150 relations: Absolute magnitude, Alpha particle, Aneutronic fusion, Angular momentum, Annihilation, Antimatter, Antimatter-catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion, Arthur Eddington, Astrophysics, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Binding energy, Break-even, Bremsstrahlung, Castle Bravo, Cepheid variable, Chemical reaction, CNO cycle, Cold fusion, Coulomb barrier, Coulomb's law, CRC Press, Cross section (physics), Dense plasma focus, Deuterium, Direct energy conversion, Electric charge, Electric field, Electric power industry, Electron, Electronvolt, Endothermic process, Energy, Energy density, Erbium, Ernest Rutherford, Exothermic process, Exothermic reaction, Fermion, Francis William Aston, Friedrich Hund, Fritz Houtermans, FuseNet, Fusion energy gain factor, Fusion power, Fusion rocket, Fusor, Gram, Greenhouse Item, Half-life, ..., Hans Bethe, Helium, Helium-3, Helium-4, Hydrogen, Impulse generator, Inertial confinement fusion, Inertial electrostatic confinement, Institute of Physics, International Atomic Energy Agency, Inverse-square law, Ion, Ionization energy, Iron, Iron peak, Iron-56, Isotopes of helium, Isotopes of hydrogen, Isotopes of iron, Isotopes of nickel, ITER, Ivy Mike, Joint European Torus, Joule, Lawson criterion, List of fusion experiments, List of plasma physics articles, Lithium, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Main sequence, Manhattan Project, Mark Oliphant, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mass–energy equivalence, Matter, Matter wave, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Metallicity, Muon, Muon-catalyzed fusion, National Ignition Facility, Nature (journal), Neutrino, Neutron, Neutron generator, Neutron source, Nickel, Nickel-62, Non-neutral plasmas, Nuclear fission, Nuclear force, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear fusion–fission hybrid, Nuclear physics, Nuclear pulse propulsion, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear transmutation, Nucleon, Nucleosynthesis, Opacity (optics), Optical depth, Order of magnitude, Orders of magnitude (energy), Oxford University Press, Particle accelerator, Pauli exclusion principle, Periodic table, Plasma (physics), Plutonium-239, Polywell, Positron, Project PACER, Proton, Proton–proton chain reaction, Pulsed power, Pure fusion weapon, Pyroelectric fusion, Pyroelectricity, Quantum mechanics, Quantum tunnelling, Robert d'Escourt Atkinson, S-factor, Specific energy, Star, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Steven E. Jones, Strong interaction, Supernova, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Thermonuclear fusion, Thermonuclear weapon, Thorium, Timeline of nuclear fusion, Triple-alpha process, Tritium, Tungsten, University of California, Los Angeles, Uranium-235, X-ray. Expand index (100 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute magnitude is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aneutronic fusion is any form of fusion power in which neutrons carry no more than 1% of the total released energy.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
Antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion is a variation of nuclear pulse propulsion based upon the injection of antimatter into a mass of nuclear fuel which normally would not be useful in propulsion.
Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
Break-even (or break even), often abbreviated as B/E in finance, is the point of balance making neither a profit nor a loss.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
Castle Bravo was the first in a series of high-yield thermonuclear weapon design tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, as part of Operation Castle.
A Cepheid variable is a type of star that pulsates radially, varying in both diameter and temperature and producing changes in brightness with a well-defined stable period and amplitude.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two known sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.
Cold fusion is a hypothesized type of nuclear reaction that would occur at, or near, room temperature.
The Coulomb barrier, named after Coulomb's law, which is in turn named after physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, is the energy barrier due to electrostatic interaction that two nuclei need to overcome so they can get close enough to undergo a nuclear reaction.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a type of plasma device originally developed as a fusion power device starting in the early 1960s.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Direct energy conversion (DEC) or simply direct conversion converts a charged particle's kinetic energy into a voltage.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
The electric power industry covers the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public and industry.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
Francis William Aston FRS (1 September 1877 – 20 November 1945) was an English chemist and physicist who won the 1922 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole number rule.
Friedrich Hermann Hund (4 February 1896 – 31 March 1997) was a German physicist from Karlsruhe known for his work on atoms and molecules.
Friedrich Georg "Fritz" Houtermans (January 22, 1903 – March 1, 1966) was a Dutch-Austrian-German atomic and nuclear physicist born in Zoppot near Danzig, West Prussia to a Dutch father, who was a wealthy banker.
FuseNet is an organization that unites, coordinates and sponsors European educational efforts in the field of nuclear fusion in order to increase, enhance, and broaden fusion training and education activities in Europe.
The fusion energy gain factor, usually expressed with the symbol Q, is the ratio of fusion power produced in a nuclear fusion reactor to the power required to maintain the plasma in steady state.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
A fusion rocket is a theoretical design for a rocket driven by fusion propulsion which could provide efficient and long-term acceleration in space without the need to carry a large fuel supply.
