Nordlánda) is a county in Norway in the Northern Norway region, bordering Troms in the north, Trøndelag in the south, Norrbotten County in Sweden to the east, Västerbotten County to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean (Norwegian Sea) to the west.
Noregs Mållag (literally "Language Organisation of Norway") is the main organisation for Norwegian Nynorsk (New Norwegian), one of the two official written standards of the Norwegian language.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
Norsk Ordbok (NO) is a comprehensive dictionary of written New Norwegian (Nynorsk) and the Norwegian dialects, planned to twelve volumes and with eleven volumes published.
North Dakota is a U.S. state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwegian Academy for Language and Literature (Det Norske Akademi for Språk og Litteratur), commonly known as the Norwegian Academy, is a Norwegian learned body on matters pertaining to the modern Norwegian language in its Dano-Norwegian variety, now commonly known as Riksmål and Bokmål.
The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, 'Northern Norwegian' (nordnorsk), 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian' (østnorsk).
The Norwegian language conflict (målstriden, språkstriden or sprogstriden) is an ongoing controversy within Norwegian culture and politics related to the written versions of the Norwegian language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
Norwegian Sign Language, or NSL (Norwegian: norsk tegnspråk, NTS), is the principal sign language in Norway.
Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
NRK (an abbreviation of the Norwegian: Norsk rikskringkasting AS, generally expressed in English as the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation) is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company, and the largest media organisation in Norway.
Nynorsk (translates to New Norwegian or New Norse) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Olav Toreson Beito (March 30, 1901 – September 28, 1989) was a Norwegian linguist and professor of Nordic studies at the University of Oslo.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Gutnish or Old Gotlandic was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken on the Baltic island of Gotland.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Norwegian (Norwegian: gammelnorsk and gam(m)alnorsk), also called Norwegian Norse, is an early form of the Norwegian language that was spoken between the 11th and 14th century; it is a transitional stage between Old West Norse and Middle Norwegian, and also Old Norn and Old Faroese.
Old Swedish (Modern Swedish: fornsvenska) is the name for two distinct stages of the Swedish language that were spoken in the Middle Ages: Early Old Swedish (Klassisk fornsvenska), spoken from around 1225 until 1375, and Late Old Swedish (Yngre fornsvenska), spoken from 1375 until 1526.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.
The perfective aspect (abbreviated), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe an action viewed as a simple whole—a unit without interior composition.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Norse (also called Proto-Scandinavian, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Scandinavian, Proto-North Germanic and a variety of other names) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic in the first centuries CE.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative modifies.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Riksmål is a written Norwegian language form, meaning the National Language, based on the Dano-Norwegian language used by the upper class in Christiania (modern Oslo) in the 19th century.
Riksmålsforbundet (official translation: "The Riksmaal Society - The Society for the Preservation of Traditional Standard Norwegian") is the main organisation for Riksmål, an unofficial variety of the Norwegian language, based on the official Bokmål standard as it was before 1938 (see Norwegian language conflict).
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.
Russenorsk (Руссено́рск,; Russo-Norwegian) is an extinct dual-source pidgin language formerly used in the Arctic, which combined elements of Russian and Norwegian, and which was created by Russian traders and Norwegian fishermen from northern Norway and the Russian Kola Peninsula.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scandinavian Braille is a braille alphabet used, with differences in orthography and punctuation, for the languages of the mainland Nordic countries: Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Finnish.
Setesdal (older name: Sætersdal) is a valley and a traditional district in Aust-Agder County in southern Norway.
Stavanger Aftenblad (lit: Stavanger Evening Paper) or simply Aftenbladet is a daily newspaper based in Stavanger, Norway, and owned by Schibsted.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
A syntactic expletive (abbreviated) is a word that performs a syntactic role but contributes nothing to meaning.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Telemark is a county in Norway, bordering Vestfold, Buskerud, Hordaland, Rogaland and Aust-Agder.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Trøndelag is a county in the central part of Norway.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Upper German (German) is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (Sprachraum).
Urban East Norwegian (UEN) or Standard East Norwegian (Bokmål: standard østnorsk, Nynorsk: standard austnorsk) is the de facto standard variety of East Norwegian and an unofficial spoken standard of Bokmål.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order places the finite verb of a clause or sentence in second position with a single major constituent preceding it, which functions as the clause topic.
Valdres is a traditional district in central, southern Norway, situated between Gudbrandsdal and Hallingdal.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
A verbal noun is a noun formed from or otherwise corresponding to a verb.
Verdens Gang ("The course of the world"), generally known under the abbreviation VG, is a foreign-owned Norwegian tabloid newspaper.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Zebras are several species of African equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black and white striped coats.
Bokmaal and Nynorsk, BokmaalAndNynorsk, History of the Norwegian language, ISO 639:no, ISO 639:nor, Norska, Norska language, Norwegian (language), Norwegian Language, Norwegian grammar, Norwegian morphology, Norweigian language, Samnorsk.