230 relations: Aachener Zeitung, Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Actinide, Adam Curtis, Advanced boiling water reactor, Amory Lovins, AP1000, Arjun Makhijani, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Automobile safety, Autorité de sûreté nucléaire, Background radiation, Becquerel, Behavior of nuclear fuel during a reactor accident, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Benjamin K. Sovacool, Bernard Cohen (physicist), Biosphere, Black market, Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Cancer, Carbon dioxide, Chalk River Laboratories, Chernobyl, Chernobyl disaster, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Church Rock uranium mill spill, Civil disobedience, Cobalt-60, Cold War, Columbia River, Committed dose, Computer worm, Containment building, Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power, Core damage frequency, Cost overrun, Cyclone, David Lochbaum, Decontamination, Deep geological repository, DEMOnstration Power Station, Design-basis event, Dirty bomb, Drought, Earthquake, Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor, ..., Ecosystem, Effective dose (radiation), Electronvolt, Enriched uranium, Environmental impact of nuclear power, Environmental remediation, Epidemiology, EPR (nuclear reactor), European Fusion Development Agreement, Fat Man, Fault (geology), Federal Agency on Atomic Energy (Russia), Federal government of the United States, Federation of American Scientists, Flood, Food chain, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Fusion power, General Electric, Generation III reactor, Generation IV reactor, Genpatsu-shinsai, Goiânia accident, Greenhouse gas, Hanford Site, Hans Blix, High-level waste, Iitate, Fukushima, In Mortal Hands, Inertial fusion power plant, Inherent safety, Institute of Development Studies, Integral fast reactor, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Nuclear Event Scale, Iodine-129, Iodine-131, Ionization, Isotopes of neptunium, Israel, ITER, Japan, Joule, Journey to the Safest Place on Earth, Karachi Nuclear Power Complex, Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant, Katsuhiko Ishibashi, Kernfysische Dienst, Kobe University, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Kyshtym, Kyshtym disaster, List of designated terrorist groups, List of fusion experiments, List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (G), List of nuclear whistleblowers, Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, Long-lived fission product, Loss-of-coolant accident, Louise Fréchette, M. V. Ramana, Mary Kaldor, Matthew Bunn, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mole (unit), Mycle Schneider, Nagasaki, National Nuclear Security Administration, National Post, Negev Nuclear Research Center, Non-ionizing radiation, Non-Nuclear Futures, Normal Accidents, Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Nuclear criticality safety, Nuclear flask, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear holocaust, Nuclear Information and Resource Service, Nuclear meltdown, Nuclear power, Nuclear power debate, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear power plant emergency response team, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reactor accidents in the United States, Nuclear reactor safety system, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear safety in the United States, Nuclear submarine, Nuclear technology, Nuclear terrorism, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapons of the United States, Office for Nuclear Regulation, Office of Science and Technology, Operation Opera, Operation Outside the Box, Operation Scorch Sword, Orano, Orde Kittrie, Overseas Development Institute, Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Passive nuclear safety, Pebble bed modular reactor, Plasma containment, Plowshares movement, Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Price–Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Radionuclide, RBMK, RELAP5-3D, Richard A. Falk, Ruble, Russia, Safety code (nuclear reactor), Safety culture, Scram, Sellafield, September 11 attacks, Sievert, SL-1, Small modular reactor, Southern Airways Flight 49, Soviet submarine K-19, Soviet submarine K-431, Stephanie Cooke, Strontium-90, Stuxnet, Technetium-99, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, The Doomsday Machine (book), The Economist, The Lancet, Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, Thermonuclear weapon, Three Mile Island accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station, Timeline of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Tokaimura nuclear accident, Transuranium element, Trevor Findlay, Trinity (nuclear test), Tropical cyclone, Tsunami, Typhoon, UBS, Ukraine, Union of Concerned Scientists, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, United States, United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Uranium, Uranium mining, Vassili Nesterenko, Vulnerability of nuclear plants to attack, War, Washington (state), Washington State Department of Ecology, Watt, Windscale fire, World Association of Nuclear Operators, World Energy Council, Yoshihiko Noda, Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, Zia Mian, 1990 Clinic of Zaragoza radiotherapy accident, 1996 San Juan de Dios radiotherapy accident, 1999 Blayais Nuclear Power Plant flood, 2007 Chūetsu offshore earthquake, 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. 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Aachener Zeitung (lit. Aachen Newspaper, AZ) is a daily newspaper published in Aachen, Germany.
