47 relations: Adjective, Adjective phrase, Adjunct (grammar), Adpositional phrase, Adverb, Adverbial, Argument (linguistics), Clause, Complementizer, Conjunction (grammar), Dependency grammar, Determiner, Determiner phrase, English articles, French language, Genitive case, German grammar, Government and binding theory, Grammatical relation, Head (linguistics), Head-directionality parameter, Indefinite pronoun, Infinitive, Japanese language, Linguistic typology, Minimalist program, Nominal group (functional grammar), Noun, Noun adjunct, Object (grammar), Oblique case, Parse tree, Participle, Peter Culicover, Phrase, Phrase structure grammar, Predicate (grammar), Predicative expression, Preposition and postposition, Ray Jackendoff, Relative clause, Shallow parsing, Simpler Syntax, Subject (grammar), Turkish language, Word, X-bar theory.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adjective phrase (or adjectival phrase) is a phrase whose head word is an adjective, e.g. fond of steak, very happy, quite upset about it, etc.
In linguistics, an adjunct is an optional, or structurally dispensable, part of a sentence, clause, or phrase that, if removed or discarded, will not otherwise affect the remainder of the sentence.
An adpositional phrase, in linguistics, is a syntactic category that includes prepositional phrases, postpositional phrases, and circumpositional phrases.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In grammar, an adverbial (abbreviated) is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause) that modifies or more closely defines the sentence or the verb.
In linguistics, an argument is an expression that helps complete the meaning of a predicate, the latter referring in this context to a main verb and its auxiliaries.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
In linguistics (especially generative grammar), complementizer or complementiser (glossing abbreviation) is a lexical category (part of speech) that includes those words that can be used to turn a clause into the subject or object of a sentence.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern grammatical theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the constituency relation) and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière.
A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.
In linguistics, a determiner phrase (DP) is a type of phrase posited by some theories of syntax.
Articles in the English language are the definite article the and the indefinite articles a and an.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German grammar is the set of structural rules of the German language, which in many respects is quite similar to that of the other Germanic languages.
Government and binding (GB, GBT) is a theory of syntax and a phrase structure grammar in the tradition of transformational grammar developed principally by Noam Chomsky in the 1980s.
In linguistics, grammatical relations (also called grammatical functions, grammatical roles, or syntactic functions) refer to functional relationships between constituents in a clause.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.
In linguistics, the head directionality is a proposed parameter that classifies languages according to whether they are head-initial (the head of a phrase precedes its complements) or head-final (the head follows its complements).
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that refers to non-specific beings, objects, or places.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
In linguistics, the minimalist program (MP) is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside generative grammar since the early 1990s, starting with a 1993 paper by Noam Chomsky.
In systemic functional grammar (SFG), a nominal group is a group of words which represents or describes an entity, for example "The nice old English police inspector who was sitting at the table is Mr Morse".
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
In grammar, a noun adjunct or attributive noun or noun (pre)modifier is an optional noun that modifies another noun; it is a noun functioning as a pre-modifier in a noun phrase.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.
A parse tree or parsing tree or derivation tree or concrete syntax tree is an ordered, rooted tree that represents the syntactic structure of a string according to some context-free grammar.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Peter W. Culicover is Professor of Linguistics at Ohio State University.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
The term phrase structure grammar was originally introduced by Noam Chomsky as the term for grammar studied previously by Emil Post and Axel Thue (Post canonical systems).
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Ray Jackendoff (born January 23, 1945) is an American linguist.
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.
Shallow parsing (also chunking, "light parsing") is an analysis of a sentence which first identifies constituent parts of sentences (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) and then links them to higher order units that have discrete grammatical meanings (noun groups or phrases, verb groups, etc.). While the most elementary chunking algorithms simply link constituent parts on the basis of elementary search patterns (e.g. as specified by Regular Expressions), approaches that use machine learning techniques (classifiers, topic modeling, etc.) can take contextual information into account and thus compose chunks in such a way that they better reflect the semantic relations between the basic constituents.
Simpler Syntax is the title of a 2005 book by Peter Culicover and Ray Jackendoff.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
X-bar theory is a theory of syntactic category formation.