330 relations: Acerinox, Acerinox accident, Acid, Acute radiation syndrome, Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, Aerial refueling, Alabama, Alaska, Albert Stevens, Almería, Anatoli Bugorski, Anti-nuclear movement, B28 nuclear bomb, B43 nuclear bomb, Banqiao Dam, Benjamin K. Sovacool, Beryllium, Białystok, Black market, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker, BOMARC Missile Accident Site, BORAX experiments, British Columbia, Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Caesium-137, California, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Cancer, Canton of Vaud, Castle Bravo, Cecil Kelley criticality accident, Central Intelligence Agency, Chapelcross nuclear power station, Charged particle beam, Charles Perrow, Chelyabinsk, Chernobyl, Chernobyl disaster, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment, Chornobyl Raion, Church Rock uranium mill spill, CIM-10 Bomarc, Civil disobedience, Civilian, Cobalt-60, Cochabamba, Cold War, ..., Colorado, Columbia River, Commission for Independent Research and Information on Radioactivity, Computer worm, Connecticut, Conservation Fallout, Containment building, Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power, Criticality accident, Crystal River 3 Nuclear Power Plant, Cuba, Cuban Missile Crisis, Cumberland, Czechoslovakia, Daigo Fukuryū Maru, Davis–Besse Nuclear Power Station, Decay heat, Demon core, Diode, Dirty bomb, Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, Downwinders, Earthquake, East Germany, Effects of the Chernobyl disaster, Ejection seat, Energy accidents, Energy Policy (journal), Enewetak Atoll, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station, Essence of Decision, European Committee on Radiation Risk, Experimental Breeder Reactor I, External beam radiotherapy, Exxon Valdez oil spill, Fallout Protection, Fallout: An American Nuclear Tragedy, Fat Man, Federation of American Scientists, Fernald Feed Materials Production Center, Fissile material, Florida, Fly ash, Forsmark, Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant, Fossil fuel power station, France, Frenchtown Charter Township, Michigan, Fuel element failure, Fukui Prefecture, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Gamma ray, Generation II reactor, Genpatsu-shinsai, Georgia (country), Gilan Province, Goiânia accident, Goldsboro, North Carolina, Greenland, Greifswald, Harry Daghlian, Harry S. Truman, Hiroshima (book), Human error, Human radiation experiments, Hydroelectricity, Ibaraki Prefecture, Idaho, Idaho Falls, Idaho, Idaho National Laboratory, In Mortal Hands, Instituto Oncológico Nacional, Interlock (engineering), International Atomic Energy Agency, International Nuclear Event Scale, Ionizing radiation, Isotopes of iridium, Israel, Ivankiv Raion, Japan, Jaslovské Bohunice, Jimmy Carter, Kate Brown (professor), Kiev Oblast, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power, Kramatorsk radiological accident, Kristen Iversen, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, KS 150, Kyshtym, Kyshtym disaster, Leeds, Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant, Leningrad Oblast, Leukemia, List of designated terrorist groups, List of military nuclear accidents, List of nuclear whistleblowers, Little Boy, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Angeles, Loss-of-coolant accident, Louis Slotin, Lucens reactor, M. V. Ramana, Making a Real Killing, Manhattan Project, Maralinga: Australia's Nuclear Waste Cover-up, Marcoule Nuclear Site, Mark 39 nuclear bomb, Mark 4 nuclear bomb, Mark Willacy, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mayak, Mayapuri, Mediterranean Sea, Melting point, Micah Zenko, Michigan, Mihama Nuclear Power Plant, Military personnel, Millstone Nuclear Power Plant, Mississippi, Mutual assured destruction, Nanda Devi, National Nuclear Security Administration, Natural environment, Neutron radiation, Neutron reflector, Nevada, Nevada Test Site, New Mexico, New York (state), Nine Mile Point Nuclear Generating Station, Nitric acid, Non-Nuclear Futures, Normal Accidents, NRX, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear meltdown, Nuclear or Not?, Nuclear Politics in America, Nuclear power, Nuclear Power and the Environment, Nuclear power debate, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reactor core, Nuclear safety and security, Nuclear submarine, Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe, Nuclear War Survival Skills, Nuclear