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Kevin Adam Curtis (born 26 May 1955) is a British documentary film-maker.
The advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) is a Generation III boiling water reactor.
Amory Bloch Lovins (born November 13, 1947) is an American physicist, environmental scientist, writer, and Chairman/Chief Scientist of the Rocky Mountain Institute.
The AP1000 is a nuclear power plant designed and sold by Westinghouse Electric Company.
Arjun Makhijani is an electrical and nuclear engineer who is President of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted on 15 November 1983 by the President of India by exercising the powers conferred by Section 27 of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962) to carry out certain regulatory and safety functions under the Act.
The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) is an Australian body that monitors and identifies solar radiation and nuclear radiation risks to the population of Australia.
Automobile safety is the study and practice of design, construction, equipment and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of traffic collisions.
The Autorité de sûreté nucléaire (Nuclear Safety Authority, ASN) is an independent French administrative authority set up by law 2006-686 of 13 June 2006 concerning nuclear transparency and safety.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
This page describes how uranium dioxide nuclear fuel behaves during both normal nuclear reactor operation and under reactor accident conditions, such as overheating.
The Robert and Renée Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (also known as the Belfer Center) is a permanent research center located within the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
Benjamin K. Sovacool is director of the Danish Center for Energy Technology at the Department of Business Technology and Development and a professor of social sciences at Aarhus University.
Bernard Leonard Cohen (June 14, 1924 – March 17, 2012) was born in Pittsburgh,CV composed and posted currently, http://www.phyast.pitt.edu/~blc/Vita-Pub.htm Retrieved 23 March 2011 and was Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Pittsburgh.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
The Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (BfS) is the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection.
The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC; Commission canadienne de sûreté nucléaire) is the federal regulator of nuclear power and materials in Canada.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Chalk River Laboratories (Laboratoires de Chalk River; also known as CRL, Chalk River Labs and formerly Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories) is a Canadian nuclear research facility in Deep River, Renfrew County, Ontario, near Chalk River, about north-west of Ottawa.
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (Chornobyl′,;; Charnobyl′) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, near Ukraine's border with Belarus.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant or Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (Чорнобильська атомна електростанція, Чернобыльская АЭС) is a decommissioned nuclear power station near the city of Pripyat, Ukraine, northwest of the city of Chernobyl, from the Belarus–Ukraine border, and about north of Kiev.
The Church Rock uranium mill spill occurred in the US state of New Mexico on July 16, 1979, when United Nuclear Corporation's Church Rock uranium mill tailings disposal pond breached its dam.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
The committed dose in radiological protection is a measure of the stochastic health risk due to an intake of radioactive material into the human body.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
A containment building, in its most common usage, is a reinforced steel or lead structure enclosing a nuclear reactor.
Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power: A Critical Global Assessment of Atomic Energy is a 2011 book by Benjamin K. Sovacool, published by World Scientific.
Core damage frequency (CDF) is a term used in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) that indicates the likelihood of an accident that would cause severe damage to a nuclear fuel in nuclear reactor core.
A cost overrun, also known as a cost increase, underrated or budget overrun, involves unexpected costs incurred in excess of budgeted amounts due to an underestimation of the actual cost during budgeting.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
David A. Lochbaum is the Director of the Nuclear Safety Project for the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS).
Decontamination (sometimes abbreviated as decon, dcon, or decontam) is the process of cleansing an object or substance to remove contaminants such as micro-organisms or hazardous materials, including chemicals, radioactive substances, and infectious diseases.
A deep geological repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated deep within a stable geologic environment (typically below 300 m or 1000 feet).
DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Station) is a proposed nuclear fusion power station that is intended to build upon the ITER experimental nuclear fusion reactor.
A design basis event (DBE) is a postulated event used to establish the acceptable performance requirements of the structures, systems, and components, such that a Nuclear power plant can withstand the event and not endanger the health or safety of the plant operators or the wider public.
