410 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Actinide, Aircraft carrier, Albert Einstein, American Journal of Physics, American Petroleum Institute, Anti-nuclear movement, Anti-nuclear movement in Australia, Anti-nuclear movement in Austria, Antony Froggatt, AP1000, Arco, Idaho, Argonne National Laboratory, Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot, Army Nuclear Power Program, Arthur W. Murphy, Atmea, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic Energy Act of 1954, Atoms for Peace, Ōi Nuclear Power Plant, Background radiation, Banqiao Dam, Barry Brook (scientist), Base load, Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Station, Benjamin K. Sovacool, Biomass, Biosphere, Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, BN-1200 reactor, BN-600 reactor, BN-800 reactor, Bonn, Breeder reactor, Brian Martin (social scientist), Brookings Institution, Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Burnup, Capacity factor, Carbon dioxide equivalent, Carbon emission trading, Carbon footprint, Carbon tax, Causality, Centurion Reactor, Channel 4, Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code, Chemical element, ..., Chernobyl, Chernobyl disaster, Chicago Pile-1, Chilling effect, China, China Experimental Fast Reactor, Circulatory system, Climate change, Climate change mitigation, Coalworker's pneumoconiosis, Congressional Budget Office, Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, Containment building, Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power, Control rod, Cooling tower, Cost of electricity by source, Cost overrun, Council on Foreign Relations, Critical mass, Curium, Dam failure, David Elliott (professor), David Lochbaum, Decay heat, Deep geological repository, DEMOnstration Power Station, Depleted uranium, Desalination, Deutsche Bank, District heating, Drought, Dry cask storage, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eastern Idaho, Economics of nuclear power plants, Economy of the Soviet Union, Effective dose (radiation), Efficient energy use, Electric generator, Electric utility, Electrical grid, Electricity, Electricity generation, Electricity market, Ember, Emission intensity, Energy & Environmental Science, Energy accidents, Energy crisis, Energy Information Administration, Energy liberalisation, Energy Policy (journal), Energy security, Energy subsidies, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Environmental radioactivity, Environmentalists for Nuclear, EPR (nuclear reactor), Ernest Rutherford, Estonia, Eurodif, European Atomic Energy Community, European Economic Community, European Fusion Development Agreement, European Union, Eurostat, Experimental Breeder Reactor I, Fast-neutron reactor, Fire damper, Fission (biology), Fly ash, Forbes, Fort Belvoir, Fort St. Vrain Generating Station, Fossil fuel, Fossil fuel power station, Frank N. von Hippel, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Fresh water, Fritz Strassmann, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Fukushima disaster cleanup, Fusion power, Gabon, Generation II reactor, Generation III reactor, Generation IV reactor, Geothermal energy, Germanium, Glenn T. Seaborg, Global warming, Greenfield status, Greenhouse gas, Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy, Greenpeace, Gregory Jaczko, Gross domestic product, Hans Bethe, Heat sink, Heat wave, Hesperium, High-level radioactive waste management, Human error, Hydroelectricity, Hydrogen economy, Hydropower, Ian Lowe, Icebreaker, Idaho National Laboratory, In Mortal Hands, In situ leach, India's three-stage nuclear power programme, Indian Point Energy Center, Induced radioactivity, Inertial fusion power plant, Institute of Development Studies, Insurance, Integral fast reactor, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Intermittent energy source, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Energy Agency, International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation, Iodine-129, Irène Joliot-Curie, Isar Nuclear Power Plant, Isotopes of neptunium, ITER, James Chadwick, Jerry Brown, Jo Chandler, John Quiggin, John Rowe (Exelon), Kilowatt hour, Kori Nuclear Power Plant, Leo Szilard, Lewis Strauss, Life-cycle assessment, Life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of energy sources, Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, Light-water reactor, Linear no-threshold model, Liquefied petroleum gas, Lise Meitner, List of anti–nuclear power groups, List of cancelled nuclear reactors in the United States, List of nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll, List of nuclear power stations, List of nuclear reactors, List of states with nuclear weapons, Lists of case law, Long-lived fission product, Low-carbon power, M. King Hubbert, M. V. Ramana, Manhattan Project, Mark Diesendorf, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mass–energy equivalence, Mayak, Megatons to Megawatts Program, Megawatts and Megatons, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Molten salt reactor, Monju Nuclear Power Plant, MOX fuel, Mycle Schneider, Nameplate capacity, National Science Digital Library, National Science Foundation, Nationalization, Natural gas, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Natural uranium, Nature (journal), Neutron, Neutron temperature, New Mexico, New Scientist, New Zealand nuclear-free zone, Nicola Armaroli, Niels Bohr, Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear decommissioning, Nuclear Energy Agency, Nuclear energy in Denmark, Nuclear energy in Greece, Nuclear energy in Ireland, Nuclear energy in Israel, Nuclear energy in Luxembourg, Nuclear energy in Malaysia, Nuclear energy in Malta, Nuclear energy in Norway, Nuclear energy in Portugal, Nuclear energy