239 relations: Actinide, Albert Einstein, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Ames Laboratory, Ames process, Anschluss, Argon, Arthur Wahl, Atom, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Ausonium, Barium, Berlin, Beryllium, Beta decay, Beta particle, Binding energy, Bohr model, Boron, Breeder reactor, Carnegie Institution for Science, Chain reaction, Chemical element, Chemical explosive, Chemical reaction, Chicago Pile-1, Cluster decay, Coal, Cold fission, Columbia University, Combat, Coulomb's law, Critical mass, Cusp (singularity), Decay chain, Decay heat, Delayed neutron, Deuterium, Differential equation, Edward Teller, Einstein–Szilárd letter, Electric charge, Electricity generation, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Electron, ..., Electronvolt, Electrostatics, Emilio Segrè, Energy, Energy density, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Ernest Rutherford, Ernest Walton, Eugene T. Booth, Eugene Wigner, Exothermic reaction, Explosive material, Exponential decay, Fast-neutron reactor, Fat Man, Fissile material, Fission (biology), Fission products (by element), Force, Francis G. Slack, Francis Perrin, Frank Spedding, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Free University of Berlin, Frisch–Peierls memorandum, Fritz Strassmann, G. N. Glasoe, Gabon, Gamma ray, Gasoline, Geologic time scale, George Gamow, George Washington University, Georgy Flyorov, German nuclear weapon project, Glenn T. Seaborg, Graphite, Half-life, Hanford Site, Hans von Halban, Heat, Heat engine, Heavy water, Helium, Helium-3, Henri Becquerel, Herbert L. Anderson, Hesperium, High-level waste, Hiroshima, Ida Noddack, Igor Kurchatov, Invariant mass, Ionization chamber, Isidor Isaac Rabi, Isotope, J. Robert Oppenheimer, James Chadwick, Japan, John Cockcroft, John R. Dunning, Joseph W. Kennedy, Kaiser Wilhelm Society, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Konstantin Petrzhak, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leo Szilard, Leslie Groves, Lew Kowarski, Lise Meitner, Little Boy, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Manhattan Project, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Marie Curie, Mark Oliphant, Mass, Mass–energy equivalence, Mean, Median, Metallurgical Laboratory, Military strategy, Millennium, Mode (statistics), Molten salt, N-Reactor, Nagasaki, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Nazi Germany, Neutrino, Neutron, Neutron bomb, Neutron moderator, Neutron poison, Neutron temperature, New Mexico, Niels Bohr, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear chemistry, Nuclear cross section, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear force, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear fusion–fission hybrid, Nuclear meltdown, Nuclear physics, Nuclear power, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear propulsion, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reactor physics, Nuclear shell model, Nuclear submarine, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon yield, Nuclear winter, Nucleon, Nucleon pair breaking in fission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Oklo, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Particle accelerator, Paul Kuroda, Pauli exclusion principle, Photofission, Photon, Pierre Curie, Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Princeton University, Project Orion (nuclear propulsion), Prompt criticality, Proton, Proton emission, Pupin Hall, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Redox, Research reactor, Richard Rhodes, Rocket, Rome, Rudolf Peierls, Rutherford model, Scram, Semi-empirical mass formula, Spontaneous fission, Star, Steam explosion, Strong interaction, Subcritical reactor, Technology, Ternary fission, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, The Science of Nature, Thermite, Thermodynamic free energy, Thermonuclear weapon, Thorium, Thorium fuel cycle, TNT, Trinity (nuclear test), Tritium, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Department of Energy, University of Adelaide, Uranium, Uranium-235, W88, Walter Zinn, Washington, D.C., Water, Werner Heisenberg, Willis Lamb, Working fluid, World War II, Yukawa potential. Expand index (189 more) » « Shrink index
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Ames Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Ames, Iowa and affiliated with Iowa State University.
The Ames process is a process by which pure uranium metal is obtained.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Arthur Charles Wahl (September 8, 1917 – March 6, 2006) was an American chemist who, as a doctoral student of Glenn T. Seaborg at the University of California, Berkeley, first isolated plutonium in February 1941.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Ausonium (atomic symbol Ao) was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 93, now known as neptunium.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington (the organization's legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The vast majority of explosives are chemical explosives.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.
Cluster decay, also named heavy particle radioactivity or heavy ion radioactivity, is a type of nuclear decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a small "cluster" of neutrons and protons, more than in an alpha particle, but less than a typical binary fission fragment.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Cold fission or cold nuclear fission is defined as involving fission events for which fission fragments have such low excitation energy that no neutrons or gammas are emitted.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Combat (French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
In mathematics a cusp, sometimes called spinode in old texts, is a point on a curve where a moving point on the curve must start to move backward.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
Decay heat is the heat released as a result of radioactive decay.
