183 relations: Active transport, Adolf Butenandt, Afimoxifene, Agonist, Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, Aldosterone, Algae, Alpha helix, Amphimedon queenslandica, Androgen receptor, Androstane, Animal, Anti-inflammatory, Biomolecular structure, Björn Vennström, C-terminus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Calcitriol receptor, Cell nucleus, Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor, Cholesterol, Chromatin, Cnidaria, Coactivation (Transcription), Coactivator (genetics), Conformational isomerism, Constitutive androstane receptor, Coordination complex, Corepressor, Cortisol, Cortisone, COUP-TFI, COUP-TFII, Ctenophora, Cytochrome P450, Cytoplasm, Cytosol, DAX1, Developmental biology, Dexamethasone, Dissociation (chemistry), DNA, DNA-binding domain, Edward Adelbert Doisy, Edward Calvin Kendall, Elwood V. Jensen, Endocrine disruptor, Endogeny (biology), Ernest Starling, Estradiol, ..., Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen receptor beta, Estrogen-related receptor, Estrogen-related receptor alpha, Estrogen-related receptor beta, Estrogen-related receptor gamma, Farnesoid X receptor, Fatty acid, Food and Drug Administration, Fungus, Gene, Gene expression, Genomics, Germ cell nuclear factor, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Heat shock protein, Heme, Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 gamma, Hippocampus, Histone, Histone acetyltransferase, Histone deacetylase, Hormone, Hormone response element, Intracellular receptor, Inverse agonist, Inverted repeat, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipophilicity, Liver receptor homolog-1, Liver X receptor, Liver X receptor alpha, Liver X receptor beta, Messenger RNA, Mifepristone, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Mnemiopsis, Molecular biology, Molecular mass, N-terminus, Nematode, Nerve growth factor IB, Neuron-derived orphan receptor 1, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nuclear receptor coactivator 2, Nuclear receptor related-1 protein, NucleaRDB, Obesogen, Orphan receptor, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, Phenylalanine, Phosphatidylinositol, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor, Pierre Chambon, Placozoa, Pregnane X receptor, Progesterone, Progesterone receptor, Prostaglandin, Protein, Protein dimer, Protein domain, Protein folding, Protein targeting, Protist, RAR-related orphan receptor, RAR-related orphan receptor alpha, RAR-related orphan receptor beta, RAR-related orphan receptor gamma, Receptor (biochemistry), Retinoic acid, Retinoic acid receptor, Retinoic acid receptor alpha, Retinoic acid receptor beta, Retinoic acid receptor gamma, Retinoid, Retinoid X receptor, Retinoid X receptor alpha, Retinoid X receptor beta, Retinoid X receptor gamma, Rev-ErbA, Rev-ErbA alpha, Rev-ErbA beta, RNA polymerase, Ronald M. Evans, Selective androgen receptor modulator, Selective estrogen receptor modulator, Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, Selective progesterone receptor modulator, Signal transduction, Small heterodimer partner, Space-filling model, Sponge, Starlet sea anemone, Steric effects, Steroid hormone, Steroid hormone receptor, Steroidogenic factor 1, Sterol, Synapse, Tadeusz Reichstein, Testicular receptor, Testicular receptor 2, Testicular receptor 4, Testosterone, Thyroid hormone receptor, Thyroid hormone receptor alpha, Thyroid hormone receptor beta, Thyroid hormones, TLX, Transactivation, Transcription (biology), Transcription coregulator, Transcription factor, Transrepression, Tretinoin, Trichoplax, Tyrosine, Unified atomic mass unit, V-erbA-related gene, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Xenobiotic, Zinc finger. Expand index (133 more) » « Shrink index
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.
Afimoxifene, also known as 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT, 4-HT, OHTAM, others), is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group and the major active metabolite of tamoxifen.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
The Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research is one of the prizes awarded by the Lasker Foundation for the outstanding discovery, Contribution and achievement in the field of medicine and Human Physiology.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
Amphimedon queenslandica (formerly known as Reniera sp.) is a sponge native to the Great Barrier Reef.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Androstane is a C19 steroid with a gonane core.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Björn Vennström (born 1948) is a Swedish molecular biologist.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
The calcitriol receptor, more commonly known as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and also known as NR1I1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 1), is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TFs) proteins are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
Coactivation is a process by which the transcription of RNA is increased.