policy, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear Information and Resource Service, Nuclear marine propulsion, Nuclear meltdown, Nuclear or Not?, Nuclear Power 2010 Program, Nuclear power by country, Nuclear power debate, Nuclear power in Italy, Nuclear power in Japan, Nuclear power in South Korea, Nuclear power in Spain, Nuclear power in the United Arab Emirates, Nuclear power phase-out, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear power proposed as renewable energy, Nuclear program of Iran, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear propulsion, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reactor physics, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear safety and security, Nuclear terrorism, Nuclear thermal rocket, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapons debate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, OECD, Oklo, Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant, Open-pit mining, Order of magnitude, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Overseas Development Institute, Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, Particulates, Passive nuclear safety, Paul Scherrer Institute, Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station, Peak oil, Pennsylvania, Periodic table, Peter A. Bradford, Phénix, Phosphate, Plasma containment, Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Price of oil, Price–Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act, Project Sherwood, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor, Quad Cities Nuclear Generating Station, Radiation effects from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Rajendra K. Pachauri, RBMK, Regulated market, Regulation, Renewable energy, Renewable energy commercialization, Renewable portfolio standard, Research and development, Rosatom, Russian Navy, S&P Global Platts, Scientific American, Sellafield, Sendai Nuclear Power Plant, September 11 attacks, Shippingport Atomic Power Station, Siemens, Sievert, SL-1, SNAP-10A, South Korea, South Korean nuclear scandal, Soviet submarine K-19, Soviet submarine K-27, Soviet submarine K-431, Soviet Union, Space exploration, Spacecraft propulsion, Spencer R. Weart, Spent fuel pool, Spent nuclear fuel, Steam explosion, Steam turbine, Stephanie Cooke, Stephen Thomas (professor), Submarine, Surface condenser, Sustainable energy, Synthetic fuel, Technetium-99, The Age, The Lancet, The New York Times, Thermal energy, Thermal power station, Thorium, Thorium fuel cycle, Thorium-based nuclear power, Three Mile Island accident, Tin, Too cheap to meter, Transuranium element, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, Union of Concerned Scientists, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, United States Army, United States Atomic Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, United States Navy, Unterweser Nuclear Power Plant, Uranium, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium mining, Uranium mining debate, US-A, USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Vincenzo Balzani, Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Generating Station, Virginia, Virginia Tech, Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Washington and Lee University, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Watt, Watts Bar Nuclear Generating Station, Westinghouse Electric Company, Working mass, World Association of Nuclear Operators, World energy consumption, World Nuclear Association, World Nuclear Industry Status Report, World Scientific, Wyhl, Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station, Yellowcake, Zion Nuclear Power Station, 100% renewable energy, 1973 oil crisis, 50 Let Pobedy. Expand index (360 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.
The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the largest U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry.
The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement that opposes various nuclear technologies.
Nuclear weapons testing, uranium mining and export, and nuclear power have often been the subject of public debate in Australia, and the anti-nuclear movement in Australia has a long history.
Construction of the first Austrian nuclear power plant in Zwentendorf on the Danube, about 30 kilometres upstream from the capital, Vienna, began in 1972.
Antony Froggatt is an energy policy consultant and a senior research fellow at Chatham House.
The AP1000 is a nuclear power plant designed and sold by Westinghouse Electric Company.
Arco is a city in Butte County, Idaho, United States.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) is a type of kinetic energy penetrator ammunition used to attack modern vehicle armour.
The Army Nuclear Power Program (ANPP) was a program of the United States Army to develop small pressurized water and boiling water nuclear power reactors to generate electrical and space-heating energy primarily at remote, relatively inaccessible sites.
Arthur W. Murphy is Professor Emeritus of Law at Columbia University, who has written on many aspects of nuclear power.
Atmea is a joint venture between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and EDF Group that develops, markets, licenses and sells the ATMEA1 reactor, a new generation III+, medium-power pressurized water reactor (PWR).
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, 42 U.S.C. §§ 2011-2021, 2022-2286i, 2296a-2297h-13, is a United States federal law that is, according to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, "the fundamental U.S. law on both the civilian and the military uses of nuclear materials." It covers the laws for the development, regulation, and disposal of nuclear materials and facilities in the United States.
