216 relations: AEG, Agence France-Presse, Akbar Etemad, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Alan Cranston, Algeria, Ali Akbar Salehi, Ali Khamenei, Ali Larijani, Alireza Jafarzadeh, AMIA bombing, Arak, Iran, Areva NC, Argentina, Asia Times, Associated Press, Atomenergoprom, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Atoms for Peace, Avigdor Lieberman, Barack Obama, BBC News, BBC Online, Belarus, Benjamin Netanyahu, Board of directors, Boris Yeltsin, Brookings Institution, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Bushehr, Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, Catherine Ashton, Central Intelligence Agency, CNN, Condoleezza Rice, Congressional Research Service, Council on Foreign Relations, Court of Justice of the European Union, Cuba, Darkhovin Nuclear Power Plant, Defense Intelligence Agency, Dennis C. Blair, Director of National Intelligence, Dominique Lorentz, Duqu, Economy of Iran, Ehud Barak, Energy in Iran, Enriched uranium, ..., Erlangen, EU three, Eurodif, European Union, Evidence, Face the Nation, Federation of American Scientists, Fereydoon Abbasi, Flame (malware), Fordo, Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant, Foreign direct investment in Iran, Foreign Intelligence Service (Russia), Frankfurt, Frontline (U.S. TV series), G20, Gas centrifuge, George W. Bush, Georges Besse, Gerald Ford, Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel, Green Salt Project, Gulf Cooperation Council, Hans M. Kristensen, Hassan Firouzabadi, Hassan Rouhani, Heavy water, Henry D. Sokolski, Hezbollah, Hugo Chávez, Indonesia, Institute for Science and International Security, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation, International Institute for Strategic Studies, International sanctions, IR-40, Iran, Iran and weapons of mass destruction, Iran–Iraq War, Iran–Israel proxy conflict, Iran–Pakistan relations, Iran–United States relations, Iran–United States relations after 1979, Iranian presidential election, 2005, Iranian presidential election, 2009, Iranian Revolution, IRISL Group, Isfahan, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Isotope separation, Javier Solana, Joby Warrick, John R. Bolton, Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Leon Panetta, Libya, List of Iranian nuclear negotiators, Los Angeles Times, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel, Manufactured Crisis, Mark Fitzpatrick, Mashhad, Michael D. Maples, Mike Pompeo, Mohamed ElBaradei, Mohammad Ali Hosseini, Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mossad, Munich Security Conference, Natanz, National Atomic Energy Commission, National Council of Resistance of Iran, National Intelligence Estimate, Non-Aligned Movement, Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, Nuclear facilities in Iran, Nuclear fuel bank, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear reactor, Oghab 2, Olli Heinonen, Opposition to military action against Iran, Parchin, Party leaders of the United States Senate, People's Mujahedin of Iran, Pete Hoekstra, Pierre Goldschmidt, Plutonium, Pressurized heavy-water reactor, Pressurized water reactor, Qom, R. Nicholas Burns, Radiopharmacology, Ramin Mehmanparast, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Research reactor, Reuters, Richard N. Haass, Robert Gibbs, Rosatom, Roscosmos, Russia, Saeed Jalili, Sanctions against Iran, Shaul Mofaz, Shiraz, Siemens, Stanislav Lunev, Steve Coll, Stuxnet, Supreme Leader of Iran, Syria, Tehran, Tehran International Conference on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, 2010, The Age, The Daily Telegraph, The Nation, The New York Review of Books, The New York Times, The New York Times International Edition, The New Yorker, The News & Observer, The Washington Post, Thomas Fingar, Timeline of the nuclear program of Iran, Tom Brokaw, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Triuranium octoxide, United Nations, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council resolution, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1696, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1803, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1835, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1929, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1984, United Nations Security Council Resolution 2049, United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231, United Nations Security Council Resolution 984, United States Institute of Peace, United States Intelligence Community, United States Senate Committee on Armed Services, Uranium, Uranium dioxide, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium mining, Urmia, Venezuela, Vienna, Voice of America, VVER, Watt, Weapons-grade nuclear material, White House, World Trade Organization, Yukiya Amano, 1992 attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires, 2003 invasion of Iraq. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG (AEG) (German: "General electricity company") was a German producer of electrical equipment founded as the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in 1883 in Berlin by Emil Rathenau.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Akbar Etemad was the president of the Atomic Energy Organisation of Iran from 1974 to 1978.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Alan MacGregor Cranston (June 19, 1914 – December 31, 2000) was an American politician, journalist and world federalist who served as a United States Senator from California, from 1969 to 1993.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ali Akbar Salehi (علیاکبر صالحی,; born 24 March 1949) is an Iranian academic, diplomat and the head of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Larijani (علی لاریجانی,; born 3 June 1957) is an Iranian conservative politician, philosopher and former military officer who has been Speaker of the Parliament of Iran since 2008.