warfare, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Nuclear weapons testing, Nuclear Weapons: The Road to Zero, Nukespeak, Oak Harbor, Ohio, Oleg Khinsagov, On Nuclear Terrorism, Ontario, Orde Kittrie, Orphan source, Pacific Ocean, Particle accelerator, Passive nuclear safety, Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station, Pearl Harbor, Pelindaba, Pennsylvania, Phishing, Phosphorus, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Pilot-operated relief valve, Pit (nuclear weapon), Plowshares movement, Plutonium, Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko, Pressurized water reactor, Prestige oil spill, Puerco River, Radiation poisoning (disambiguation), Radiation therapy, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Radiography, Radionuclide, Rössing uranium mine, RBMK, Reuters, Rocketdyne, Rocky Flats Plant, Russia, Saint-Laurent Nuclear Power Plant, Samut Prakan Province, Samut Prakan radiation accident, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Sarov, Scientific American, Scotland, Scram, Scrap, Sea ice, Sellafield, September 11 attacks, Sequoyah Fuels Corporation, Sergei Preminin, Seversk, Simi Valley, SL-1, Sodium Reactor Experiment, Software, South Korea, Soviet Navy, Soviet submarine K-11, Soviet submarine K-19, Soviet submarine K-219, Soviet submarine K-222, Soviet submarine K-27, Soviet submarine K-314, Soviet submarine K-429, Soviet submarine K-431, Soviet Union, Spain, Spent nuclear fuel, Stuxnet, Sustainability science, Sweden, Switzerland, Tōkai, Ibaraki, The Pentagon, The Washington Post, Therac-25, Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, Thermonuclear weapon, Three Mile Island accident, Three Mile Island accident health effects, Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station, THTR-300, Time (magazine), Timeline of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Tokaimura nuclear accident, Topsoil, Toxic waste, Tsunami, U-70 (synchrotron), UBS, Ukraine, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, United Kingdom, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, United States, United States Air Force, United States Department of Justice, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States military nuclear incident terminology, United States Navy, War, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Welder, West Germany, Windscale fire, Yankee-class submarine, Yukiya Amano, 1950 British Columbia B-36 crash, 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash, 1962 Mexico City radiation accident, 1965 Philippine Sea A-4 incident, 1966 Palomares B-52 crash, 1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash, 1984 Moroccan radiation accident, 1990 Clinic of Zaragoza radiotherapy accident, 1996 San Juan de Dios radiotherapy accident, 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. 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Acerinox, S.A. is a stainless steel manufacturing conglomerate group based in Spain.
The Acerinox accident was an incident of radioactive contamination in Cádiz (Spain).
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was established in 1994 to investigate questions of the record of the United States government with respect to human radiation experiments.
Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Albert Stevens (1887–1966), also known as patient CAL-1, was a victim of a human radiation experiment, and survived the highest known accumulated radiation dose in any human.
Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of the same name.
Anatoli Petrovich Bugorski (Анатолий Петрович Бугорский Anatoly Petrovich Bugorsky), (born 25 June 1942) is a Russian scientist who was struck by a particle accelerator beam in 1978.
The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement that opposes various nuclear technologies.
The B28, originally Mark 28, was a thermonuclear bomb carried by U.S. tactical fighter bombers, attack aircraft and bomber aircraft.
The B43 was a United States air-dropped variable yield nuclear weapon used by a wide variety of fighter bomber and bomber aircraft.
The Banqiao Reservoir Dam is a dam on the River Ru in Zhumadian City, Henan province, China.
Benjamin K. Sovacool is director of the Danish Center for Energy Technology at the Department of Business Technology and Development and a professor of social sciences at Aarhus University.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is a military aerial refueling aircraft.
