280 relations: Actinide, Admiralty, Adolf Hitler, Advanced boiling water reactor, Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, Advanced heavy-water reactor, Albert Einstein, Alfa-class submarine, Alternator, American Nuclear Society, Americium, AP1000, Aqueous homogeneous reactor, Arco, Idaho, Argentina, Argonne National Laboratory, Atomic nucleus, Atoms for Peace, AVR reactor, Barium, Beryllium, Beta decay, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Biphenyl, BN-350 reactor, BN-600 reactor, Boiling point, Boiling water reactor, Boric acid, Boron, Breeder reactor, British contribution to the Manhattan Project, Burnup, Cambridge University Press, Camp Century, CANDU reactor, Carbon dioxide, Carnot cycle, Chain reaction, Chernobyl disaster, Chicago Pile-1, Clean and Environmentally Safe Advanced Reactor, Containment building, Control rod, Coolant, Cosmic ray, Critical mass, Delayed neutron, Depleted uranium, Desalination, ..., District heating, Dollar (reactivity), Doppler broadening, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor, Einstein–Szilárd letter, Electric generator, Energy amplifier, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station, EPR (nuclear reactor), Experimental Breeder Reactor I, Fast-neutron reactor, Fertile material, Fissile material, Fission fragment reactor, FLiBe, Fluoride, Fossil fuel, Francis Perrin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Frisch–Peierls memorandum, Fritz Strassmann, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Fusion power, Gabon, Gamma ray, Gas centrifuge, Gas core reactor rocket, Gas-cooled fast reactor, Gas-cooled reactor, Gaseous diffusion, Gaseous fission reactor, Generation II reactor, Generation III reactor, Generation IV reactor, Godiva device, Graphite, Graphite-moderated reactor, Half-life, Hanford Site, Heat exchanger, Heavy water, Helium, Hungary, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen economy, Hydrogen-moderated self-regulating nuclear power module, India, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Industrial radiography, Integral fast reactor, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, Iodine pit, Isotope, Isotope separation, Isotopes of iodine, Isotopes of thorium, ITER, Joule, Kalpakkam, KAMINI, K–Ar dating, Kinetic energy, Lead-bismuth eutectic, Lead-cooled fast reactor, Leo Szilard, Light-water reactor, Liquid fluoride thorium reactor, Liquid metal cooled reactor, Lise Meitner, List of nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll, List of nuclear reactors, List of small nuclear reactor designs, List of United States Naval reactors, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Magnetohydrodynamic generator, Magnox, Manhattan Project, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MAUD Committee, Mercury (element), Mitsubishi APWR, Molten salt, Molten salt reactor, Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment, Monju Nuclear Power Plant, MOX fuel, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Natural uranium, Negative feedback, Neutron, Neutron activation analysis, Neutron capture, Neutron economy, Neutron emission, Neutron flux, Neutron howitzer, Neutron moderator, Neutron poison, Neutron radiation, Neutron temperature, Neutron transport, Nitrogen, Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear cross section, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear fusion–fission hybrid, Nuclear lightbulb, Nuclear marine propulsion, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear meltdown, Nuclear power, Nuclear Power 2010 Program, Nuclear power by country, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear propulsion, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor coolant, Nuclear reactor core, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear submarine, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, Oklo, One Less Nuclear Power Plant, Operating temperature, Otto Hahn, Pakistan, Passive nuclear safety, Paul Kuroda, Pebble-bed reactor, Photovoltaics, Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Plutonium-241, Pool-type reactor, Positron emission, Pressure vessel, Pressurized heavy-water reactor, Pressurized water reactor, Prompt criticality, Prompt neutron, Propeller, Protactinium, Radiation, Radiation protection, Radioactive decay, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, RBMK, Reactor pressure vessel, Reduced moderation water reactor, Research reactor, Romania, Safety engineering, Sayonara Nuclear Power Plants, Scram, Sellafield, SL-1, Small modular reactor, Small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor, Smiling Buddha, Smoke detector, Sodium, Sodium-cooled fast reactor, Sodium-potassium alloy, South Korea, Soviet submarine K-19, Soviet submarine K-27, Soviet submarine K-431, Soviet Union, Spacecraft propulsion, Spent nuclear fuel, Steam turbine, Strontium-90, Subcritical reactor, Supercritical water reactor, Superphénix, Terphenyl, Thermal