Alireza Jafarzadeh is a media commentator on the Middle East and an active dissident figure to the Iranian government.
The AMIA bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA; Argentine Israelite Mutual Association) building.
Arak (اراک, Arāk), also known as Soltan Abad (سلطان آباد, Soltān Ābād), is the capital of Markazi Province, Iran.
Areva NC, formerly COGEMA (Compagnie générale des matières nucléaires) is a French company, created in 1976 from the production division of the French government's CEA (English: Atomic Energy Commission).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Atomenergoprom (Atomic Energy Power Corporation, AEP, AO Атомэнергопром) is a 100% state-owned holding company that unifies the Russian civil nuclear industry.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran.
"Atoms for Peace" was the title of a speech delivered by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953.
Avigdor Lieberman (אביגדור ליברמן,,; born Evet Lvovich Liberman, Эве́т Льво́вич Ли́берман, 5 July 1958) is a Soviet-born Israeli politician who serves as the Defense Minister of Israel.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC Online, formerly known as BBCi, is the BBC's online service.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu (born 21 October 1949) is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since 2009, previously holding the position from 1996 to 1999.
A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
Bushehr, or Bushire (بوشهر; also Romanised as Būshehr, Bouchehr, Buschir and Busehr; also Bandar Bushehr (بندر بوشهر), also Romanised as Bandar Būshehr and Bandar-e Būshehr; previously known as Beh Ardasher, Antiochia in Persis (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Περσίδος) and Bukht Ardashir), is the capital city of Bushehr Province, Iran.
The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (نیروگاه اتمی بوشهر) is a nuclear power plant in Iran southeast of the city of Bushehr, between the fishing villages of Halileh and Bandargeh along the Persian Gulf.
Catherine Margaret Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland, (born 20 March 1956 at Upholland, Lancashire) is a British Labour politician who served as the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and First Vice President of the European Commission in the Barroso Commission from 2009 to 2014.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Darkhovin Nuclear Power Plant (also known as Esteghlal Nuclear Power Plant) is a planned nuclear power plant located about 70 kilometers south of Ahvaz, Iran at the Karun river, as part of the Nuclear program of Iran.
The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is an external intelligence service of the United States federal government specializing in defense and military intelligence.
Dennis Cutler Blair (born February 4, 1947) is the former United States Director of National Intelligence and is a retired United States Navy admiral who was the commander of U.S. forces in the Pacific region.
The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to.
Dominique Lorentz is a French investigative journalist who has written books on the stakes and reality of nuclear proliferation, as well as a film documentary, La République Atomique ("The Atomic Republic"), which related terrorist acts in France in the 1980s to the nuclear program of Iran.
Duqu is a collection of computer malware discovered on 1 September 2011, thought to be related to the Stuxnet worm and to have been created by Unit 8200.
The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector.
Ehud Barak (Ehud_barak.ogg, born Ehud Brog; 12 February 1942) is an Israeli politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001.
Energy in Iran describes energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Iran.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Erlangen (East Franconian: Erlang) is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany.
The EU three, also known as EU big three, EU Triumvirate or EU trio, refers to France, Germany and Italy, a group that consists of the three large founding members of the European Union; or France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, a group of countries of the European Union, especially during the negotiations with Iran.