In nuclear engineering, a delayed neutron is a neutron emitted after a nuclear fission event, by one of the fission products (or actually, a fission product daughter after beta decay), any time from a few milliseconds to a few minutes after the fission event.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.
The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (6 October 1903 – 25 June 1995) was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with "atom-smashing" experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s, and so became the first person in history to artificially split the atom.
Eugene Theodore Booth, Jr. (28 September 1912 – 6 March 2004) was an American nuclear physicist.
Eugene Paul "E.
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
A fast-neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons, as opposed to thermal neutrons used in thermal-neutron reactors.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
On this page, a discussion of each of the main elements in the fission product mixture from the nuclear fission of an actinide such as uranium or plutonium is set out by element.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
Francis Goddard Slack (November 1, 1897 in – February 2, 1985) was an American physicist.
Francis Perrin (17 August 1901 – 4 July 1992) was a French physicist, the son of Nobel prize-winning physicist Jean Perrin.
Frank Harold Spedding (22 October 1902 – 15 December 1984) was a Canadian American chemist.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie (19 March 1900 – 14 August 1958), born Jean Frédéric Joliot, was a French physicist, husband of Irène Joliot-Curie with whom he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
The Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin, often abbreviated as FU Berlin or simply FU) is a research university located in Berlin, Germany.
The Frisch–Peierls memorandum was the first technical exposition of a practical nuclear weapon.
Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
George Gamow (March 4, 1904- August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a Russian-American theoretical physicist and cosmologist.
Georgy Nikolayevich Flyorov (p; 2 March 1913 – 19 November 1990) was a Russian physicist who is known for his discovery of spontaneous fission and his contribution towards the physics of thermal reactions.
The German nuclear weapon project (Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
Hans Heinrich von Halban (24 January 1908 – 28 November 1964) was a French physicist, of Austrian-Jewish descent.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).
Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.
Herbert Lawrence Anderson (May 24, 1914 – July 16, 1988) was a Jewish American nuclear physicist who contributed to the Manhattan Project.
Hesperium (also known as esperium; atomic symbol Es) was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 94, now known as plutonium.
High-level waste (HLW) is a type of nuclear waste created by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
Ida Noddack (25 February 1896 – 24 September 1978), née Ida Tacke, was a German chemist and physicist.
Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov (И́горь Васи́льевич Курча́тов; 8(21) January 1903 – 7 February 1960), was a Soviet nuclear physicist who is widely known as the director of the Soviet atomic bomb project.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
Isidor Isaac Rabi (born Israel Isaac Rabi, 29 July 1898 – 11 January 1988) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1944 for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance, which is used in magnetic resonance imaging.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft, (27 May 1897 – 18 September 1967) was a British physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951 for splitting the atomic nucleus with Ernest Walton, and was instrumental in the development of nuclear power.
John Ray Dunning (September 24, 1907 – August 25, 1975) was an American physicist who played key roles in the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bombs.
Joseph William Kennedy (May 30, 1916 – May 5, 1957) was an American chemist who was a co-discoverer of plutonium, along with Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin McMillan and Arthur Wahl.
The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Konstantin Petrzhak (alternatively Pietrzak; p; 1907–1998) was a Soviet–Russian nuclear physicist and university professor of Polish origin.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II.
Lew Kowarski (10 February 1907, Saint Petersburg – 30 July 1979, Geneva) was a naturalized French physicist.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Maria Goeppert Mayer (June 28, 1906 – February 20, 1972) was a German-born American theoretical physicist, and Nobel laureate in Physics for proposing the nuclear shell model of the atomic nucleus.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin "Mark" Oliphant (8 October 1901 – 14 July 2000) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian who played an important role in the first experimental demonstration of nuclear fusion and also the development of nuclear weapons.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
The Metallurgical Laboratory (or Met Lab) was a scientific laboratory at the University of Chicago that was established in February 1942 to study and use the newly discovered chemical element plutonium.
Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
The mode of a set of data values is the value that appears most often.
Molten salt is salt which is solid at standard temperature and pressure (STP) but enters the liquid phase due to elevated temperature.
The N-Reactor was a water/graphite-moderated nuclear reactor constructed during the Cold War and operated by the U.S. government at the Hanford Site in Washington; it began production in 1963.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
A neutron bomb, officially defined as a type of enhanced radiation weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon designed to maximize lethal neutron radiation in the immediate vicinity of the blast while minimizing the physical power of the blast itself.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
In applications such as nuclear reactors, a neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.
The nuclear cross section of a nucleus is used to characterize the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur.
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Hybrid nuclear fusion–fission (hybrid nuclear power) is a proposed means of generating power by use of a combination of nuclear fusion and fission processes.