BOMARC Site RW-01 is a fenced-off site contaminated primarily with "weapons-grade plutonium (WGP), highly-enriched and depleted uranium." On 7 June 1960 an explosion in a CIM-10 Bomarc missile fuel tank caused the accident and subsequent contamination.
The BORAX Experiments were a series of safety experiments on boiling water nuclear reactors conducted by Argonne National Laboratory in the 1950s and 1960s at the National Reactor Testing Station in eastern Idaho.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is located on the Tennessee River near Decatur and Athens, Alabama, on the north side (right bank) of Wheeler Lake.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
Caesium-137 (Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) is a nuclear power plant located on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay near Lusby, Calvert County, Maryland in the Mid-Atlantic United States.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The canton of Vaud is the third largest of the Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size.
Castle Bravo was the first in a series of high-yield thermonuclear weapon design tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, as part of Operation Castle.
A criticality accident occurred on December 30, 1958, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, in the United States.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chapelcross was a Magnox nuclear power plant located near Annan in Dumfries and Galloway in south west Scotland.
A charged particle beam is a spatially localized group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same position, kinetic energy (resulting in the same velocity), and direction.
Charles B. Perrow (born February 9, 1925) is an emeritus professor of sociology at Yale University and visiting professor at Stanford University.
Chelyabinsk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (Chornobyl′,;; Charnobyl′) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, near Ukraine's border with Belarus.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant or Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (Чорнобильська атомна електростанція, Чернобыльская АЭС) is a decommissioned nuclear power station near the city of Pripyat, Ukraine, northwest of the city of Chernobyl, from the Belarus–Ukraine border, and about north of Kiev.
Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment is a translation of a 2007 Russian publication by Alexey V. Yablokov, Vassily B. Nesterenko, and Alexey V. Nesterenko, edited by Janette D. Sherman-Nevinger, and originally published by the New York Academy of Sciences in 2009 in their Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences series.
The Chornobyl Raion or Chernobyl Raion (Чорнобильський район, Chornobyl’s’kyi raion) was one of 26 administrative raions (districts) of Kiev Oblast in northern Ukraine.
The Church Rock uranium mill spill occurred in the US state of New Mexico on July 16, 1979, when United Nuclear Corporation's Church Rock uranium mill tailings disposal pond breached its dam.
The Boeing CIM-10 Bomarc (IM-99 Weapon System prior to September 1962) was a supersonic long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) used during the Cold War for the air defense of North America.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.
Cochabamba (Quchapampa, Quchapanpa) is a city & municipality in central Bolivia, in a valley in the Andes mountain range.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
The Commission for Independent Research and Information on Radioactivity (actual name, Commission de Recherche et d'Information Indépendantes sur la Radioactivité, or CRIIRAD) is a French NGO which specializes in the analysis of radioactivity in the environment.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Conservation Fallout: Nuclear Protest at Diablo Canyon is a 2006 book by John Wills.
A containment building, in its most common usage, is a reinforced steel or lead structure enclosing a nuclear reactor.
Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power: A Critical Global Assessment of Atomic Energy is a 2011 book by Benjamin K. Sovacool, published by World Scientific.
A criticality accident is an uncontrolled nuclear fission chain reaction.
The Crystal River 3 Nuclear Power Plant, also called the Crystal River Nuclear Plant, or simply CR-3, is a closed nuclear power plant located in Crystal River, Florida.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
was a Japanese tuna fishing boat with a crew of 23 men which was contaminated by nuclear fallout from the United States Castle Bravo thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954.
Davis–Besse Nuclear Power Station is a nuclear power plant northeast of Oak Harbor in Ottawa County, Ohio, United States, approximately 25 miles east of the city of Toledo.
Decay heat is the heat released as a result of radioactive decay.
The demon core was a subcritical mass of plutonium measuring in diameter, which was involved in two criticality accidents.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
A dirty bomb or radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a speculative radiological weapon that combines radioactive material with conventional explosives.