"Atoms for Peace" was the title of a speech delivered by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953.
The is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Ōi, Fukui Prefecture, managed by the Kansai Electric Power Company.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
The Banqiao Reservoir Dam is a dam on the River Ru in Zhumadian City, Henan province, China.
Barry William Brook (born 28 February 1974 in Melbourne, Australia) is an Australian scientist.
The base load on a grid is the minimum level of demand on an electrical grid over a span of time, for example, one week.
Beaver Valley Power Station is a nuclear power plant covering near Shippingport, Pennsylvania, United States, roughly northwest of Pittsburgh.
Benjamin K. Sovacool is director of the Danish Center for Energy Technology at the Department of Business Technology and Development and a professor of social sciences at Aarhus University.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
A Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future was appointed by President Obama to look into future options for existing and future nuclear waste, following the ending of work on the incomplete Yucca Mountain Repository.
The BN-1200 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor project, under development by OKBM Afrikantov in Zarechny, Russia.
The BN-600 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.
The BN-800 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.
Brian Martin (born 1947) is a social scientist in the School of Humanities and Social Inquiry, Faculty of Law, Humanities and the Arts, at the University of Wollongong in NSW, Australia.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is located on the Tennessee River near Decatur and Athens, Alabama, on the north side (right bank) of Wheeler Lake.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
In nuclear power technology, burnup (also known as fuel utilization) is a measure of how much energy is extracted from a primary nuclear fuel source.
The net capacity factor is the unitless ratio of an actual electrical energy output over a given period of time to the maximum possible electrical energy output over that period.
Carbon dioxide equivalent (CDE) and equivalent carbon dioxide (e and eq) are two related but distinct measures for describing how much global warming a given type and amount of greenhouse gas may cause, using the functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide as the reference.
Carbon emissions trading is a form of emissions trading that specifically targets carbon dioxide (calculated in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent or tCO2e) and it currently constitutes the bulk of emissions trading.
A carbon footprint is historically defined as the total emissions caused by an individual, event, organisation, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent.
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
The term "Centurion Reactor" refers to a future class of commercial nuclear power reactors designed for, and licensed to operate for periods of time of one hundred years or longer - thus the term "centurion".
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Chapter 11 is a chapter of Title 11, the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (Chornobyl′,;; Charnobyl′) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, near Ukraine's border with Belarus.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.
In a legal context, a chilling effect is the inhibition or discouragement of the legitimate exercise of natural and legal rights by the threat of legal sanction.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is China's first fast nuclear reactor, and is located outside Beijing at the China Institute of Atomic Energy.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change.
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long-term exposure to coal dust.
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is a federal agency within the legislative branch of the United States government that provides budget and economic information to Congress.
Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Power Plant (CY) was a nuclear power plant located in Haddam Neck, Connecticut, that was commissioned in 1968, ceased electricity production in 1996, and was decommissioned by 2004.
A containment building, in its most common usage, is a reinforced steel or lead structure enclosing a nuclear reactor.
Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power: A Critical Global Assessment of Atomic Energy is a 2011 book by Benjamin K. Sovacool, published by World Scientific.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature.
In electrical power generation, the distinct ways of generating electricity incur significantly different costs.
A cost overrun, also known as a cost increase, underrated or budget overrun, involves unexpected costs incurred in excess of budgeted amounts due to an underestimation of the actual cost during budgeting.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Cm and atomic number 96.
A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or slows down the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundments.
David Elliott is Professor of Technology Policy at the Open University.
David A. Lochbaum is the Director of the Nuclear Safety Project for the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS).
Decay heat is the heat released as a result of radioactive decay.
A deep geological repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated deep within a stable geologic environment (typically below 300 m or 1000 feet).
DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Station) is a proposed nuclear fusion power station that is intended to build upon the ITER experimental nuclear fusion reactor.
Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Deutsche Bank AG is a German investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany.
District heating (also known as heat networks or teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
Dry cask storage is a method of storing high-level radioactive waste, such as spent nuclear fuel that has already been cooled in the spent fuel pool for at least one year and often as much as ten years.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Eastern Idaho is the area of Idaho lying east of the Magic Valley region.
New nuclear power plants typically have high capital costs for building the first several plants, after which costs tend to fall for each additional plant built as the supply chains develop and the regulatory processes improve.
The economy of the Soviet Union (экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.
Effective dose is a dose quantity in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection.