A coactivator is a type of transcriptional coregulator that binds to an activator (a transcription factor) to increase the rate of transcription of a gene or set of genes.
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1I3 gene.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
In the field of molecular biology, a corepressor is a substance that inhibits the expression of genes.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cortisone, also known as 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.
COUP-TF1 (COUP Transcription Factor 1) also known as NR2F1 (Nuclear Receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2F1 gene.
COUP-TFII (COUP transcription factor 2), also known as NR2F2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2F2 gene.
Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the NR0B1 gene (nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1).
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA-binding domain (DBD) is an independently folded protein domain that contains at least one structural motif that recognizes double- or single-stranded DNA.
Edward Adelbert Doisy (November 13, 1893 – October 23, 1986) was an American biochemist.
Edward Calvin Kendall (March 8, 1886 – May 4, 1972) was an American chemist.
Elwood Vernon Jensen (January 13, 1920 – December 16, 2012) was the Distinguished University Professor, George and Elizabeth Wile Chair in Cancer Research at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine's Vontz Center for Molecular Studies.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Ernest Henry Starling (17 April 1866 – 2 May 1927) was a British physiologist who contributed many fundamental ideas to this subject.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
The ERRs are orphan nuclear receptors, meaning the identity of their endogenous ligand has yet to be unambiguously determined.
Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), also known as NR3B1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group B, member 1), is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the ESRRA (Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha) gene.
Estrogen-related receptor beta (ERR-β), also known as NR3B2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group B, member 2), is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the ESRRB (EStrogen Related Receptor Beta) gene.
Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERR-gamma), also known as NR3B3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group B, member 3), is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the ESRRG (EStrogen Related Receptor Gamma) gene.
The bile acid receptor (BAR), also known as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) or NR1H4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4) is a nuclear receptor that is encoded by the NR1H4 gene in humans.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
The germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF), also known as RTR (retinoid receptor-related testis-associated receptor) or NR6A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR6A1 gene.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
HNF4 (Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4) is a nuclear receptor protein mostly expressed in the liver, gut, kidney, and pancreatic beta cells that is critical for liver development.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) also known as NR2A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group A, member 1) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the HNF4A gene.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 gamma (HNF4G) also known as NR2A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group A, member 2) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the HNF4G gene.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to form ε-N-acetyllysine.
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.
Intracellular receptors are receptors located inside the cell rather than on its cell membrane.
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.
An inverted repeat (or IR) is a single stranded sequence of nucleotides followed downstream by its reverse complement.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
The liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) also known as NR5A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR5A2 gene.
The liver X receptor (LXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors and is closely related to nuclear receptors such as the PPARs, FXR and RXR.
Liver X receptor alpha (LXR-alpha) is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1H3 gene (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 3).
Liver X receptor beta (LXR-β) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Mifepristone, also known as RU-486, is a medication typically used in combination with misoprostol, to bring about an abortion.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
Mnemiopsis leidyi, the warty comb jelly or sea walnut, is a species of tentaculate ctenophore (comb jelly), originally native to the western Atlantic coastal waters.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The nerve growth factor IB (NGFIB) also known as Nur77 or NR4A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR4A1 gene.
The neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) also known as NR4A3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR4A3 gene.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
The nuclear receptor coactivator 2 also known as NCoA-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOA2 gene.
The Nuclear receptor related 1 protein (NURR1) also known as NR4A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR4A2 gene.
The NucleaRDB is a database of nuclear receptors.
Obesogens are foreign chemical compounds that disrupt normal development and balance of lipid metabolism, which in some cases, can lead to obesity.
In biochemistry, an orphan receptor is a protein that has a similar structure to other identified receptors but whose endogenous ligand has not yet been identified.
In the field of molecular biology, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), also known as NR1C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 1), is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the PPARA gene.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta or delta (PPAR-β or PPAR-δ), also known as NR1C2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 2) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARD gene.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides.
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
The photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor (PNR), also known as NR2E3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2E3 gene.
Pierre Chambon (born 7 February 1931, Mulhouse, France) was the founder of the in Strasbourg, France.
The Placozoa are a basal form of free-living (non-parasitic) multicellular organism.
