138 relations: A-Group culture, Abdallah Khalil, Aethiopia, Afroasiatic languages, Al Dabbah, Sudan, Alara of Nubia, Amanitore, Amun, Ancient DNA, Ancient Egypt, Anwar Sadat, Arabic, Aswan, Aswan Dam, Barabra, Berber languages, Byzantine Empire, C-Group culture, Cataracts of the Nile, Christopher Ehret, Copts, Cradle of civilization, Cushitic languages, De facto, Dongola, Dongolawi language, Eastern Sudanic languages, Egypt, Egyptian Arabic, Egyptian Armed Forces, Egyptian language, Eparchy, Ethnologue, Ezana of Axum, Fathi Hassan, Gaafar Nimeiry, Greek language, Hamza El Din, Haplogroup B-M60, Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA), Haplogroup F-M89, Haplogroup H (mtDNA), Haplogroup I (mtDNA), Haplogroup I-M170, Haplogroup J (Y-DNA), Haplogroup K (mtDNA), Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA), Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA), Haplogroup L2 (mtDNA), Haplogroup L3 (mtDNA), ..., Haplogroup L4 (mtDNA), Haplogroup L5 (mtDNA), Haplogroup M (mtDNA), Haplogroup N (mtDNA), Haplogroup N1a (mtDNA), Haplogroup R (mtDNA), Haplogroup R0 (mtDNA), Haplogroup R1b, Haplogroup T (mtDNA), Haplogroup U (mtDNA), Hill Nubian languages, Hill Nubians, History of ancient Egypt, Horn of Africa, Idris Ali, Islam, Jebel Barkal, Kandake, Kenya, Kenzi language, Kerma culture, Khalil Kalfat, Khartoum, Kingdom of Aksum, Kingdom of Kush, Kulubnarti, Languages of Africa, Loanword, Luxor, Macro-haplogroup L (mtDNA), Mahas, Mahdi, Makuria, Meroë, Meroitic language, Miaphysitism, Midob language, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Mohamed Mounir, Mohammed Ibrahim (businessman), Mohammed Wardi, Muhammad Ahmad, Napata, National Umma Party, Nile, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilotic peoples, Noba, Nobatia, Nobel Prize, Nobiin language, Nome (Egypt), Nuba Mountains, Nubia, Nubian languages, Nubian pyramids, Nubian vault, Old Nubian language, Osama Abdul Latif, Paleolithic, Phonotactics, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Prehistoric Egypt, President of Egypt, Ramey Dawoud, Roman Empire, Sa'idi Arabic, Scarification, Senkamanisken, Sheikh, Shikabala, South Kordofan, Strabo, Sudan, Sudanese Arabic, Sudanese Arabs, Sufism, Sunni Islam, Syncretism, Ta-Seti, Taharqa, Tradition, Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, Uganda, Vault (architecture), Wadi Halfa, White Flag League, Yom Kippur War. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
The A-Group culture was an ancient civilization that flourished between the First and Second Cataracts of the Nile in Nubia.
Sayed Abdallah Khalil (عبد الله خليل) was a prominent Sudanese politician who served as the second Prime Minister of Sudan.
Ancient Aethiopia (Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) first appears as a geographical term in classical documents in reference to the upper Nile region, as well as all certain areas south of the Sahara desert and south of the Atlantic Ocean.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Al Dabbah (also known as Ed Debba, El Debba, El Debbah or Ed Debbah) is a town on the river banks of the Nile, which is served by the Al Dabbah Airport.
Alara was a King of Kush who is generally regarded as the founder of the Napatan royal dynasty by his 25th Dynasty Nubian successors and was the first recorded prince of Nubia.
Amanitore (c. 50 CE) was a Nubian Kandake (queen) of the ancient Kushitic Kingdom of Meroë, which also is referred to as Nubia in many ancient sources.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
Ancient DNA (aDNA) is DNA isolated from ancient specimens.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aswan (أسوان; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.
The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970.
Barabra is an old ethnographical term for the Nubian peoples of northern Sudan and southern Egypt.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The C-Group culture was an ancient civilization centered in Nubia, which existed from ca.
The Cataracts of the Nile are shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River, between Aswan and Khartoum, where the surface of the water is broken by many small boulders and stones jutting out of the river bed, as well as many rocky islets.