The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk is a single seat subsonic carrier-capable attack aircraft developed for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps in the early 1950s.
Downwinders refers to the individuals and communities in the intermountain area between the Cascade and Rocky Mountain ranges primarily in Arizona, Nevada and Utah but also in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho who were exposed to radioactive contamination or nuclear fallout from atmospheric or underground nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear accidents.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The 1986 Chernobyl disaster triggered the release of substantial amounts of radioactivity into the atmosphere in the form of both particulate and gaseous radioisotopes.
In aircraft, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft (usually military) in an emergency.
Energy resources bring with them great social and economic promise, providing financial growth for communities and energy services for local economies.
Energy Policy is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on energy policy and energy supply.
Enewetak Atoll (also spelled Eniwetok Atoll or sometimes Eniewetok; Ānewetak,, or Āne-wātak) is a large coral atoll of 40 islands in the Pacific Ocean and with its 850 people forms a legislative district of the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
The Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power plant on the shore of Lake Erie near Monroe, in Frenchtown Charter Township, Michigan on approximately 1,000 acres.
Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis is an analysis by political scientist Graham T. Allison, of the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.
The European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR) is an informal committee formed in 1997 following a meeting by the European Green Party at the European Parliament to review the Council of Europe's directive 96/29Euratom, issued in May of the previous year.
Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) is a decommissioned research reactor and U.S. National Historic Landmark located in the desert about southeast of Arco, Idaho.
External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy).
The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef at 12:04 am local time and spilled of crude oil over the next few days.
Fallout Protection: What To Know And Do About Nuclear Attack was an official United States federal government booklet released in December 1961 by the United States Department of Defense and the Office of Civil Defense.
Fallout: An American Nuclear Tragedy is a 1989 book by Philip L. Fradkin which was republished in a second edition in 2004.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center (commonly referred to simply as Fernald or later NLO) is a Superfund site located within Crosby Township in Hamilton County, Ohio, as well as Ross Township in Butler County, Ohio.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product that is composed of the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases.
Forsmark is a village with 59 inhabitants on the east coast of Uppland, Sweden.
Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in Forsmark, Sweden, and also the site of the Swedish Final repository for radioactive operational waste.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frenchtown Charter Township is a charter township of Monroe County in the southeastern corner of the U.S. state of Michigan.
A fuel element failure is a rupture in a nuclear reactor's fuel cladding that allows the nuclear fuel or fission products, either in the form of dissolved radioisotopes or hot particles, to enter the reactor coolant or storage water.
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region on Honshū island.
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A generation II reactor is a design classification for a nuclear reactor, and refers to the class of commercial reactors built up to the end of the 1990s.
, meaning nuclear power plant earthquake disaster (from the two words Genpatsu – nuclear power plant – and Shinsai – earthquake disaster) is a term which was coined by Japanese seismologist Professor Katsuhiko Ishibashi in 1997.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Goiânia accident was a radioactive contamination accident that occurred on September 13, 1987, at Goiânia, in the Brazilian state of Goiás, after a forgotten radiotherapy source was taken from an abandoned hospital site in the city.
Goldsboro is a city in Wayne County, North Carolina, United States.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Greifswald, officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (German: Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald), is a city in northeastern Germany.
Haroutune Krikor "Harry" Daghlian Jr. (May 4, 1921 – September 15, 1945) was a physicist with the Manhattan Project which designed and produced the atomic bombs that were used in World War II.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Hiroshima is a book by Pulitzer Prize-winning author John Hersey.
Human error has been cited as a primary cause contributing factor in disasters and accidents in industries as diverse as nuclear power (e.g., the Three Mile Island accident), aviation (see pilot error), space exploration (e.g., the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster and Space Shuttle Columbia disaster), and medicine (see medical error).