Eurodif, which means European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium, is a subsidiary of the French company AREVA, which operates a uranium enrichment plant established at the Tricastin Nuclear Power Center in Pierrelatte in Drôme.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.
Face the Nation is an American Sunday morning political interview show broadcast on the CBS television network.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Fereydoon Abbasi-Davani (فریدون عباسی دوانی; born 11 July 1958) is an Iranian nuclear scientist who was head of Atomic Energy Organization from 2011 to 2013.
Flame, also known as Flamer, sKyWIper, and Skywiper, is modular computer malware discovered in 2012 that attacks computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system.
Fordo or Fordow (فردو) is a village in Fordo Rural District, Kahak District, Qom County, Qom Province, Iran.
Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant (FFEP) is an uranium enrichment facility located northeast of the Iranian city of Qom, near Fordow village.
Foreign direct investment in Iran (FDI) has been hindered by unfavorable or complex operating requirements and by international sanctions, although in the early 2000s the Iranian government liberalized investment regulations.
The Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation (p) or SVR RF (СВР РФ) is Russia's external intelligence agency, mainly for civilian affairs.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
A gas centrifuge is a device that performs isotope separation of gases.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Georges Besse (25 December 1927, in Clermont-Ferrand, France – 17 November 1986, in Paris) was a French businessman who led several large state-controlled French companies during his lifetime.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل, born 4 May 1945) is an Iranian philosopher, politician and former chairman of the Parliament.
The Green Salt Project (also known as the "Project 1-11") is an alleged secretive Iranian entity focusing on uranium processing, high explosives and a missile warhead design.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
Hans M. Kristensen (born April 7, 1961) is director of the Nuclear Information Project at the Federation of American Scientists.
Hassan Firouzabadi (حسن فيروزآبادی) is an Iranian ophthalmologist and retired military officer who is currently a member of the Expediency Discernment Council, and a senior military advisor to the Supreme Leader of Iran.
Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Henry D. Sokolski is the Executive Director of the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, a Washington-based nonprofit organization founded in 1994 to promote a better understanding of strategic weapons proliferation issues among policymakers, scholars, and the media.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) is a nonprofit, non-governmental institution to inform the public about "science and policy issues affecting international security." Founded in 1993, the group is led by founder and former United Nations IAEA nuclear inspector David Albright.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons
Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons is a landmark international law case, where the International Court of Justice gave an advisory opinion stating that there is no source of law, customary or treaty, that explicitly prohibits the possession or even use of nuclear weapons.
The International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) formerly the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) began as a U.S. proposal, announced by United States Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman on February 6, 2006, to form an international partnership to promote the use of nuclear power and close the nuclear fuel cycle in a way that reduces nuclear waste and the risk of nuclear proliferation.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
International sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and security.
IR-40 is an Iranian 40 megawatt (thermal) heavy water reactor under construction at Khondab, near Arak, adjacent to the 1990s era Arak Heavy Water Production Plant.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is not known to currently possess weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and has signed treaties repudiating the possession of weapons of mass destruction including the Biological Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention, and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Iran–Israel proxy conflict, or Iran–Israel proxy war, and Iran–Israel Cold War is the ongoing proxy war between Iran and Israel.
After Pakistan gained its independence in August 1947, Iran was the first country to recognize its sovereign status.
As of 2018, there are no formal diplomatic relations between Iran and the United States.
This article is about the current international tensions between Iran and other countries, especially the United States and Israel.
Iran's ninth presidential election took place in two rounds, the first on 17 June 2005, the run-off on 24 June.
Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The maritime fleet of the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL Group) comprises 115 ocean-going vessels, with the total capacity of.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
Francisco Javier Solana de Madariaga, KOGF, KCMG (born 14 July 1942), is a Spanish physicist and Socialist politician.
Joby Warrick (born August 4, 1960) is an American journalist who has won two Pulitzer Prizes.
John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948) is an American attorney, political commentator, Republican consultant and activist, government official and former diplomat who serves as the 27th National Security Advisor of the United States.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; barnāmeye jāme‘e eqdāme moshtarak, acronym: برجام BARJAM), known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the nuclear program of Iran reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.