In the field of molecular biology, the pregnane X receptor (PXR), also known as the steroid and xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptor (SXR) or nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 (NR1I2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1I2 (nuclear Receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2) gene.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
The RAR-related orphan receptors (RORs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors.
RAR-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα), also known as NR1F1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group F, member 1) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RORA gene.
RAR-related orphan receptor beta (ROR-beta), also known as NR1F2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group F, member 2) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RORB gene.
RAR-related orphan receptor gamma (RORγ) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RORC (RAR-related orphan receptor C) gene.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.
The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is a type of nuclear receptor which can also act as a transcription factor that is activated by both all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid.
Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR-α), also known as NR1B1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group B, member 1) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RARA gene.
Retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta), also known as NR1B2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group B, member 2) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RARB gene.
Retinoic acid receptor gamma (RAR-γ), also known as NR1B3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group B, member 3) is a nuclear receptor encoded by the RARG gene.
The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are vitamers of vitamin A or are chemically related to it.
The retinoid X receptor (RXR) is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by 9-cis retinoic acid, which is discussed controversially to be of endogenous relevance, and 9-cis-13,14-dihydro-retinoic acid, which is likely to be the major endogenous mammalian RXR-selective agonist.
Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR-alpha), also known as NR2B1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group B, member 1) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RXRA gene.
Retinoid X receptor beta (RXR-beta), also known as NR2B2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group B, member 2) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RXRB gene.
Retinoic acid receptor gamma (RXR-gamma), also known as NR2B3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group B, member 3) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RXRG gene.
The Rev-ErbA proteins are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors.
Rev-ErbA alpha also known as NR1D1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1D1 gene.
Rev-ErbA beta (Rev-erbβ) also known as NR1D2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1D2 gene.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
Ronald Mark Evans (born April 17, 1949 in Los Angeles) is an American professor and biologist at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator.
Selective androgen receptor modulators or SARMs are a novel class of androgen receptor ligands.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of drugs that act on the estrogen receptor (ER).
Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators (SEGRMs) and selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists (SEGRAs) formerly known as dissociated glucocorticoid receptor agonists (DIGRAs) are a class of experimental drugs designed to share many of the desirable anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, or anticancer properties of classical glucocorticoid drugs but with fewer side effects such as skin atrophy.
A selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) is an agent that acts on the progesterone receptor.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
The small heterodimer partner (SHP) also known as NR0B2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR0B2 gene.
In chemistry, a space-filling model, also known as a calotte model, is a type of three-dimensional (3D) molecular model where the atoms are represented by spheres whose radii are proportional to the radii of the atoms and whose center-to-center distances are proportional to the distances between the atomic nuclei, all in the same scale.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
The starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) is a species of small sea anemone in the family Edwardsiidae native to the east coast of the United States, with introduced populations along the coast of southeast England and the west coast of the United States.
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.
The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) protein is a transcription factor involved in sex determination by controlling activity of genes related to the reproductive glands or gonads and adrenal glands.
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Tadeusz Reichstein (20 July 1897 – 1 August 1996) was a Polish-Swiss chemist and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate (1950).
The testicular receptor proteins are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors.
The testicular receptor 2 (TR2) also known as NR2C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 1) is protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2C1 gene.
Testicular receptor 4 also known as NR2C2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2C2 gene.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding thyroid hormone.
Thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TR-alpha) also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group A, member 1 (NR1A1), is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the THRA gene.
Thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR-beta) also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group A, member 2 (NR1A2), is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the THRB gene.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Nuclear receptor TLX (homologue of the Drosophila tailless gene) also known as NR2E1 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group E member 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2E1 gene.
In the context of gene regulation: transactivation is the increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological processes or by artificial means, through the expression of an intermediate transactivator protein.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, transcription coregulators are proteins that interact with transcription factors to either activate or repress the transcription of specific genes.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In the field of molecular biology, transrepression is a process whereby one protein represses (i.e., inhibits) the activity of a second protein through a protein-protein interaction.
Tretinoin, also known as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), is medication used for the treatment of acne and acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Trichoplax adhaerens is the only extant representative of phylum Placozoa, which is a basal group of multicellular animals (metazoa).
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
V-erbA-related protein 2 (EAR-2) also known as NR2F6 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2F6 gene.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism.
A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions (Zn2+) in order to stabilize the fold.