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
An electric utility is a company in the electric power industry (often a public utility) that engages in electricity generation and distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
In economic terms, electricity (both power and energy) is a commodity capable of being bought, sold, and traded.
An ember is a glowing, hot coal made of greatly heated wood, coal, or other carbon-based material that remain after, or sometimes precede, a fire.
An emission intensity (also carbon intensity, C.I.) is the emission rate of a given pollutant relative to the intensity of a specific activity, or an industrial production process; for example grams of carbon dioxide released per megajoule of energy produced, or the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions produced to gross domestic product (GDP).
Energy & Environmental Science is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original (primary) research and review articles.
Energy resources bring with them great social and economic promise, providing financial growth for communities and energy services for local economies.
An energy crisis is any significant bottleneck in the supply of energy resources to an economy.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
Energy liberalisation refers to the liberalisation of energy markets, with specific reference to electricity generation markets, by bringing greater competition into electricity and gas markets in the interest of creating more competitive markets and reductions in price by privatisation.
Energy Policy is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on energy policy and energy supply.
Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption.
Energy subsidies are measures that keep prices for consumers below market levels or for producers above market levels, or reduce costs for consumers and producers.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Environmental radioactivity is produced by radioactive materials in the human environment.
Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy (EFN) is a pro-nuclear power non-profit organization which aims at providing complete and straightforward information to the public on energy and the environment.
The EPR is a third generation pressurised water reactor (PWR) design.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Eurodif, which means European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium, is a subsidiary of the French company AREVA, which operates a uranium enrichment plant established at the Tricastin Nuclear Power Center in Pierrelatte in Drôme.
The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe; developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
EFDA (1999 - 2013) has been followed by EUROfusion, which is a consortium of national fusion research institutes located in the European Union and Switzerland.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) is a decommissioned research reactor and U.S. National Historic Landmark located in the desert about southeast of Arco, Idaho.
A fast-neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons, as opposed to thermal neutrons used in thermal-neutron reactors.
Fire dampers are passive fire protection products used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts to prevent the spread of fire inside the ductwork through fire-resistance rated walls and floors.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product that is composed of the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
Fort Belvoir is a United States Army installation and a census-designated place (CDP) in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
Fort Saint Vrain Generating Station is a natural gas powered electricity generating facility located near the town of Platteville in northern Colorado in the United States.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
Frank N.J. von Hippel (born 1937) is an American physicist.
Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie (19 March 1900 – 14 August 1958), born Jean Frédéric Joliot, was a French physicist, husband of Irène Joliot-Curie with whom he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
The Fukushima disaster cleanup is an ongoing attempt to limit radioactive contamination from the three nuclear reactors involved in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster which followed the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
A generation II reactor is a design classification for a nuclear reactor, and refers to the class of commercial reactors built up to the end of the 1990s.
A Generation III reactor is a development of Generation II nuclear reactor designs incorporating evolutionary improvements in design developed during the lifetime of the Generation II reactor designs.
Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of nuclear reactor designs currently being researched for commercial applications by the Generation IV International Forum, with Technology readiness levels varying between the level requiring a demonstration, to economical competitive implementation.
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Greenfield status (also known as "unrestricted re-use") is an end point wherein a parcel of land that had been in industrial use is, in principle, restored to the conditions existing before the construction of the plant.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy is a 2007 book by Australian academic Mark Diesendorf.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Gregory B. Jaczko (born October 29, 1970, Norristown, Pennsylvania) was a Chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.
A heat wave is a period of excessively hot weather, which may be accompanied by high humidity, especially in oceanic climate countries.
Hesperium (also known as esperium; atomic symbol Es) was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 94, now known as plutonium.
High-level radioactive waste management concerns how radioactive materials created during production of nuclear power and nuclear weapons are dealt with.
Human error has been cited as a primary cause contributing factor in disasters and accidents in industries as diverse as nuclear power (e.g., the Three Mile Island accident), aviation (see pilot error), space exploration (e.g., the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster and Space Shuttle Columbia disaster), and medicine (see medical error).
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
The hydrogen economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Ian Lowe (born 1942) is Emeritus Professor of Science, Technology and Society and former Head of the School of Science at Griffith University, as well as an adjunct professor at Sunshine Coast University and Flinders University.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is one of the national laboratories of the United States Department of Energy and is managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance.
In Mortal Hands: A Cautionary History of the Nuclear Age is a 2009 book by Stephanie Cooke.
In-situ leaching (ISL), also called in-situ recovery (ISR) or solution mining, is a mining process used to recover minerals such as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into a deposit, in situ.
