82 relations: Ab initio methods (nuclear physics), Angular momentum, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Å, Ångström, Beta decay, Binding energy, Boson, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Central force, Chiral perturbation theory, Chiral symmetry breaking, Columbia University, Coulomb's law, Cross section (physics), Deuterium, Discovery of the neutron, Dmitri Ivanenko, Effective field theory, Elastic scattering, Electric potential, Electromagnetism, Elementary particle, Empirical research, Femtometre, Fermion, Fundamental interaction, George Gamow, Gluon, Hadron, Hans Bethe, Hideki Yukawa, Isidor Isaac Rabi, Isospin, James Chadwick, John S. Rigden, List of mesons, London dispersion force, Many-body problem, Mass number, Mass–energy equivalence, Meson, Metre, Monotonic function, Neutron, Niels Bohr, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear data, Nuclear physics, ..., Nuclear power, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear shell model, Nuclear weapon, Pauli exclusion principle, Perturbation theory, Pion, Potential, Proton, Quadrupole, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum hadrodynamics, Quantum mechanics, Quark, Quark model, Rho meson, Ruprecht Machleidt, Scalar potential, Scholarpedia, Schrödinger equation, Spin (physics), Standard Model, Strong interaction, Tensor, Three-body force, Vector meson, Weak interaction, Werner Heisenberg, Woods–Saxon potential, Yukawa potential, Zeitschrift für Physik. Expand index (32 more) »

## Ab initio methods (nuclear physics)

In nuclear physics, ab initio methods seek to describe the atomic nucleus from the ground up by solving the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation for all constituent nucleons and the forces between them.

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## Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

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## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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## Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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## Å

Å (lower case: å) — represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages.

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## Ångström

The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.

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## Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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## Binding energy

Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.

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## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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## Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker

Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker (28 June 1912 – 28 April 2007) was a German physicist and philosopher.

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## Central force

In classical mechanics, a central force on an object is a force that is directed along the line joining the object and the origin: where \scriptstyle \vec is the force, F is a vector valued force function, F is a scalar valued force function, r is the position vector, ||r|| is its length, and \scriptstyle \hat.

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## Chiral perturbation theory

Chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) is an effective field theory constructed with a Lagrangian consistent with the (approximate) chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), as well as the other symmetries of parity and charge conjugation.

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## Chiral symmetry breaking

In particle physics, chiral symmetry breaking is the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a chiral symmetry – usually by a gauge theory such as quantum chromodynamics, the quantum field theory of the strong interaction.

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## Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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## Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.

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## Cross section (physics)

When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.

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## Deuterium

Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

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## Discovery of the neutron

The discovery of the neutron and its properties was central to the extraordinary developments in atomic physics that occurred in the first half of the 20th century.

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## Dmitri Ivanenko

Dmitri Dmitrievich Ivanenko (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Иване́нко; July 29, 1904 – December 30, 1994) was a Soviet-Ukrainian theoretical physicist who made great contributions to the physical science of the twentieth century, especially to nuclear physics, field theory, and gravitation theory.

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## Effective field theory

In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.

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## Elastic scattering

Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.

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## Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

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## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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## Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

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## Empirical research

Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.

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## Femtometre

The femtometre (American spelling femtometer, symbol fm derived from the Danish and Norwegian word femten, "fifteen"+Ancient Greek: μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement") is an SI unit of length equal to 10−15 metres, which means a quadrillionth of one.

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## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## Fundamental interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

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## George Gamow

George Gamow (March 4, 1904- August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a Russian-American theoretical physicist and cosmologist.

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## Gluon

A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

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## Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.

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## Hans Bethe

Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.

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## Hideki Yukawa

, was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese Nobel laureate.

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## Isidor Isaac Rabi

Isidor Isaac Rabi (born Israel Isaac Rabi, 29 July 1898 – 11 January 1988) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1944 for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance, which is used in magnetic resonance imaging.

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## Isospin

In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin is a quantum number related to the strong interaction.

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## James Chadwick

Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.

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## John S. Rigden

John S. Rigden was an internationally renowned American physicist.

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## List of mesons

Mesons are unstable subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark.

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## London dispersion force

London dispersion forces (LDF, also known as dispersion forces, London forces, instantaneous dipole–induced dipole forces, or loosely van der Waals forces) are a type of force acting between atoms and molecules.

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## Many-body problem

The many-body problem is a general name for a vast category of physical problems pertaining to the properties of microscopic systems made of a large number of interacting particles.

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## Mass number

The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.

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## Mass–energy equivalence

In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.

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## Meson

In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.

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## Metre

The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).

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## Monotonic function

In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.

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## Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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## Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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## Nuclear binding energy

Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.

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## Nuclear data

Nuclear data represents measured (or evaluated) probabilities of various physical interactions involving the nuclei of atoms.

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## Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

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## Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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## Nuclear reaction

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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## Nuclear shell model

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels.

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## Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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## Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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## Perturbation theory

Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem.

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## Pion

In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

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## Potential

Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.

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## Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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## Quadrupole

A quadrupole or quadrapole is one of a sequence of configurations of things like electric charge or current, or gravitational mass that can exist in ideal form, but it is usually just part of a multipole expansion of a more complex structure reflecting various orders of complexity.

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## Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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## Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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## Quantum hadrodynamics

Quantum hadrodynamics is an effective field theory pertaining to interactions between hadrons, that is, hadron-hadron interactions or the inter-hadron force.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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## Quark

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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## Quark model

In particle physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks—the quarks and antiquarks which give rise to the quantum numbers of the hadrons.

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## Rho meson

In particle physics, a rho meson is a short-lived hadronic particle that is an isospin triplet whose three states are denoted as, and.

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## Ruprecht Machleidt

Ruprecht Machleidt (born December 18, 1943, in Kiel, Germany) is a German-American theoretical nuclear physicist.

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## Scalar potential

Scalar potential, simply stated, describes the situation where the difference in the potential energies of an object in two different positions depends only on the positions, not upon the path taken by the object in traveling from one position to the other.

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## Scholarpedia

Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.

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## Schrödinger equation

In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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## Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

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## Three-body force

A three-body force is a force that does not exist in a system of two objects but appears in a three-body system.

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## Vector meson

In high energy physics, a vector meson is a meson with total spin 1 and odd parity (usually noted as). Compare to a pseudovector meson, which has a total spin 1 and even parity.

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## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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## Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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## Woods–Saxon potential

The Woods–Saxon potential is a mean field potential for the nucleons (protons and neutrons) inside the atomic nucleus, which is used to describe approximately the forces applied on each nucleon, in the nuclear shell model for the structure of the nucleus.

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## Yukawa potential

In particle and atomic physics, a Yukawa potential (also called a screened Coulomb potential) is a potential of the form where g is a magnitude scaling constant, i.e. is the amplitude of potential, m is the mass of the particle, r is the radial distance to the particle, and k is another scaling constant, so that 1/km is the range.

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## Zeitschrift für Physik

Zeitschrift für Physik (English: Journal for physics) is a defunct series of German peer-reviewed German scientific journal of physics established in 1920 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

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## Redirects here:

Inter-nucleon force, Inter-nucleon potential, Internucleon force, Internucleon interaction, Internucleon potential, Nuclear Force, Nuclear forces, Nuclear interaction, Nuclear potential, Nucleon-nucleon interaction, Nucleon-nucleon potential, Optical Model, Optical model, Residual strong force, Residual strong interaction, Residual strong nuclear force, Strong nuclear force, Strong nuclear interaction.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_force