energy, Thermal power station, Thermal-neutron reactor, Thorium, Thorium fuel cycle, Thorium-based nuclear power, Three Mile Island accident, Timeline of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Transuranium element, Traveling wave reactor, Tritiated water, Tritium, Tube Alloys, Turbine, UBS, Ultraviolet, United Nations General Assembly, United States Atomic Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, United States naval reactors, University of Arkansas, University of Chicago, Uranium, Uranium dioxide, Uranium hydride, Uranium-233, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, US-A, USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Very-high-temperature reactor, VVER, Walter Zinn, Water, Weapons-grade nuclear material, World Nuclear Association, World Nuclear Industry Status Report, World War II, Xenon-135, 20th century. Expand index (230 more) » « Shrink index
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) is a Generation III boiling water reactor.
The Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) is a type of nuclear reactor designed and operated in the United Kingdom.
The advanced heavy-water reactor (AHWR) is the latest Indian design for a next-generation nuclear reactor that burns thorium in its fuel core.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The Soviet Union/Russian Navy Project 705 (Лира/Lira, "Lyre") was a class of hunter/killer nuclear-powered submarines.
An alternator is an electrical generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.
The American Nuclear Society (ANS) is an international, not-for-profit 501(c)(3) scientific and educational organization with a membership of approximately 11,000 scientists, engineers, educators, students, and other associate members.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
The AP1000 is a nuclear power plant designed and sold by Westinghouse Electric Company.
Aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHR) are a type of nuclear reactor in which soluble nuclear salts (usually uranium sulfate or uranium nitrate) are dissolved in water.
Arco is a city in Butte County, Idaho, United States.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
"Atoms for Peace" was the title of a speech delivered by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953.
The AVR reactor (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor) was a prototype pebble bed reactor, located immediately adjacent to Jülich Research Centre in West Germany, constructed in 1960, grid connected in 1967 and shut down in 1988.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is India's premier nuclear research facility headquartered in Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Biphenyl (or diphenyl or phenylbenzene or 1,1′-biphenyl or lemonene) is an organic compound that forms colorless crystals.
The BN-350 was a sodium-cooled fast reactor located at Aktau Nuclear Power Plant.
The BN-600 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
The boiling water reactor (BWR) is a type of light water nuclear reactor used for the generation of electrical power.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.
Britain contributed to the Manhattan Project by helping initiate the effort to build the first atomic bombs in the United States during World War II, and helped carry it through to completion in August 1945 by supplying crucial expertise.
In nuclear power technology, burnup (also known as fuel utilization) is a measure of how much energy is extracted from a primary nuclear fuel source.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camp Century was an Arctic United States military scientific research base in Greenland.
The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle proposed by French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded upon by others in the 1830s and 1840s.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.
The Clean and Environmentally Safe Advanced Reactor (CAESAR) is a nuclear reactor concept created by Claudio Filippone, the Director of the Center for Advanced Energy Concepts at the University of Maryland, College Park and head of the ongoing CAESAR Project.
A containment building, in its most common usage, is a reinforced steel or lead structure enclosing a nuclear reactor.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
A coolant is a substance, typically liquid or gas, that is used to reduce or regulate the temperature of a system.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
In nuclear engineering, a delayed neutron is a neutron emitted after a nuclear fission event, by one of the fission products (or actually, a fission product daughter after beta decay), any time from a few milliseconds to a few minutes after the fission event.
Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
District heating (also known as heat networks or teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating.