India's three-stage nuclear power programme was formulated by Homi Bhabha in the 1950s to secure the country’s long term energy independence, through the use of uranium and thorium reserves found in the monazite sands of coastal regions of South India.
Indian Point Energy Center (IPEC) is a three-unit nuclear power plant station located in Buchanan, New York, just south of Peekskill.
Induced radioactivity occurs when a previously stable material has been made radioactive by exposure to specific radiation.
An inertial fusion power plant is intended to produce electric power by use of inertial confinement fusion techniques on an industrial scale.
The Institute of Development Studies (IDS) is an institution for development research, teaching and learning, and impact and communications, based at the University of Sussex.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
The integral fast reactor (IFR, originally advanced liquid-metal reactor) is a design for a nuclear reactor using fast neutrons and no neutron moderator (a "fast" reactor).
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
An intermittent energy source is any source of energy that is not continuously available for conversion into electricity and outside direct control because the used primary energy cannot be stored.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
The International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) formerly the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) began as a U.S. proposal, announced by United States Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman on February 6, 2006, to form an international partnership to promote the use of nuclear power and close the nuclear fuel cycle in a way that reduces nuclear waste and the risk of nuclear proliferation.
Iodine-129 (129I) is a long-lived radioisotope of iodine which occurs naturally, but also is of special interest in the monitoring and effects of man-made nuclear fission decay products, where it serves as both tracer and potential radiological contaminant.
Irène Joliot-Curie (12 September 1897 – 17 March 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie.
Next to the Isar river, two base load nuclear power plants have been built, called Isar I and Isar II.
Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.
Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.
Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American politician, author and lawyer serving as the 39th and current Governor of California since 2011, previously holding the position from 1975 to 1983, making him the state's longest-serving Governor.
Jo Chandler (born 1965) is an Australian journalist, science writer and educator.
John Quiggin (born 29 March 1956) is an Australian economist, a Professor at the University of Queensland.
John W. Rowe was the chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the energy corporation Exelon Corporation, a utility holding company headquartered in Chicago.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
The Kori Nuclear Power Plant (Korean: 고리원자력발전소, Hanja: 古里原子力發電所) is a South Korean nuclear power plant located in Kori, a suburban village in Busan.
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss ("straws"; January 31, 1896 – January 21, 1974) was a Jewish American businessman, philanthropist, public official, and naval officer.
Life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling.
Measurement of life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions involves calculating the global-warming potential of electrical energy sources through life-cycle assessment of each energy source.
The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a U.S. government research and development program.
The light-water reactor (LWR) is a type of thermal-neutron reactor that uses normal water, as opposed to heavy water, as both its coolant and neutron moderator – furthermore a solid form of fissile elements is used as fuel.
The linear no-threshold model (LNT) is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits.
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
Anti-nuclear power groups have emerged in every country that has had a nuclear power programme.
This is a list of cancelled nuclear reactors in the United States.
There have been several nuclear and radiation accidents involving fatalities, including nuclear power plant accidents, nuclear submarine accidents, and radiotherapy incidents.
The following page lists all nuclear power stations that are larger than in current net capacity.
This is a list of all the commercial nuclear reactors in the world, sorted by country, with operational status.
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
This list consists of lists of case law.
Long-lived fission products (LLFPs) are radioactive materials with a long half-life (more than 200,000 years) produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium.
Low-carbon power comes from processes or technologies that produce power with substantially lower amounts of carbon dioxide emissions than is emitted from conventional fossil fuel power generation.
Marion King Hubbert (October 5, 1903 – October 11, 1989) was an American geologist and geophysicist.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Mark Diesendorf is an Australian academic and environmentalist, known for his work in sustainable development and renewable energy.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
The Mayak Production Association (Производственное объединение «Маяк», from Маяк 'lighthouse') is one of the biggest nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation, housing a reprocessing plant.
The Megatons to Megawatts Program, successfully completed in December 2013, is the popular name given to the program which is also called the United States-Russia Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement.
Megawatts and Megatons is a 2001 book by Richard L. Garwin and Georges Charpak.
is a Japanese multinational engineering, electrical equipment and electronics company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a class of generation IV nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant, or even the fuel itself, is a molten salt mixture.
is a Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor, located in Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant, Fukui Prefecture.
Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material, usually consisting of plutonium blended with natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium.
Mycle Schneider (pronounce Michael, /ˈmaɪkəl/) (born 1959 in Cologne) is a Paris-based nuclear energy consultant, and lead author of The World Nuclear Industry Status Reports.