Christopher Ehret (born July 27, 1941), who currently holds the position of Distinguished Research Professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, is an American scholar of African history and African historical linguistics particularly known for his efforts to correlate linguistic taxonomy and reconstruction with the archeological record.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Dongola (دنقلا), also spelled Dunqulah, and formerly known as Al 'Urdi, is the capital of the state of Northern in Sudan, on the banks of the Nile, and a former Latin Catholic bishopric (14th century).
Dongolawi is a Nubian language of northern Sudan.
In most classifications, the Eastern Sudanic languages are a group of nine families of languages that may constitute a branch of the Nilo-Saharan language family.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
The Egyptian Armed Forces are the state military organisation responsible for the defence of Egypt.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word (ἐπαρχία), authentically Latinized as eparchia, which can be loosely translated as the rule or jurisdiction over something, such as a province, prefecture, or territory.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
‘Ezana of Axum (ዔዛና ‘Ezana, unvocalized ዐዘነ ‘zn; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum (320s – c. 360 CE) located in present-day northern Ethiopia, Yemen, part of southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and parts of Sudan.
Fathi Hassan (فتحي حسن) (born 10 May 1957) is an Egyptian artist known for his installations involving the written word.
Gaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise spelled in English as Jaafar Nimeiry, Gaafar Nimeiry or Ga'far Muhammad Numayri; جعفر محمد نميري; 1 January 193030 May 2009) was the President of Sudan from 1969 to 1985.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hamza El Din (July 10, 1929 – May 22, 2006) was a Nubian Sudanese composer, oud player, tar player, and vocalist.
Haplogroup B (B-M60) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup common to paternal lineages in Africa.
E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup F, also known as F-M89 and previously as Haplogroup FT is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup I is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup J-M304, also known as J, (2 February 2016).
Haplogroup K is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup L0 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup L2 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup with a widespread modern distribution, particularly in Subequatorial Africa.
Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup L4 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup L5 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clade.
Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clade.
Haplogroup N1a is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup R is a widely distributed human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup R0 (formerly known as haplogroup pre-HV) is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup (mtDNA).
The Hill Nubian languages, also called Kordofan Nubian, are a group or dialect continuum of Nubian languages spoken by the Hill Nubians in the northern Nuba Mountains of Sudan.
Hill Nubians are a group of Nubian peoples who inhabit the northern Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan state, Sudan.
The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Idris Ali (1940 – November 30, 2010) was an Egyptian author of Nubian origin.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal (جبل بركل) is a very small mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Karima town in Northern State in Sudan, on a large bend of the Nile River, in the region called Nubia.
Kandake, kadake or kentake, often Latinised as Candace (Κανδάκη), was the Meroitic language term for "queen" or possibly "royal woman".
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kenzi (Kenuzi), also known as Mattokki, is a Nubian language of Egypt.
The Kerma culture or Kerma kingdom was an early civilization centered in Kerma, Sudan.
Khalil Kalfat (خليل كلفت) (November 26, 1942-November 9, 2015) was an Egyptian author, political thinker and translator.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.
Kulubnarti ("Kulb island") is a long island in northern Sudan.
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Luxor (الأقصر; Egyptian Arabic:; Sa'idi Arabic) is a city in Upper (southern) Egypt and the capital of Luxor Governorate.
In human mitochondrial genetics, L is the mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup that is at the root of the human mtDNA phylogenetic tree.
The Mahas are a sub-group of the Nubians ethnic group located in Sudan along the banks of the Nile.
The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.
The Kingdom of Makuria (Old Nubian: ⲇⲱⲧⲁⲩⲟ, Dotawo; Greek: Μακογρια, Makouria; مقرة, al-Muqurra) was a Nubian kingdom located in what is today Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt.
Meroë (also spelled Meroe; Meroitic: Medewi or Bedewi; Arabic: مرواه and مروى Meruwi; Ancient Greek: Μερόη, Meróē) is an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum.
Meroitic also called Kushite after the apparent attested endoethnonym transcribed in Egyptian as k3š ← "Meroitic",. The commonly used scholarly name "Meroitic" derives from the royal city of Meroë of the Kingdom of Kush.
Miaphysitism is a Christological formula holding that in the person of Jesus Christ, divine nature and human nature are united (μία, mia – "one" or "unity") in a compound nature ("physis"), the two being united without separation, without mixture, without confusion and without alteration.