A dollar expresses the reactivity of a nuclear reactor relative to delayed and prompt criticality.
In atomic physics, Doppler broadening is the broadening of spectral lines due to the Doppler effect caused by a distribution of velocities of atoms or molecules.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) is a passively safe generation III+ reactor design derived from its predecessor, the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) and from the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR).
The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
In nuclear physics, an energy amplifier is a novel type of nuclear power reactor, a subcritical reactor, in which an energetic particle beam is used to stimulate a reaction, which in turn releases enough energy to power the particle accelerator and leave an energy profit for power generation.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
The Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power plant on the shore of Lake Erie near Monroe, in Frenchtown Charter Township, Michigan on approximately 1,000 acres.
The EPR is a third generation pressurised water reactor (PWR) design.
Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) is a decommissioned research reactor and U.S. National Historic Landmark located in the desert about southeast of Arco, Idaho.
A fast-neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons, as opposed to thermal neutrons used in thermal-neutron reactors.
Fertile material is a material that, although not itself fissionable by thermal neutrons, can be converted into a fissile material by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
Similar to how the fission-fragment rocket produces thrust, a fission fragment reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates electricity by decelerating an ion beam of fission byproducts instead of using nuclear reactions to generate heat.
FLiBe is a molten salt made from a mixture of lithium fluoride (LiF) and beryllium fluoride (BeF2).
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Francis Perrin (17 August 1901 – 4 July 1992) was a French physicist, the son of Nobel prize-winning physicist Jean Perrin.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission or CEA (French: Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives), is a French public government-funded research organisation in the areas of energy, defense and security, information technologies and health technologies.
The Frisch–Peierls memorandum was the first technical exposition of a practical nuclear weapon.
Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A gas centrifuge is a device that performs isotope separation of gases.
Gas core reactor rockets are a conceptual type of rocket that is propelled by the exhausted coolant of a gaseous fission reactor.
The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) system is a nuclear reactor design which is currently in development.
A gas-cooled reactor (GCR) is a nuclear reactor that uses graphite as a neutron moderator and carbon dioxide as coolant.
Gaseous diffusion is a technology used to produce enriched uranium by forcing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) through semipermeable membranes.
A gas nuclear reactor (or gas fueled reactor or vapor core reactor) is a proposed kind of nuclear reactor in which the nuclear fuel would be in a gaseous state rather than liquid or solid.
A generation II reactor is a design classification for a nuclear reactor, and refers to the class of commercial reactors built up to the end of the 1990s.
A Generation III reactor is a development of Generation II nuclear reactor designs incorporating evolutionary improvements in design developed during the lifetime of the Generation II reactor designs.
Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of nuclear reactor designs currently being researched for commercial applications by the Generation IV International Forum, with Technology readiness levels varying between the level requiring a demonstration, to economical competitive implementation.
The Lady Godiva device was an unshielded, pulsed nuclear reactor originally situated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), near Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
A graphite reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses carbon as a neutron moderator, which allows un-enriched uranium to be used as nuclear fuel.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The hydrogen economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen.
The hydrogen-moderated self-regulating nuclear power module (HPM), also referred to as the compact self-regulating transportable reactor (ComStar), is a new type of nuclear power reactor using hydride as a neutron moderator.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) is one of India's premier nuclear research centres.
Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen.
The integral fast reactor (IFR, originally advanced liquid-metal reactor) is a design for a nuclear reactor using fast neutrons and no neutron moderator (a "fast" reactor).
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, also known as IFMIF, is a projected material testing facility in which candidate materials for the use in an energy producing fusion reactor can be fully qualified.
The iodine pit, also called the iodine hole or xenon pit, is a temporary disabling of a nuclear reactor due to buildup of short-lived nuclear poisons in the reactor core.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
There are 37 known isotopes of iodine (53I) from 108I to 144I; all undergo radioactive decay except 127I, which is stable.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Kalpakkam is a small town in Tamil Nadu, India, situated on the Coromandel Coast 70 kilometres south of Chennai.