Nameplate capacity, also known as the rated capacity, nominal capacity, installed capacity, or maximum effect, is the intended full-load sustained output of a facility such as a power plant, Energy Information Administration.
The United States' National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is an open-access online digital library and collaborative network of disciplinary and grade-level focused education providers.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.
Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
In 1984, Prime Minister David Lange barred nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed ships from using New Zealand ports or entering New Zealand waters.
Nicola Armaroli (born 2 September 1966 in Bentivoglio) is an Italian chemist, FRSC.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility." Examples include lethal effects to individuals, radioactive isotope to the environment, or reactor core melt." The prime example of a "major nuclear accident" is one in which a reactor core is damaged and significant amounts of radioactive isotopes are released, such as in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
Nuclear decommissioning is the process whereby a nuclear facility is dismantled to the point that it no longer requires measures for radiation protection.
The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is an intergovernmental agency that is organized under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Denmark imports but does not produce nuclear energy, which is in accordance with a 1985 law passed by the Danish parliament, prohibiting power production from nuclear energy in Denmark.
Although Greece has established the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (Ελληνική Επιτροπή Ατομικής Ενέργειας, ΕΕΑΕ), a decision has been made not to implement a nuclear power program to generate electricity.
The Single Electricity Market encompassing the entire island of Ireland does not, and has never, produced any electricity from nuclear power stations.
While Israel operates nuclear research reactors, it has no nuclear power plants.
The 1970s energy crisis led Luxembourg to briefly consider constructing a nuclear power plant.
As Malaysia has established a nuclear agency with the country has periodically reviewed the nuclear option to meet the increasing demands of energy, there is a need to built nuclear power generation plant, with plans for a nuclear plant are at the feasibility stage.
Malta has no nuclear energy facilities and when Silvio Berlusconi suggested that the island nation build such plants to supply Italy with electricity, the suggestion created an outcry in Malta where opinion is strongly anti-nuclear.
No nuclear power plant has ever been established in Norway; however, the country has a legal framework for licensing the construction and operation of nuclear installations.
Nuclear energy in Portugal is very limited and strictly non-commercial.
Nuclear energy policy is a national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy and the nuclear fuel cycle, such as uranium mining, ore concentration, conversion, enrichment for nuclear fuel, generating electricity by nuclear power, storing and reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, and disposal of radioactive waste.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
The Nuclear Information and Resource Service (NIRS) is an anti-nuclear group founded in 1978 to be the information and networking center for citizens and organizations concerned about nuclear power, radioactive waste, radiation and sustainable energy issues.
Nuclear marine propulsion is propulsion of a ship or submarine with heat provided by a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear meltdown (core melt accident or partial core melt) is a severe nuclear reactor accident that results in core damage from overheating.
Nuclear or Not? Does Nuclear Power Have a Place in a Sustainable Energy Future? is a 2007 book edited by Professor David Elliott.
The "Nuclear Power 2010 Program" was launched in 2002 by President George W. Bush in order to restart orders for nuclear power reactors in the U.S. by providing subsidies for a handful of Generation III+ demonstration plants.
Nuclear power plants currently operate in 31 countries.
The nuclear power debate is a long-running controversy about the risks and benefits of using nuclear reactors to generate electricity for civilian purposes.
Nuclear power in Italy is a controversial topic.
Prior to the earthquake and tsunami of March 2011, Japan had generated 30% of its electrical power from nuclear reactors and planned to increase that share to 40%.
The total electrical generation capacity of the nuclear power plants of South Korea is 20.5 GWe from 23 reactors.
Spain has five active nuclear power plants with seven reactors producing 21% of the country's electricity as of 2013.
United Arab Emirates is installing nuclear-powered plants to meet their electricity demand, which is estimated to increase from 15 GWe to over 40 GWe in 2020.
A nuclear power phase-out is the discontinuation of usage of nuclear power for energy production.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
Although nuclear power is considered a form of low-carbon power, its legal inclusion with renewable energy power sources has been a subject of debate and classification.
The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
Nuclear propulsion includes a wide variety of propulsion methods that fulfill the promise of the Atomic Age by using some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear reactor physics is the branch of science that deals with the study and application of chain reaction to induce a controlled rate of fission in a nuclear reactor for the production of energy.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with protecting public health and safety related to nuclear energy.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
Nuclear safety is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards".
Nuclear terrorism refers to an act of terrorism in which a person or people belonging to a terrorist organization detonates a nuclear device.