Since the discovery of ionizing radiation, a number of human radiation experiments have been performed to understand the effects of ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination on the human body, specifically with the element plutonium.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
is a prefecture of Japan, located in the Kantō region.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
Idaho Falls (often abbreviated as IF) is a city in and the county seat of Bonneville County, Idaho, United States, and is the largest city in Eastern Idaho.
Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is one of the national laboratories of the United States Department of Energy and is managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance.
In Mortal Hands: A Cautionary History of the Nuclear Age is a 2009 book by Stephanie Cooke.
The National Oncologic Institute or ION (Instituto Oncológico Nacional) is a specialized hospital for cancer treatment, located in Panama City, Panama.
An interlock is a feature that makes the state of two mechanisms or functions mutually dependent.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) was introduced in 1990 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to enable prompt communication of safety-significant information in case of nuclear accidents.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
There are two natural isotopes of iridium (77Ir), and 34 radioisotopes, the most stable radioisotope being 192Ir with a half-life of 73.83 days, and many nuclear isomers, the most stable of which is 192m2Ir with a half-life of 241 years.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Ivankiv Raion is a raion (district) in Kiev Oblast of Ukraine.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jaslovské Bohunice is a small village in Slovakia in the Trnava District.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
Kate Brown is a Professor of History at University of Maryland, Baltimore County.
Kiev Oblast or Kyiv Oblast (Київська область, translit. Kyivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Kyivshchyna – Київщина) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine.
Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power (KHNP) is a subsidiary of the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO).
The Kramatorsk radiological accident was a radiation accident that happened in Kramatorsk, Ukrainian SSR from 1980 to 1989.
Kristen Iversen is an American writer of nonfiction and fiction, and the author of Full Body Burden: Growing Up in the Nuclear Shadow of Rocky Flats (2012), and Shadow Boxing: Art and Craft in Creative Nonfiction.
Kristin Shrader-Frechette (born 1944) is O'Neill Family Professor, Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Philosophy, at the University of Notre Dame.
KS 150 is a Gas Cooled Reactor using Heavy Water as a moderator (GCHWR) nuclear reactor design.
Kyshtym (Кышты́м) is a town in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern slopes of the Southern Ural Mountains northwest of Chelyabinsk, near the town of Ozyorsk.
The Kyshtym disaster was a radioactive contamination accident that occurred on 29 September 1957 at Mayak, a plutonium production site in Russia for nuclear weapons and nuclear fuel reprocessing plant of the Soviet Union.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (Ленинградская атомная электростанция; Ленинградская АЭС) is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Sosnovy Bor in Russia's Leningrad Oblast, on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, some to the west of the city centre of Saint Petersburg.
Leningrad Oblast (lʲɪnʲɪnˈgratskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
This article lists notable military accidents involving nuclear material.
There have been a number of nuclear whistleblowers, often nuclear engineers, who have identified safety concerns about nuclear power and nuclear weapons production.
"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is a mode of failure for a nuclear reactor; if not managed effectively, the results of a LOCA could result in reactor core damage.
Louis Alexander Slotin (1 December 1910 – 30 May 1946) was a Canadian physicist and chemist who worked on the Manhattan Project.
The Lucens reactor was a 6 MW experimental nuclear power reactor built next to Lucens, Vaud, Switzerland.
Making a Real Killing: Rocky Flats and the Nuclear West is a 1999 book by Len Ackland.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Maralinga: Australia’s Nuclear Waste Cover-up is a book by Alan Parkinson about the clean-up of the British atomic bomb test site at Maralinga in South Australia, published in 2007.
Marcoule Nuclear Site (Site nucléaire de Marcoule) is a nuclear facility in the Chusclan and Codolet communes, near Bagnols-sur-Cèze in the Gard department of France, which is in the tourist, wine and agricultural Côtes-du-Rhône region.
The Mark 39 nuclear bomb and W39 nuclear warhead were versions of an American thermonuclear weapon, which were in service from 1957 to 1966.
The Mark 4 nuclear bomb was an American nuclear bomb design produced starting in 1949 and in use until 1953.