KAMINI (Kalpakkam Mini reactor) is a research reactor at Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research in Kalpakkam, India.
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Lead-Bismuth Eutectic or LBE is a eutectic alloy of lead (44.5%) and bismuth (55.5%) used as a coolant in some nuclear reactors, and is a proposed coolant for the lead-cooled fast reactor, part of the Generation IV reactor initiative.
The lead-cooled fast reactor is a nuclear reactor design that features a fast neutron spectrum and molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant.
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
The light-water reactor (LWR) is a type of thermal-neutron reactor that uses normal water, as opposed to heavy water, as both its coolant and neutron moderator – furthermore a solid form of fissile elements is used as fuel.
The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (acronym LFTR; often pronounced lifter) is a type of molten salt reactor.
A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
There have been several nuclear and radiation accidents involving fatalities, including nuclear power plant accidents, nuclear submarine accidents, and radiotherapy incidents.
This is a list of all the commercial nuclear reactors in the world, sorted by country, with operational status.
Small modular reactors are approximately one-third the size of the current nuclear plants (about 350 MWe or less) and have compact and scalable designs which propose to offer a host of safety, construction and economic benefits by offering great potential for lower initial capital investment and scalability.
List of United States Naval reactors is a comprehensive annotated list of all naval reactors designed, built, or used by the United States Navy.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHD generator) is a magnetohydrodynamic converter that transforms thermal energy and kinetic energy into electricity.
Magnox is a type of nuclear power/production reactor that was designed to run on natural uranium with graphite as the moderator and carbon dioxide gas as the heat exchange coolant.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
The MAUD Committee was a British scientific working group formed during the Second World War.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
The Mitsubishi advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR) is a generation III nuclear reactor design developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) based on pressurized water reactor technology.
Molten salt is salt which is solid at standard temperature and pressure (STP) but enters the liquid phase due to elevated temperature.
A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a class of generation IV nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant, or even the fuel itself, is a molten salt mixture.
The Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was an experimental molten salt reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researching this technology through the 1960s; constructed by 1964, it went critical in 1965 and was operated until 1969.
is a Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor, located in Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant, Fukui Prefecture.
Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material, usually consisting of plutonium blended with natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium.
A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.
Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a nuclear process used for determining the concentrations of elements in a vast amount of materials.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
Neutron economy is defined as the ratio of an adjoint weighted average of the excess neutron production divided by an adjoint weighted average of the fission production.
Neutron emission is a mode of radioactive decay in which one or more neutrons are ejected from a nucleus.
The neutron flux is a scalar quantity used in nuclear physics and nuclear reactor physics.
A neutron howitzer is a neutron source that emits neutrons in a single direction.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
In applications such as nuclear reactors, a neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.
Neutron radiation is a form of ionizing radiation that presents as free neutrons.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Neutron transport is the study of the motions and interactions of neutrons with materials.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility." Examples include lethal effects to individuals, radioactive isotope to the environment, or reactor core melt." The prime example of a "major nuclear accident" is one in which a reactor core is damaged and significant amounts of radioactive isotopes are released, such as in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
The nuclear cross section of a nucleus is used to characterize the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Hybrid nuclear fusion–fission (hybrid nuclear power) is a proposed means of generating power by use of a combination of nuclear fusion and fission processes.
Nuclear gas core closed cycle rocket engine diagram, nuclear "light bulb" A nuclear lightbulb is a hypothetical type of spacecraft engine using a gaseous fission reactor to achieve nuclear propulsion.
Nuclear marine propulsion is propulsion of a ship or submarine with heat provided by a nuclear power plant.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
A nuclear meltdown (core melt accident or partial core melt) is a severe nuclear reactor accident that results in core damage from overheating.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
The "Nuclear Power 2010 Program" was launched in 2002 by President George W. Bush in order to restart orders for nuclear power reactors in the U.S. by providing subsidies for a handful of Generation III+ demonstration plants.