Midob (also spelt Meidob) is the language of the Midob people of North Darfur, Sudan.
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Soliman (محمد حسين طنطاوى سليمان,; born 31 October 1935) is an Egyptian field marshal and former politician.
Mohamed Mounir (محمد منير) (born October 10, 1954) is an Egyptian singer and actor, with a musical career spanning more than three decades.
Mohammed "Mo" Ibrahim (محمد إبراهيم; born 3 May 1946) is a Sudanese-British billionaire businessman.
Mohammed Osman Hassan Salih Wardi (محمد عثمان حسن وردي) (born 19 July 1932 – 18 February 2012) was a Muslim Nubian Sudanese singer and songwriter.
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on 29 June 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith.
Napata was a city-state of ancient Nubia on the west bank of the Nile River, at the site of modern Karima, Northern Sudan.
The National Umma Party (translit, translated into English as Nation Party) is an Islamo-democratic centrist political party in Sudan.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
The Nilotic peoples are peoples indigenous to the Nile Valley who speak Nilotic languages, which constitute a large sub-group of the Nilo-Saharan languages spoken in South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.
Noba is a term found in a number of historical sources discussing ancient and Medieval Nubia.
Nobatia or Nobadia (Greek: Νοβαδἰα, Nobadia; Old Nubian: ⲙⲓⲅⲓⲧⲛ︦ ⲅⲟⲩⲗ, Migitin Goul) was a late antique kingdom in Lower Nubia.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan phylum.
A nome (from νομός, nomós, “district”) was a territorial division in ancient Egypt.
The Nuba Mountains, also referred to as the Nuba Hills (جبال النوبة), is an area located in South Kordofan, Sudan.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
The Nubian languages (لغات نوبية) are a group of related languages spoken by the Nubians of Nubia, a region along the Nile in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.
Nubian pyramids are pyramids that were built by the rulers of the ancient Kushite kingdoms.
In architecture, a Nubian vault is a type of curved surface forming a vaulted structure.
Old Nubian (also called Middle Nubian or Old Nobiin) is an extinct Nubian language, attested in writing from the 8th to the 15th century CE.
Osama D. Abdel Latif is a tycoon Sudanese businessman and the chairman of DAL Group.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
The Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, a faith with ancient Christian roots in Egypt.
The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh, Narmer for some egyptologists, Hor-Aha for others, (also known as Menes).
The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (رئيس جمهورية مصر العربية) is the head of state of Egypt.
Ramey Dawoud is a Sudanese American Rapper, actor, songwriter, and activist.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Ṣa‘īdi Arabic (صعيدى, locally), also known as Upper Egyptian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken by the Ṣa‘īdi people south of Cairo, Egypt, to the border of Sudan.
Scarifying (also scarification modification) involves scratching, etching, burning / branding, or superficially cutting designs, pictures, or words into the skin as a permanent body modification.
Senkamanisken was a Kushite King who ruled from 640 to 620 BC at Napata.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Mahmoud Abdel Razek Hassan Fadlallah (محمود عبد الرازق "شيكابالا; born 5 March 1986), commonly known as Shikabala, is an Egyptian footballer who currently plays for Saudi Arabia club Al-Raed FC on from loan Zamalek SC.
South Kordofan (جنوب كردفان) is one of the 18 wilayat or provinces of Sudan.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sudanese Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken throughout Sudan.
Sudanese Arabs are the majority population of Sudan.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Ta-Seti (Land of the bow, also Ta Khentit, Borderland) was the first nome (administrative division) of Upper Egypt, one of 42 nomoi in Ancient Egypt.
Taharqa, also spelled Taharka or Taharqo (Manetho's Tarakos, Strabo's Tearco), was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and qore (king) of the Kingdom of Kush.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXV, alternatively 25th Dynasty or Dynasty 25), also known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period that occurred after the Nubian invasion of Ancient Egypt.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
Wādī Ḥalfā (وادي حلفا) is a city in the Northern state of Sudan on the shores of "Lake Nubia" (the Sudanese section of Lake Nasser).
The White Flag League (also known as the White Flag Association, White Flag Society, or the White Brigade Movement) was an organized nationalist resistance movement of Sudanese military officers, formed in 1923–24, which made a substantial early attempt toward Sudanese independence.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.