A fusor is a device that uses an electric field to heat ions to conditions suitable for nuclear fusion.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Greenhouse Item was an American nuclear test conducted on May 25, 1951, as part of Operation Greenhouse at the Pacific Proving Ground, specifically on the island of Engebi in the Eniwetok Atoll in the Central Pacific Ocean.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).
Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
An impulse generator is an electrical apparatus which produces very short high-voltage or high-current surges.
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
Inertial electrostatic confinement is a branch of fusion research that uses an electric field to elevate a plasma to fusion conditions.
The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education, research and application.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The iron peak is a local maximum in the vicinity of Fe (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) on the graph of the abundances of the chemical elements, as seen below.
Iron-56 (56Fe) is the most common isotope of iron.
Although there are nine known isotopes of helium (2He) (standard atomic weight), only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable.
Hydrogen (1H) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H.
Naturally occurring iron (26Fe) consists of four stable isotopes: 5.845% of 54Fe (possibly radioactive with a half-life over 3.1×1022 years), 91.754% of 56Fe, 2.119% of 57Fe and 0.282% of 58Fe.
Naturally occurring nickel (28Ni) is composed of five stable isotopes;,,, and with being the most abundant (68.077% natural abundance).
ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.
Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first test of a full-scale thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion.
JET, the Joint European Torus, is the world's largest operational magnetically confined plasma physics experiment, located at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy in Oxfordshire, UK.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
In nuclear fusion research, the Lawson criterion, first derived on fusion reactors (initially classified) by John D. Lawson in 1955 and published in 1957, is an general system measure that defines the conditions needed for a fusion reactor to reach ignition, that is, that the heating of the plasma by the products of the fusion reactions is sufficient to maintain the temperature of the plasma against all losses without external power input.
Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot.
This is a list of plasma physics topics.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin "Mark" Oliphant (8 October 1901 – 14 July 2000) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian who played an important role in the first experimental demonstration of nuclear fusion and also the development of nuclear weapons.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
Muon-catalyzed fusion (μCF) is a process allowing nuclear fusion to take place at temperatures significantly lower than the temperatures required for thermonuclear fusion, even at room temperature or lower.
The National Ignition Facility, or NIF, is a large laser-based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research device, located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
Neutron generators are neutron source devices which contain compact linear accelerators and that produce neutrons by fusing isotopes of hydrogen together.
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nickel-62 is an isotope of nickel having 28 protons and 34 neutrons.
A non-neutral plasma is a plasma for which the total charge is sufficiently different from zero, so that the electric field created by the un-neutralized charge plays an important or even dominant role in the plasma dynamics.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Hybrid nuclear fusion–fission (hybrid nuclear power) is a proposed means of generating power by use of a combination of nuclear fusion and fission processes.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Nuclear pulse propulsion or external pulsed plasma propulsion, is a hypothetical method of spacecraft propulsion that uses nuclear explosions for thrust.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
In physics, optical depth or optical thickness, is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral optical depth or spectral optical thickness is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
This list compares various energies in joules (J), organized by order of magnitude.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
The polywell is a type of nuclear fusion reactor that uses an electric field to heat ions to fusion conditions.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Project PACER, carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in the mid-1970s, explored the possibility of a fusion power system that would involve exploding small hydrogen bombs (fusion bombs)—or, as stated in a later proposal, fission bombs—inside an underground cavity.
The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium.
Pulsed power is the science and technology of accumulating energy over a relatively long period of time and releasing it very quickly, thus increasing the instantaneous power.
A pure fusion weapon is a hypothetical hydrogen bomb design that does not need a fission "primary" explosive to ignite the fusion of deuterium and tritium, two heavy isotopes of hydrogen (see thermonuclear weapon for more information about fission-fusion weapons).
Pyroelectric fusion refers to the technique of using pyroelectric crystals to generate high strength electrostatic fields to accelerate deuterium ions (tritium might also be used someday) into a metal hydride target also containing deuterium (or tritium) with sufficient kinetic energy to cause these ions to undergo nuclear fusion.
Pyroelectricity (from the Greek pyr, fire, and electricity) is the property of certain crystals which are naturally electrically polarized and as a result contain large electric fields.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
Robert d'Escourt Atkinson (born 11 April 1898, Rhayader, Wales – died 28 October 1982, Bloomington, Indiana) was a British astronomer, physicist and inventor.
The astrophysical S-factor is a rescaled variant of the total cross section that accounts for the Coulomb repulsion between charged reactants.
Specific energy is energy per unit mass.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Steven Earl Jones (born March 25, 1949) is an American physicist.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
This timeline of nuclear fusion is an incomplete chronological summary of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion.
The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Atomic fusion, D-T fusion, Fuse (nuclear), Fuse (thermonuclear), Fusion reaction, Hydrogen Fusion, Hydrogen fusion, Natural nuclear fusion, Nuclear Fusion, Nuclear Fussion, Nuclear fusion reaction, Nuclear fusion reactions, Nuclear fussion, Thermal Fusion, Thermonuclear Fusion, Thermonuclear reaction.