Nuclear power plants currently operate in 31 countries.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear propulsion includes a wide variety of propulsion methods that fulfill the promise of the Atomic Age by using some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor coolant is a coolant in a nuclear reactor used to remove heat from the nuclear reactor core and transfer it to electrical generators and the environment.
A nuclear reactor core is the portion of a nuclear reactor containing the nuclear fuel components where the nuclear reactions take place and the heat is generated.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with protecting public health and safety related to nuclear energy.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant (Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES) was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk,, who was there at the time.
Oklo is a region near the town of Franceville, in the Haut-Ogooué province of the Central African state of Gabon.
One Less Nuclear Power Plant is the flagship energy policy launched in April 2012 by Seoul, the capital city of the Republic of Korea, in its broad effort to respond to climate change and energy crisis in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident and the nationwide rolling blackout in 2011.
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Passive nuclear safety is a safety feature of a nuclear reactor that does not require operator actions or electronic feedback in order to shut down safely in the event of a particular type of emergency (usually overheating resulting from a loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow).
Paul Kazuo Kuroda (1 April 1917 – 16 April 2001), was a Japanese-American chemist and nuclear scientist.
The pebble-bed reactor (PBR) is a design for a graphite-moderated, gas-cooled nuclear reactor.
Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Plutonium-241 (Pu-241) is an isotope of plutonium formed when plutonium-240 captures a neutron.
NC State's PULSTAR Reactor is a 1 MW pool-type research reactor with 4% enriched, pin-type fuel consisting of '''UO2''' pellets in zircaloy cladding.NC State's Pulstar Nuclear Reactor. Pool-type reactors, also called swimming pool reactors, are a type of nuclear reactor that has a core (consisting of the fuel elements and the control rods) immersed in an open pool of usually water.
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.
A pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear reactor, commonly using natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and neutron moderator.
Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants (notable exceptions being the United Kingdom, Japan, and Canada) and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).
In nuclear engineering, prompt criticality is said to be reached during a nuclear fission event if one or more of the immediate or prompt neutrons released by an atom in the event causes an additional fission event resulting in a rapid, exponential increase in the number of fission events.
In nuclear engineering, a prompt neutron is a neutron immediately emitted by a nuclear fission event, as opposed to a delayed neutron decay which can occur within the same context, emitted after beta decay of one of the fission products anytime from a few milliseconds to a few minutes later.
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.
Protactinium (formerly protoactinium) is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
The RBMK (Реактор Большой Мощности Канальный Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy, “High Power Channel-type Reactor”) is a class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactor designed and built by the Soviet Union.
A reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a nuclear power plant is the pressure vessel containing the nuclear reactor coolant, core shroud, and the reactor core.
The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR), also referred to as the Resource-renewable BWR, is a proposed type of light water moderated nuclear power reactor, featuring some characteristics of a fast neutron reactor, thereby combining the established and proven technology of light water reactors with the desired features of fast neutron reactors.
Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as a neutron source.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Safety engineering is an engineering discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety.
is an anti-nuclear organization and campaign in Japan.
A scram or SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor.
Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.
The SL-1, or Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One, was a United States Army experimental nuclear power reactor in the United States which underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators.
Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a type of nuclear fission reactor which are smaller than conventional reactors, and manufactured at a plant and brought to a site to be fully constructed.
Small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor (SSTAR) is a proposed lead-cooled nuclear reactor being primarily researched and developed in the United States by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Smiling BuddhaThis test has many code names.
A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is a Generation IV reactor project to design an advanced fast neutron reactor.
Sodium-potassium alloy, colloquially called NaK (commonly pronounced), is an alloy of two alkali metals sodium (Na, atomic number 11) and potassium (K, atomic number 19) and which is usually liquid at room temperature.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
K-19 was one of the first two Soviet submarines of the Project 658 class (NATO reporting name), the first generation nuclear submarine equipped with nuclear ballistic missiles, specifically the R-13 SLBM.