A nuclear thermal rocket is a proposed spacecraft propulsion technology.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is a United States federal law which established a comprehensive national program for the safe, permanent disposal of highly radioactive wastes.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The nuclear weapons debate refers to the controversies surrounding the threat, use and stockpiling of nuclear weapons.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant (Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES) was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk,, who was there at the time.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Oklo is a region near the town of Franceville, in the Haut-Ogooué province of the Central African state of Gabon.
The Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant (Olkiluodon ydinvoimalaitos) is on Olkiluoto Island, which is on the shore of the Gulf of Bothnia in the municipality of Eurajoki in western Finland.
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy is a 1960 OECD Convention on liability and compensation for damage caused by accidents occurring while producing nuclear energy.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Passive nuclear safety is a safety feature of a nuclear reactor that does not require operator actions or electronic feedback in order to shut down safely in the event of a particular type of emergency (usually overheating resulting from a loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow).
The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a multi-disciplinary research institute which belongs to the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain covering also ETH Zurich and EPFL.
Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, a nuclear power plant, is located southeast of Harrisburg in Peach Bottom Township, York County, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River three miles north of the Maryland border.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Peter A. Bradford is a former member of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission who teaches energy policy and law at the Vermont Law School.
Phénix (French for phoenix) was a small-scale (gross 264/net 233 MWe) prototype fast breeder reactor, located at the Marcoule nuclear site, near Orange, France.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
In nuclear physics, plasma containment refers to the act of maintaining a plasma in a discrete volume.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
The price of oil, or the oil price, (generally) refers to the spot price of a barrel of benchmark crude oil—a reference price for buyers and sellers of crude oil such as West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Brent ICE, Dubai Crude, OPEC Reference Basket, Tapis Crude, Bonny Light, Urals oil, Isthmus and Western Canadian Select (WCS).
The Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act (commonly called the Price-Anderson Act) is a United States federal law, first passed in 1957 and since renewed several times, which governs liability-related issues for all non-military nuclear facilities constructed in the United States before 2026.
Project Sherwood was the codename for a United States program in controlled nuclear fusion during the period it was classified.
The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a 500 MWe fast breeder nuclear reactor presently being constructed at the Madras Atomic Power Station in Kalpakkam, India.
Quad Cities Generating Station is a two-unit nuclear power plant located near Cordova, Illinois, USA on the Mississippi River.
The radiation effects from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster are the observed and predicted effects as a result of the release of radioactive isotopes from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (born 20 August 1940) was the chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
The RBMK (Реактор Большой Мощности Канальный Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy, “High Power Channel-type Reactor”) is a class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactor designed and built by the Soviet Union.
A regulated market (RM) or controlled market is an idealized system where the government controls the forces of supply and demand, such as who is allowed to enter the market and/or what prices may be charged.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years.
A renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is a regulation that requires the increased production of energy from renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Rosatom, (r) stylized as ROSATOM and also known as the Rosatom State Nuclear Energy Corporation, the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom, or the Rosatom State Corporation, is a Russian state corporation headquartered in Moscow that specializes in nuclear energy.
The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces.
S&P Global Platts is a provider of energy and commodities information and a source of benchmark price assessments in the physical energy markets.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.
The is a nuclear power plant located in the city of Satsumasendai in Kagoshima Prefecture.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was (according to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) the world’s first full-scale atomic electric power plant devoted exclusively to peacetime uses.
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
The SL-1, or Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One, was a United States Army experimental nuclear power reactor in the United States which underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators.
SNAP-10A (Systems for Nuclear, Auxiliary Power), also called SNAPSHOT is an experimental nuclear powered satellite launched into space in 1965.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
A nuclear scandal took place in South Korea, when the country faced a series of shutdowns, of nuclear reactors because of fake documents.
K-19 was one of the first two Soviet submarines of the Project 658 class (NATO reporting name), the first generation nuclear submarine equipped with nuclear ballistic missiles, specifically the R-13 SLBM.
K-27 was the only submarine of Project 645 in the Soviet Navy.
Soviet submarine K-431 (originally the Soviet submarine K-31) was a Soviet nuclear-powered submarine that had a reactor accident on 10 August 1985.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
Spencer R. Weart (born 1942) was the director of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) from 1971 until his retirement in 2009.
Spent fuel pools (SFP) are storage pools for spent fuel from nuclear reactors.
Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
A steam explosion is an explosion caused by violent boiling or flashing of water into steam, occurring when water is either superheated, rapidly heated by fine hot debris produced within it, or heated by the interaction of molten metals (as in a fuel–coolant interaction, or FCI, of molten nuclear-reactor fuel rods with water in a nuclear reactor core following a core-meltdown).