Mark Willacy is an Australian investigative journalist for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Mayak Production Association (Производственное объединение «Маяк», from Маяк 'lighthouse') is one of the biggest nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation, housing a reprocessing plant.
Mayapuri is a locality in West Delhi.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Micah Zenko is an American political scientist.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
The is operated by The Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc. and is in the town of Mihama, Fukui Prefecture, about 320 km west of Tokyo.
Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces.
The Millstone Nuclear Power Station is the only nuclear power generation site in Connecticut and the only multi unit nuclear plant in New England.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see pre-emptive nuclear strike and second strike).
Nanda Devi is the second highest mountain in India, and the highest located entirely within the country.
The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is a United States federal government agency responsible for enhancing national security through the military application of nuclear science.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Neutron radiation is a form of ionizing radiation that presents as free neutrons.
A neutron reflector is any material that reflects neutrons.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
The Nevada National Security Site (N2S2 or NNSS), previously the Nevada Test Site (NTS), is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in southeastern Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the city of Las Vegas.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station is a nuclear power plant with two nuclear reactors located in the town of Scriba, approximately five miles northeast of Oswego, New York, on the shore of Lake Ontario.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Non-Nuclear Futures: The Case for an Ethical Energy Strategy is a 1975 book by Amory B. Lovins and John H. Price.
Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies is a 1984 book by Yale sociologist Charles Perrow, which provides a detailed analysis of complex systems conducted from a social sciences perspective.
NRX (National Research Experimental) was a heavy water moderated, light water cooled, nuclear research reactor at the Canadian Chalk River Laboratories, which came into operation in 1947 at a design power rating of 10 MW (thermal), increasing to 42 MW by 1954.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
A nuclear meltdown (core melt accident or partial core melt) is a severe nuclear reactor accident that results in core damage from overheating.
Nuclear or Not? Does Nuclear Power Have a Place in a Sustainable Energy Future? is a 2007 book edited by Professor David Elliott.
Nuclear Politics in America is a 1997 book by Robert J. Duffy.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Nuclear Power and the Environment, sometimes simply called the Flowers Report, was released in September 1976 and is the sixth report of the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, chaired by Sir Brian Flowers.
The nuclear power debate is a long-running controversy about the risks and benefits of using nuclear reactors to generate electricity for civilian purposes.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
A nuclear reactor core is the portion of a nuclear reactor containing the nuclear fuel components where the nuclear reactions take place and the heat is generated.
Nuclear safety is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards".
A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe is a 2004 book by Harvard scholar Graham Allison.
Nuclear War Survival Skills or NWSS, by Cresson Kearny, is a civil defense manual.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Nuclear Weapons: The Road to Zero is a 1998 book edited by Joseph Rotblat.
Nukespeak: Nuclear Language, Visions and Mindset is a 1982 book by Stephen Hilgartner, Richard C. Bell and Rory O'Connor.
Oak Harbor is a village in Ottawa County, Ohio, United States.
Oleg Khinsagov (Олег Хинсагов) is a Russian citizen from Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia–Alania.
In his 2007 book On Nuclear Terrorism, author Michael A. Levi surveys the issue of nuclear terrorism and explores the decisions a terrorist leader might take in pursuing a nuclear plot.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Orde Félix Kittrie is a tenured professor of law at Arizona State University, where his teaching and research focus on international law (especially nonproliferation and sanctions) and criminal law.
An orphan source is a self-contained radioactive source that is no longer under proper regulatory control.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Passive nuclear safety is a safety feature of a nuclear reactor that does not require operator actions or electronic feedback in order to shut down safely in the event of a particular type of emergency (usually overheating resulting from a loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow).
Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, a nuclear power plant, is located southeast of Harrisburg in Peach Bottom Township, York County, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River three miles north of the Maryland border.
Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu.
Pelindaba (Zulu for "end of story" or "the conclusion") is South Africa's main nuclear research center, run by the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS) is the only nuclear power plant operating in Massachusetts.