K-27 was the only submarine of Project 645 in the Soviet Navy.
Soviet submarine K-431 (originally the Soviet submarine K-31) was a Soviet nuclear-powered submarine that had a reactor accident on 10 August 1985.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years.
A subcritical reactor is a nuclear fission reactor concept that produces fission without achieving criticality.
The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is a concept Generation IV reactor, mostly designed as light water reactor (LWR) that operates at supercritical pressure (i.e. greater than 22.1 MPa).
Superphénix (Superphoenix) or SPX was a nuclear power station prototype on the Rhône river at Creys-Malville in France, close to the border with Switzerland.
Terphenyls are a group of closely related aromatic hydrocarbons.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
A thermal power station is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power.
A thermal-neutron reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses slow or thermal neutrons.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
The thorium fuel cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses an isotope of thorium,, as the fertile material.
Thorium-based nuclear power is nuclear reactor-based, fueled primarily by the nuclear fission of the isotope uranium-233 produced from the fertile element thorium.
The Three Mile Island accident occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg.
Fukushima Dai-ichi (dai-ichi means "#1"), is a multi-reactor nuclear power site in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
A traveling-wave reactor (TWR) is a type of nuclear fission reactor that can convert fertile material into usable fuel through nuclear transmutation, in tandem with the burnup of fissile material.
Tritiated water is a radioactive form of water where the usual protium atoms are replaced with tritium.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Tube Alloys was a code name of the clandestine research and development programme, authorised by the United Kingdom, with participation from Canada, to develop nuclear weapons during the Second World War.
A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
United States naval reactors are nuclear reactors used by the United States Navy aboard certain ships to generate the steam used to produce power for propulsion, electric power, catapulting airplanes in aircraft carriers, and a few more minor uses.
The University of Arkansas (U of A, UARK, or UA) is a public land-grant, doctoral research university located in Fayetteville, Arkansas.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.
Uranium hydride, also called uranium trihydride (UH3), is an inorganic compound and a hydride of uranium.
Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Upravlyaemy Sputnik Aktivnyy (Управляемый Спутник Активный for Controlled Active Satellite), or US-A, also known in the west as Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite or RORSAT, was a series of Soviet reconnaissance satellites.
USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3rd August 1958.
The very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR), or high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), is a Generation IV reactor concept that uses a graphite-moderated nuclear reactor with a once-through uranium fuel cycle.
The Water-Water Energetic Reactor (VVER), or WWER (from Водо-водяной энергетический реактор; transliterates as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor; Water-Water Power Reactor) is a series of pressurised water reactor designs originally developed in the Soviet Union, and now Russia, by OKB Gidropress.
Walter Henry Zinn (December 10, 1906 – February 14, 2000) was a nuclear physicist who was the first director of the Argonne National Laboratory from 1946 to 1956.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Weapons-grade nuclear material is any fissionable nuclear material that is pure enough to be used to make a nuclear weapon or has properties that make it particularly suitable for nuclear weapons use.
The World Nuclear Association (WNA) is the international organization that promotes nuclear power and supports the companies that comprise the global nuclear industry.
The World Nuclear Industry Status Report is a yearly report that explores the global challenges facing the nuclear power industry.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xenon-135 (135Xe) is an unstable isotope of xenon with a half-life of about 9.2 hours.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.
"production reactor", Air-cooled reactor, Atomic Pile, Atomic pile, Atomic reactor, Classification of Nuclear Reactors, Cooling system (nuclear reactor), Fission reactor, Fuel element, Generation V reactor, List of reactor types, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Reactor Technology, Nuclear factories, Nuclear fission reactor, Nuclear pile, Nuclear power reactor, Nuclear reactor technology, Nuclear reactors, Pile (nuclear reactor), Production reactor, Reactor design, Reactor, nuclear.