A nuclear meltdown (core melt accident or partial core melt) is a severe nuclear reactor accident that results in core damage from overheating.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear propulsion includes a wide variety of propulsion methods that fulfill the promise of the Atomic Age by using some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear reactor physics is the branch of science that deals with the study and application of chain reaction to induce a controlled rate of fission in a nuclear reactor for the production of energy.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels.
A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy released when that particular nuclear weapon is detonated, usually expressed as a TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT), in megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), or sometimes in terajoules (TJ).
Nuclear winter is the severe and prolonged global climatic cooling effect hypothesized to occur after widespread firestorms following a nuclear war.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Nucleon pair breaking in fission has been an important topic in nuclear physics for decades.
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II.
Oklo is a region near the town of Franceville, in the Haut-Ogooué province of the Central African state of Gabon.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Paul Kazuo Kuroda (1 April 1917 – 16 April 2001), was a Japanese-American chemist and nuclear scientist.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
Photofission is a process in which a nucleus, after absorbing a gamma ray, undergoes nuclear fission (splits into two or more fragments).
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Project Orion was a study of a spacecraft intended to be directly propelled by a series of explosions of atomic bombs behind the craft (nuclear pulse propulsion).
In nuclear engineering, prompt criticality is said to be reached during a nuclear fission event if one or more of the immediate or prompt neutrons released by an atom in the event causes an additional fission event resulting in a rapid, exponential increase in the number of fission events.
Proton emission (also known as proton radioactivity) is a rare type of radioactive decay in which a proton is ejected from a nucleus.
Pupin Physics Laboratories, also known as Pupin Hall is home to the physics and astronomy departments of Columbia University in New York City and a National Historic Landmark.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as a neutron source.
Richard Lee Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American historian, journalist and author of both fiction and non-fiction (which he prefers to call "verity"), including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986), and most recently, Energy: A Human History (2018).
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Sir Rudolf Ernst Peierls, (5 June 1907 – 19 September 1995) was a German-born British physicist who played a major role in the Manhattan Project and Tube Alloys, Britain's nuclear programme.
The Rutherford model is a model of the atom devised by Ernest Rutherford.
A scram or SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor.
In nuclear physics, the semi-empirical mass formula (SEMF) (sometimes also called Weizsäcker's formula, or the Bethe–Weizsäcker formula, or the Bethe–Weizsäcker mass formula to distinguish it from the Bethe–Weizsäcker process) is used to approximate the mass and various other properties of an atomic nucleus from its number of protons and neutrons.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
A steam explosion is an explosion caused by violent boiling or flashing of water into steam, occurring when water is either superheated, rapidly heated by fine hot debris produced within it, or heated by the interaction of molten metals (as in a fuel–coolant interaction, or FCI, of molten nuclear-reactor fuel rods with water in a nuclear reactor core following a core-meltdown).
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
A subcritical reactor is a nuclear fission reactor concept that produces fission without achieving criticality.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Ternary fission is a comparatively rare (0.2 to 0.4% of events) type of nuclear fission in which three charged products are produced rather than two.
The Making of the Atomic Bomb is a contemporary history book written by the American journalist and historian Richard Rhodes, first published by Simon & Schuster in 1987.
The Science of Nature, formerly Naturwissenschaften, is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media covering all aspects of the natural sciences relating to questions of biological significance.
Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder, which serves as fuel, and metal oxide.
The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
The thorium fuel cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses an isotope of thorium,, as the fertile material.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
The W88 is a United States thermonuclear warhead, with an estimated yield of 475 kilotons (kt), and is small enough to fit on MIRVed missiles.
Walter Henry Zinn (December 10, 1906 – February 14, 2000) was a nuclear physicist who was the first director of the Argonne National Laboratory from 1946 to 1956.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
Willis Eugene Lamb Jr. (July 12, 1913 – May 15, 2008) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1955 "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum." The Nobel Committee that year awarded half the prize to Lamb and the other half to Polykarp Kusch, who won "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron." Lamb was able to determine precisely a surprising shift in electron energies in a hydrogen atom (see Lamb shift).
A working fluid is a pressurized gas or liquid that actuates a machine.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
In particle and atomic physics, a Yukawa potential (also called a screened Coulomb potential) is a potential of the form where g is a magnitude scaling constant, i.e. is the amplitude of potential, m is the mass of the particle, r is the radial distance to the particle, and k is another scaling constant, so that 1/km is the range.
Atomic fission, Electromagnetic Induced fission, Electromagnetic induced fission, Fission explosions, Fission reaction, Fissionable material, Nuclear Fission, Nuclear fision, Nuclearfission, Split the atom, Splitting of the atom, Splitting the atom, Thermonuclear fission.