46 relations: Adi Shamir, Advanced Encryption Standard process, Alex Biryukov, ARIA (cipher), Backdoor (computing), Bart Preneel, BLAKE (hash function), Blowfish (cipher), Bruce Schneier, Cipher, Cryptographic hash function, Cryptography, Data Encryption Standard, DFC (cipher), Differential cryptanalysis, Dual EC DRBG, E (mathematical constant), Edward Snowden, Eli Biham, Entropy (information theory), Fractional part, Golden ratio, Internet Key Exchange, KASUMI, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Key schedule, Magic (illusion), MD5, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Security Agency, NewDES, Normal number, Portable Document Format, Positional notation, PostScript, Prime number, RC5, Ron Rivest, S-box, SHA-1, SHA-2, SHA-3, Sine, Square root, United States Declaration of Independence, Wired (website).

Adi Shamir (עדי שמיר; born July 6, 1952) is an Israeli cryptographer.

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The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the symmetric block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology of the United States (NIST), was chosen using a process lasting from 1997 to 2000 that was markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES).

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Alex Biryukov is a cryptographer, currently an associate professor at the University of Luxembourg.

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In cryptography, ARIA is a block cipher designed in 2003 by a large group of South Korean researchers.

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A backdoor in a computer system (or cryptosystem or algorithm) is a method of bypassing normal authentication, securing unauthorized remote access to a computer, obtaining access to plaintext, and so on, while attempting to remain undetected.

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Bart Preneel (born October 15, 1963) is a Belgian cryptographer and cryptanalyst.

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BLAKE and BLAKE2 are cryptographic hash functions.

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Blowfish is a symmetric-key block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products.

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Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security and privacy specialist, and writer.

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In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.

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A cryptographic hash function is a hash function which is considered practically impossible to invert, that is, to recreate the input data from its hash value alone.

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Cryptography or cryptology; from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "writing", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties (called adversaries).

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The Data Encryption Standard (DES, or) was once a predominant symmetric-key algorithm for the encryption of electronic data.

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In cryptography, DFC (Decorrelated Fast Cipher) is a symmetric block cipher which was created in 1998 by a group of researchers from École Normale Supérieure, CNRS, and France Télécom (including Jacques Stern and Serge Vaudenay) and submitted to the AES competition.

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Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.

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Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator (Dual_EC_DRBG) is an algorithm from the branch of cryptography known as elliptic curve cryptography that implements a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (CSPRNG) capable of generating a random bit stream.

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The number is an important mathematical constant that is the base of the natural logarithm.

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Edward Joseph "Ed" Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American privacy activist, computer professional, former CIA employee, and former government contractor who leaked classified information from the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013.

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Eli Biham (אלי ביהם) is an Israeli cryptographer and cryptanalyst, currently a professor at the Technion Israeli Institute of Technology Computer Science department.

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In information theory, entropy (more specifically, Shannon entropy) is the expected value (average) of the information contained in each message received.

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The fractional part of a non‐negative real number x is the excess beyond that number integer part: \operatorname (x).

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In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities.

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In computing, Internet Key Exchange (IKE or IKEv2) is the protocol used to set up a security association (SA) in the IPsec protocol suite.

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KASUMI is a block cipher used in UMTS, GSM, and GPRS mobile communications systems.

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The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Dutch for Catholic University of Leuven, but usually not translated into English), also known as KU Leuven or University of Leuven, is a Dutch-speaking university in Leuven, Flanders, Belgium.

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In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of ciphers, where the (de-)ciphering of data is done in "rounds".

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Magic (sometimes referred to as stage magic to distinguish it from paranormal or ritual magic) is a performing art that entertains audiences by staging tricks or creating illusions of seemingly impossible or supernatural feats using natural means.

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The MD5 message-digest algorithm is a widely used cryptographic hash function producing a 128-bit (16-byte) hash value, typically expressed in text format as a 32 digit hexadecimal number.

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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), is a measurement standards laboratory, also known as a National Metrological Institute (NMI), which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce.

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The National Security Agency (NSA) is an intelligence organization of the United States government, responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes – a discipline known as signals intelligence (SIGINT).

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In cryptography, NewDES is a symmetric key block cipher.

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In mathematics, a normal number is a real number whose infinite sequence of digits in every base b is distributed uniformly in the sense that each of the b digit values has the same natural density 1/b, also all possible b2 pairs of digits are equally likely with density b−2, all b3 triplets of digits equally likely with density b−3, etc.

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Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware and operating systems.

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Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers.

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PostScript (PS) is a computer language for creating vector graphics.

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A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself.

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In cryptography, RC5 is a symmetric-key block cipher notable for its simplicity.

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Ronald Linn Rivest (born May 6, 1947) is a cryptographer and an Institute Professor at MIT.

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In cryptography, an S-box (substitution-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms which performs substitution.

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In cryptography, SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1) is a cryptographic hash function designed by the United States National Security Agency and is a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard published by the United States NIST.

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SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the NSA (U.S. National Security Agency).

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SHA-3 (Secure Hash Algorithm 3), a subset of the cryptographic primitive family Keccak, is a cryptographic hash function designed by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche, building upon RadioGatún.

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Sine, in mathematics, is a trigonometric function of an angle.

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In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that, in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.

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The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer a part of the British Empire.

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The Wired website, formerly known as Wired News or HotWired, is an online technology news website that split off from Wired magazine when the magazine was purchased by Condé Nast Publishing in the 1990s.

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## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nothing_up_my_sleeve_number