Leon Edward Panetta (born June 28, 1938) is an American politician who has served in several different public office positions, such as Secretary of Defense, Director of the CIA, White House Chief of Staff, Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and as a U.S. Representative from California.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This is a list of chief nuclear negotiators of Iran since 2003.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born 27 October 1945), popularly known as Lula, is a Brazilian politician and former union leader, who served as the 35th President of Brazil from 2003 to 2011.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Exchanges between Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel have demonstrated a strained relationship.
Manufactured Crisis: The Untold Story of the Iran Nuclear Scare is a book authored by Gareth Porter, an American historian, investigative journalist, author and policy analyst specializing in U.S. national security policy.
Mark Fitzpatrick (born November 13, 1968) is a Canadian former professional ice hockey goaltender.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Lieutenant General Michael David Maples, USA (born May 17, 1949) served as the 16th Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), appointed on November 4, 2005.
Michael Richard Pompeo (born December 30, 1963) is an American politician, attorney and former United States Army officer serving as the 70th and current United States Secretary of State since 2018.
Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (محمد مصطفى البرادعى,,; born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013.
Mohammad-Ali Hosseini (محمدعلی حسینی) was the deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran.
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.
The Munich Security Conference (MSC; Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz) is an annual conference on international security policy that has taken place in Munich, Bavaria since 1963.
Natanz (نطنز, also romanized as Naţanz) is a city and capital of Natanz County, Isfahan Province, Iran.
The National Atomic Energy Commission (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA) is the Argentine government agency in charge of nuclear energy research and development.
The National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI; Šurā-ye melli-e moqāwemat-e Īrān) is an Iranian political organization based in France.
National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) are United States federal government documents that are the authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) on intelligence related to a particular national security issue.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
The Nonproliferation Policy Education Center (NPEC) is a not-for-profit organization that is based in Washington, D.C., and was founded in 1994 to promote a better understanding of strategic weapons proliferation issues among policymakers, scholars and the media.
The Nuclear Age Peace Foundation was founded in 1982, and is composed of individuals and organizations worldwide who support worldwide efforts to abolish nuclear weapons.
Anarak, near Yazd, has a nuclear waste storage site.
A nuclear fuel bank is reserve of low enriched uranium (LEU) for countries that need a backup source of LEU to fuel their nuclear reactors.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Oghab 2 ("Eagle 2") (عقاب ۲) is an Iranian counter-espionage agency tasked to protect Iran's nuclear facilities from threats, including sabotage and cyber warfare.
Olli Heinonen (born in Finland) is Senior Advisor on Science and Nonproliferation at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies and an associate of Harvard University's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
According to most U.S. news networks, a majority of Americans support United States or Israeli military action against Iran.
Parchin is an Iranian military complex, located about southeast of Tehran.
The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are two United States Senators and members of the party leadership of the United States Senate.
The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.
Peter Hoekstra (born October 30, 1953) is a Dutch American politician serving as the United States Ambassador to the Netherlands since January 10, 2018.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
A pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear reactor, commonly using natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and neutron moderator.
Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants (notable exceptions being the United Kingdom, Japan, and Canada) and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Radiopharmacology or medicinal radiochemistry is radiochemistry applied to medicine and thus the pharmacology of radiopharmaceuticals (medicinal radiocompounds, that is, pharmaceutical drugs that are radioactive).
Ramin Mehmanparast (رامین مهمانپرست) is an Iranian diplomat, the former spokesman of the Iranian foreign ministry and the current ambassador to Poland and Lithuania.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as a neutron source.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Richard Nathan Haass (born July 28, 1951) is an American diplomat.
Robert Lane Gibbs (born March 29, 1971) is an American communication expert who is the executive vice president and global chief communications officer of McDonald's.
Rosatom, (r) stylized as ROSATOM and also known as the Rosatom State Nuclear Energy Corporation, the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom, or the Rosatom State Corporation, is a Russian state corporation headquartered in Moscow that specializes in nuclear energy.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saeed Jalili (سعید جلیلی; born September 1965) is an Iranian conservative politician and diplomat who was secretary of the Supreme National Security Council from 2007 to 2013.
Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the resulting hostage crisis, the United States imposed an asset freeze and trade embargo against Iran.
Lieutenant General Shaul Mofaz (שאול מופז; born Shahrām Mofazzazkār شهرام مفضضکار; 4 November 1948) is an Iranian-born Israeli former soldier and politician.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Stanislav Lunev (Станислав Лунев; born 1946 in Leningrad) is a former Soviet military officer, the highest-ranking GRU officer to defect from Russia to the United States.
Steve Coll (born October 8, 1958) is an American journalist, academic and executive.
Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm, first uncovered in 2010.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Iran convened a conference titled "International Disarmament and Non-proliferation: World Security without Weapons of Mass Destruction" on 17 and 18 April 2010 in Tehran.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The News & Observer is an American regional daily newspaper that serves the greater Triangle area based in Raleigh, North Carolina.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Charles Thomas Fingar, born January 11, 1946, is a professor at Stanford University.
This is the timeline of the nuclear program of Iran.
Thomas John Brokaw (born February 6, 1940) is an American television journalist and author, best known for being the anchor and managing editor of NBC Nightly News for 22 years (1982–2004).
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Triuranium octoxide (U3O8) is a compound of uranium.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
A United Nations Security Council resolution is a UN resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council; the UN body charged with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1696, adopted on July 31, 2006, after expressing concern at the intentions of the nuclear programme of Iran, the Council demanded that Iran halt its uranium enrichment programme.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737 was unanimously passed by the United Nations Security Council on 23 December 2006.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747 was a United Nations Security Council resolution that tightened the sanctions imposed on Iran in connection with the Iranian nuclear program.
UN Security Council Resolution 1803 was adopted on March 3, 2008, by a vote of 14-0-1, with Indonesia as the only abstention.
UN Security Council Resolution 1835 was adopted unanimously by United Nations Security Council on 27 September 2008.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1929, adopted on 9 June 2010, after recalling resolutions 1696 (2006), 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008), 1835 (2008) and 1887 (2009) concerning the topics of Iran and non-proliferation, the Council noted that Iran had failed to comply with previous Security Council resolutions concerning its nuclear program and imposed further sanctions on the country.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1984, adopted on June 9, 2011, after recalling resolutions 1696 (2006), 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008), 1835 (2008), 1887 (2009) and 1929 (2010) concerning Iran and non-proliferation, the Council extended the mandate of an expert panel monitoring sanctions against the country over its nuclear program for a period of one year.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2049 was unanimously adopted on 7 June 2012.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231 was a resolution endorsing the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on the nuclear program of Iran.
United Nations Security Council resolution 984, adopted unanimously on 11 April 1995, the Council gave assurances to non-nuclear weapon states that were parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) against the threat of nuclear proliferation.
The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) is an American non-partisan, independent, federal institution that provides analysis of and is involved in conflicts around the world.
The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States.
The Committee on Armed Services (sometimes abbreviated SASC for Senate Armed Services Committee on its Web site) is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nation’s military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other matters related to defense policy.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Uranium mining is the process of extraction of uranium ore from the ground.
Urmia (Urmiya, اورمیه; ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; ارومیه (Variously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh); Ûrmiye, ورمێ) is the largest city in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran and the capital of Urmia County.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
The Water-Water Energetic Reactor (VVER), or WWER (from Водо-водяной энергетический реактор; transliterates as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor; Water-Water Power Reactor) is a series of pressurised water reactor designs originally developed in the Soviet Union, and now Russia, by OKB Gidropress.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Weapons-grade nuclear material is any fissionable nuclear material that is pure enough to be used to make a nuclear weapon or has properties that make it particularly suitable for nuclear weapons use.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
is a Japanese diplomat and the current Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), having been elected to the position in July 2009.
The attack on the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires was a suicide bombing attack on the building of the Israeli embassy of Argentina, located in Buenos Aires, which was carried out on 17 March 1992.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
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