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
Stephanie S. Cooke is a journalist who began her reporting career in 1977 at the Associated Press.
Stephen Thomas is a professor at the University of Greenwich Business School, working in the area of energy policy.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
A surface condenser is a commonly used term for a water-cooled shell and tube heat exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power stations.
Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.
Synthetic fuel or synfuel is a liquid fuel, or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the syngas was derived from gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming of natural gas.
Technetium-99 (99Tc) is an isotope of technetium which decays with a half-life of 211,000 years to stable ruthenium-99, emitting beta particles, but no gamma rays.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
A thermal power station is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
The thorium fuel cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses an isotope of thorium,, as the fertile material.
Thorium-based nuclear power is nuclear reactor-based, fueled primarily by the nuclear fission of the isotope uranium-233 produced from the fertile element thorium.
The Three Mile Island accident occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Too cheap to meter describes a commodity so inexpensive that it is cheaper and less bureaucratic to simply provide it for a flat fee or even free and make a profit from associated services.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Trojan Nuclear Power Plant was a pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant in the northwest United States, located southeast of Rainier, Oregon, and the only commercial nuclear power plant to be built in Oregon.
The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is a nonprofit science advocacy organization based in the United States.
The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was set up by resolution of the United Nations General Assembly in 1955.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The nuclear power station Unterweser is a nuclear power plant in Kleinensiel (Municipality of Stadland), close to Nordenham.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Uranium mining is the process of extraction of uranium ore from the ground.
The uranium mining debate covers the political and environmental controversies of the mining of uranium for use in either nuclear power or nuclear weapons.
Upravlyaemy Sputnik Aktivnyy (Управляемый Спутник Активный for Controlled Active Satellite), or US-A, also known in the west as Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite or RORSAT, was a series of Soviet reconnaissance satellites.
USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3rd August 1958.
Vermont Yankee was an electricity generating nuclear power plant, located in the town of Vernon, Vermont, in the northeastern United States.
The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage is a 1963 treaty that governs issues of liability in cases of nuclear accident.
Vincenzo Balzani (born 15 November 1936 in Forlimpopoli, Italy) is an Italian chemist, now emeritus professor at the University of Bologna.
The Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Generating Station occupies a site near Jenkinsville, South Carolina, in Fairfield County, South Carolina, approximately northwest of Columbia.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, commonly known as Virginia Tech, and traditionally known as VPI since 1896, is an American public, land-grant, research university with a main campus in Blacksburg, Virginia, educational facilities in six regions statewide, and a study-abroad site in Lugano, Switzerland.
The Alvin W. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, also known as Plant Vogtle, is a 2 unit nuclear power plant located in Burke County, near Waynesboro, Georgia, in the southeastern United States.
Washington and Lee University (Washington and Lee or W&L) is a private liberal arts university in Lexington, Virginia, United States.
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, or WIPP, is the world's third deep geological repository (after closure of Germany's Repository for radioactive waste Morsleben and the Schacht Asse II Salt Mine) licensed to permanently dispose of transuranic radioactive waste for 10,000 years that is left from the research and production of nuclear weapons.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
The Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant is a Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) nuclear reactor pair used for electric power generation.
Westinghouse Electric Company LLC is a US based nuclear power company formed in 1998 from the nuclear power division of the original Westinghouse Electric Corporation.
Working mass, also referred to as reaction mass, is a mass against which a system operates in order to produce acceleration.
The World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) is an international group of nuclear power plant operators, dedicated to nuclear safety.
World energy consumption is the total energy used by the entire human civilization.
The World Nuclear Association (WNA) is the international organization that promotes nuclear power and supports the companies that comprise the global nuclear industry.
The World Nuclear Industry Status Report is a yearly report that explores the global challenges facing the nuclear power industry.
World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.
Wyhl is a municipality in the district of Emmendingen in Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany.
Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station (decommissioned) was a nuclear power plant in Rowe, Massachusetts, that operated from 1960 to 1992.
Yellowcake (also called urania) is a type of uranium concentrate powder obtained from leach solutions, in an intermediate step in the processing of uranium ores.
Zion Nuclear Power Station was the third dual-reactor nuclear power plant in the Commonwealth Edison (ComEd) network and served Chicago and the northern quarter of Illinois.
The endeavor to use 100% renewable energy for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport is motivated by global warming, pollution and other environmental issues, as well as economic and energy security concerns.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
NS 50 Let Pobedy (50 лет Победы), translated as 50 Years of Victory or Fiftieth Anniversary of Victory (referring to victory of USSR over Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War), is a Russian nuclear-powered icebreaker.
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