070111 hydraulicspneumatics.com no opening until 90% of full pressure --> Like other pressure relief valves (PRV), pilot operated relief valves (PORV) are used for emergency relief during overpressure events (e.g., a tank gets too hot and the expanding fluid increases the pressure to dangerous levels).
The pit, named after the hard core found in fruits such as peaches and apricots, is the core of an implosion nuclear weapon – the fissile material and any neutron reflector or tamper bonded to it.
The Plowshares movement is an anti-nuclear weapons and Christian pacifist movement that advocates active resistance to war.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Alexander Litvinenko was a former officer of the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) and KGB, who fled from court prosecution in Russia and received political asylum in the United Kingdom.
Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants (notable exceptions being the United Kingdom, Japan, and Canada) and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).
The Prestige oil spill was an oil spill in Galicia, Spain, caused by the sinking of the 26 year old structurally deficient oil tanker MV Prestige in November 2002, carrying 77,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil.
The Puerco River: Rio Puerco) flows in northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona, through arid terrain, including the Painted Desert.
Radiation poisoning may refer to.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
The Rössing Uranium Mine in Namibia is the longest-running and one of the largest open pit uranium mines in the world and is located in the Namib Desert near the town of Arandis, which is 70 kilometres from the coastal town of Swakopmund.
The RBMK (Реактор Большой Мощности Канальный Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy, “High Power Channel-type Reactor”) is a class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactor designed and built by the Soviet Union.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rocketdyne was an American rocket engine design and production company headquartered in Canoga Park, in the western San Fernando Valley of suburban Los Angeles, in southern California.
The Rocky Flats Plant was a former nuclear weapons production facility in the western United States, near Denver, Colorado.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Saint-Laurent Nuclear Power Station is located in the commune of Saint-Laurent-Nouan in Loir-et-Cher on the Loire – 28 km upstream from Blois and 30 km downstream from Orléans.
Samut Prakan (สมุทรปราการ) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force 9 March 1946.
A radiation accident occurred in Samut Prakan Province, Thailand in January–February 2000.
The Santa Susana Field Laboratory is a complex of industrial research and development facilities located on a portion of the Southern California Simi Hills in Simi Valley, California.
Sarov (Саро́в) is a closed town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
A scram or SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor.
Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sequoyah Fuels Corporation owned and operated a uranium processing plant near Gore, Oklahoma.
Sergei Anatolievich Preminin (Russian: Сергей Анатольевич Преминин, 18 October 1965 – 3 October 1986) was a Soviet Russian sailor who, after an explosion aboard nuclear submarine K-219, prevented an impending nuclear meltdown by manually forcing damaged control rods into place.
Seversk (Се́верск) is a closed city in Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located northwest of Tomsk on the right bank of the Tom River.
Simi Valley is a synclinal valley in Southern California in the United States.
The SL-1, or Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One, was a United States Army experimental nuclear power reactor in the United States which underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators.
The Sodium Reactor Experiment was a pioneering nuclear power plant built by Atomics International at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory near Simi Valley, California.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Soviet Navy (Military Maritime Fleet of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces.
K-11 was a Soviet November-class (Project 627A) nuclear-powered attack submarine that had two reactor accidents during loading of the nuclear reactor core in Severodvinsk on 7 and 12 February 1965.
K-19 was one of the first two Soviet submarines of the Project 658 class (NATO reporting name), the first generation nuclear submarine equipped with nuclear ballistic missiles, specifically the R-13 SLBM.
K-219 was a Project 667A ''Navaga''-class ballistic missile submarine (NATO reporting name Yankee I) of the Soviet Navy.
Soviet submarine K-162 was the world's fastest submarine.
K-27 was the only submarine of Project 645 in the Soviet Navy.
K-314 was a nuclear submarine of the Soviet Navy, of the type Project 671 Ерш (Yersh, meaning scorpionfish; also known by its NATO reporting name of Victor I class).
