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Nuclear chain reaction

Index Nuclear chain reaction

A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions. [1]

72 relations: Albert Einstein, Argonne National Laboratory, Arthur Compton, Beryllium, Beta decay, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Chain reaction, Chemical reaction, Chernobyl disaster, Chicago Pile-1, Conservation of mass, Critical mass, Criticality accident, Decay heat, Delayed neutron, Einstein–Szilárd letter, Electronvolt, Enrico Fermi, Exponential growth, Fast-neutron reactor, Fissile material, Four factor formula, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Fritz Strassmann, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Gamma ray, Gun-type fission weapon, Hans von Halban, Herbert L. Anderson, Hungary, Indium, InHour, Leo Szilard, Lew Kowarski, Manhattan Project, Mass–energy equivalence, Max Bodenstein, Metallurgical Laboratory, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Nazi Germany, Neutrino, Neutron, Neutron reflector, Nuclear criticality safety, Nuclear fission, Nuclear physics, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, ..., Nuclear reactor physics, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Oklo, Otto Hahn, Paul Kuroda, Prompt criticality, Prompt neutron, Proton–proton chain reaction, Rackets (sport), Radioactive decay, Scram, Six factor formula, Speed of light, Spontaneous fission, Stagg Field, University of Arkansas, University of Chicago, University of Illinois Press, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Void coefficient. Expand index (22 more) »

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Argonne National Laboratory

Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.

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Arthur Compton

Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.

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Beryllium

Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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Centre national de la recherche scientifique

The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.

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Chain reaction

A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chernobyl disaster

The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.

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Chicago Pile-1

Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.

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Conservation of mass

The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system's mass cannot change, so quantity cannot be added nor removed.

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Critical mass

A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Criticality accident

A criticality accident is an uncontrolled nuclear fission chain reaction.

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Decay heat

Decay heat is the heat released as a result of radioactive decay.

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Delayed neutron

In nuclear engineering, a delayed neutron is a neutron emitted after a nuclear fission event, by one of the fission products (or actually, a fission product daughter after beta decay), any time from a few milliseconds to a few minutes after the fission event.

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Einstein–Szilárd letter

The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.

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Electronvolt

In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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Exponential growth

Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.

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Fast-neutron reactor

A fast-neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons, as opposed to thermal neutrons used in thermal-neutron reactors.

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Fissile material

In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.

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Four factor formula

The four-factor formula, also known as Fermi's four factor formula is used in nuclear engineering to determine the multiplication of a nuclear chain reaction in an infinite medium.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Frédéric Joliot-Curie

Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie (19 March 1900 – 14 August 1958), born Jean Frédéric Joliot, was a French physicist, husband of Irène Joliot-Curie with whom he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Fritz Strassmann

Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.

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Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gun-type fission weapon

Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the "gun" method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another.

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Hans von Halban

Hans Heinrich von Halban (24 January 1908 – 28 November 1964) was a French physicist, of Austrian-Jewish descent.

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Herbert L. Anderson

Herbert Lawrence Anderson (May 24, 1914 – July 16, 1988) was a Jewish American nuclear physicist who contributed to the Manhattan Project.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Indium

Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.

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InHour

InHour is a unit of reactivity of a nuclear reactor.

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Leo Szilard

Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.

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Lew Kowarski

Lew Kowarski (10 February 1907, Saint Petersburg – 30 July 1979, Geneva) was a naturalized French physicist.

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

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Mass–energy equivalence

In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.

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Max Bodenstein

Max Ernst August Bodenstein (July 15, 1871 – September 3, 1942) was a German physical chemist known for his work in chemical kinetics.

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Metallurgical Laboratory

The Metallurgical Laboratory (or Met Lab) was a scientific laboratory at the University of Chicago that was established in February 1942 to study and use the newly discovered chemical element plutonium.

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Natural nuclear fission reactor

A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neutrino

A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

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Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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Neutron reflector

A neutron reflector is any material that reflects neutrons.

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Nuclear criticality safety

Nuclear criticality safety is a field of nuclear engineering dedicated to the prevention of nuclear and radiation accidents resulting from an inadvertent, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

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Nuclear power plant

A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.

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Nuclear reaction

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear reactor physics

Nuclear reactor physics is the branch of science that deals with the study and application of chain reaction to induce a controlled rate of fission in a nuclear reactor for the production of energy.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Nuclear weapon design

Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.

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Oklo

Oklo is a region near the town of Franceville, in the Haut-Ogooué province of the Central African state of Gabon.

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Otto Hahn

Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.

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Paul Kuroda

Paul Kazuo Kuroda (1 April 1917 – 16 April 2001), was a Japanese-American chemist and nuclear scientist.

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Prompt criticality

In nuclear engineering, prompt criticality is said to be reached during a nuclear fission event if one or more of the immediate or prompt neutrons released by an atom in the event causes an additional fission event resulting in a rapid, exponential increase in the number of fission events.

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Prompt neutron

In nuclear engineering, a prompt neutron is a neutron immediately emitted by a nuclear fission event, as opposed to a delayed neutron decay which can occur within the same context, emitted after beta decay of one of the fission products anytime from a few milliseconds to a few minutes later.

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Proton–proton chain reaction

The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium.

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Rackets (sport)

Rackets or racquets is an indoor racket sport played in the United Kingdom, Ireland, United States, and Canada.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Scram

A scram or SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor.

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Six factor formula

The six-factor formula is used in nuclear engineering to determine the multiplication of a nuclear chain reaction in a non-infinite medium.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Spontaneous fission

Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.

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Stagg Field

Amos Alonzo Stagg Field is the name of two different football fields for the University of Chicago.

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University of Arkansas

The University of Arkansas (U of A, UARK, or UA) is a public land-grant, doctoral research university located in Fayetteville, Arkansas.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Illinois Press

The University of Illinois Press (UIP) is a major American university press and is part of the University of Illinois system.

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Uranium-235

Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.

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Uranium-238

Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.

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Void coefficient

In nuclear engineering, the void coefficient (more properly called “void coefficient of reactivity”) is a number that can be used to estimate how much the reactivity of a nuclear reactor changes as voids (typically steam bubbles) form in the reactor moderator or coolant.

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Redirects here:

Effective multiplication factor, Effective neutron multiplication factor, Multiplication constant, Neutron chain reaction, Neutron multiplication factor, Nuclear Chain Reaction, Nuclear chain reactions, Nuclear chainreaction, Predetonation, Reactivity (nuclear), Reproduction factor, Self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, Sustained nuclear chain reaction.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_chain_reaction

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