K-429 (often incorrectly referred to as K-329) was a Project 670-A Скат (Skat, meaning "ray"; also known by its NATO reporting name of Charlie I-class) nuclear submarine of the Soviet Navy.
Soviet submarine K-431 (originally the Soviet submarine K-31) was a Soviet nuclear-powered submarine that had a reactor accident on 10 August 1985.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm, first uncovered in 2010.
Sustainability science emerged in the 21st century as a new academic discipline.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
is a village located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Therac-25 was a radiation therapy machine produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in 1982 after the Therac-6 and Therac-20 units (the earlier units had been produced in partnership with CGR of France).
The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, or THORP, is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria, England.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The Three Mile Island accident occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg.
The health effects of the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear accident are widely, but not universally, agreed to be very low.
Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI) is a nuclear power plant located on Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River just south of Harrisburg.
The THTR-300 was a thorium high-temperature nuclear reactor rated at 300 MW electric (THTR-300) in Hamm-Uentrop, Germany.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Fukushima Dai-ichi (dai-ichi means "#1"), is a multi-reactor nuclear power site in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan.
There have been two Tokaimura nuclear accidents at the nuclear facility at Tōkai, Ibaraki.
Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top to.
Toxic waste is any unwanted material in all forms that can cause harm (e.g. by being inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin).
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
U-70 (У-70) is a proton synchrotron with a final energy of 70 GeV, built in 1967 at the Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino (near Serpukhov, Russia).
UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was set up by resolution of the United Nations General Assembly in 1955.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Armed Forces uses a number of terms to define the magnitude and extent of nuclear incidents.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, or WIPP, is the world's third deep geological repository (after closure of Germany's Repository for radioactive waste Morsleben and the Schacht Asse II Salt Mine) licensed to permanently dispose of transuranic radioactive waste for 10,000 years that is left from the research and production of nuclear weapons.
A welder or lit operator is a tradesperson who specializes in fusing materials together.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Windscale fire of 10 October 1957 was the worst nuclear accident in Great Britain's history, ranked in severity at level 5 out of a possible 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
The Yankee class was a class of Soviet nuclear ballistic missile submarines that was constructed from 1967 onward.
is a Japanese diplomat and the current Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), having been elected to the position in July 2009.
On 14 February 1950, a Convair B-36B, Air Force Serial Number 44-92075 assigned to the 7th Bomb Wing at Carswell Air Force Base, crashed in northern British Columbia after jettisoning a Mark 4 nuclear bomb.
The 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash was an accident that occurred near Goldsboro, North Carolina, on January 24, 1961.
In March–August 1962, a radiation incident in Mexico City occurred when a ten-year-old boy took home an unprotected industrial radiography source.
The 1965 Philippine Sea A-4 crash was a Broken Arrow incident in which a United States Navy Douglas A-4E Skyhawk attack aircraft of Attack Squadron 56 (VA-56) carrying a nuclear weapon fell into the sea off Japan from the aircraft carrier.
The 1966 Palomares B-52 crash, or the Palomares incident, occurred on 17 January 1966, when a B-52G bomber of the United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command collided with a KC-135 tanker during mid-air refueling at over the Mediterranean Sea, off the coast of Spain.
On 21 January 1968, an aircraft accident (sometimes known as the Thule affair or Thule accident; Thuleulykken) involving a United States Air Force (USAF) B-52 bomber occurred near Thule Air Base in the Danish territory of Greenland.
In March 1984, a serious radiation accident occurred in Morocco, where eight people died from pulmonary hemorrhaging caused by overexposure to radiation from a lost iridium-192 source.
The 1990 Clinic of Zaragoza radiotherapy accident was a radiological accident that occurred from December 10–20, 1990, at the Clinic of Zaragoza, in Spain.
The radiotherapy accident in Costa Rica occurred with the Alcyon II radiotherapy unit at San Juan de Dios Hospital in San José, Costa Rica.
The was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately.
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