A dirty bomb or radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a speculative radiological weapon that combines radioactive material with conventional explosives.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
The Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) is a passively safe generation III+ reactor design derived from its predecessor, the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) and from the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR).
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Effective dose is a dose quantity in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
The environmental impact of nuclear power results from the nuclear fuel cycle, operation, and the effects of nuclear accidents.
Environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
The EPR is a third generation pressurised water reactor (PWR) design.
EFDA (1999 - 2013) has been followed by EUROfusion, which is a consortium of national fusion research institutes located in the European Union and Switzerland.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Ministry for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation and Federal Agency on Atomic Energy (or Rosatom), were a Russian federal executive body in 1992-2008 (as Federal Ministry in 1992-2004 and as Federal Agency in 2004-2008).
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
The is a disabled nuclear power plant located on a site in the towns of Ōkuma and Futaba in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
A Generation III reactor is a development of Generation II nuclear reactor designs incorporating evolutionary improvements in design developed during the lifetime of the Generation II reactor designs.
Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of nuclear reactor designs currently being researched for commercial applications by the Generation IV International Forum, with Technology readiness levels varying between the level requiring a demonstration, to economical competitive implementation.
, meaning nuclear power plant earthquake disaster (from the two words Genpatsu – nuclear power plant – and Shinsai – earthquake disaster) is a term which was coined by Japanese seismologist Professor Katsuhiko Ishibashi in 1997.
The Goiânia accident was a radioactive contamination accident that occurred on September 13, 1987, at Goiânia, in the Brazilian state of Goiás, after a forgotten radiotherapy source was taken from an abandoned hospital site in the city.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
Hans Martin Blix (born 28 June 1928) is a Swedish diplomat and politician for the Liberal People's Party.
High-level waste (HLW) is a type of nuclear waste created by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.
is a village located in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.
In Mortal Hands: A Cautionary History of the Nuclear Age is a 2009 book by Stephanie Cooke.
An inertial fusion power plant is intended to produce electric power by use of inertial confinement fusion techniques on an industrial scale.
In the chemical and process industries, a process has inherent safety if it has a low level of danger even if things go wrong.
The Institute of Development Studies (IDS) is an institution for development research, teaching and learning, and impact and communications, based at the University of Sussex.
The integral fast reactor (IFR, originally advanced liquid-metal reactor) is a design for a nuclear reactor using fast neutrons and no neutron moderator (a "fast" reactor).
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) was introduced in 1990 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to enable prompt communication of safety-significant information in case of nuclear accidents.
Iodine-129 (129I) is a long-lived radioisotope of iodine which occurs naturally, but also is of special interest in the monitoring and effects of man-made nuclear fission decay products, where it serves as both tracer and potential radiological contaminant.
Iodine-131 (131I) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Journey to the Safest Place on Earth is a 2013 documentary film written and directed by Edgar Hagen.
The Karachi Nuclear Power Complex or KNPC is located in Paradise Point, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The is a large, modern (housing the world's first ABWR) nuclear power plant on a 4.2-square-kilometer (1,038 acres) site including land in the towns of Kashiwazaki and Kariwa in Niigata Prefecture, Japan on the coast of the Sea of Japan, from where it gets cooling water.
is a professor in the Research Center for Urban Safety and Security in the Graduate School of Science at Kobe University, Japan and a seismologist who has written extensively in the areas of seismicity and seismotectonics in and around the Japanese Islands.
The Kernfysische dienst (Department of Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguards) is the Dutch nuclear regulatory organisation.
, also known in the Kansai region as, is a leading Japanese national university located in the city of Kobe, in Hyōgo.
Kristin Shrader-Frechette (born 1944) is O'Neill Family Professor, Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Philosophy, at the University of Notre Dame.
Kyshtym (Кышты́м) is a town in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern slopes of the Southern Ural Mountains northwest of Chelyabinsk, near the town of Ozyorsk.
The Kyshtym disaster was a radioactive contamination accident that occurred on 29 September 1957 at Mayak, a plutonium production site in Russia for nuclear weapons and nuclear fuel reprocessing plant of the Soviet Union.
This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
There have been a number of nuclear whistleblowers, often nuclear engineers, who have identified safety concerns about nuclear power and nuclear weapons production.
These are lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents.
Long-lived fission products (LLFPs) are radioactive materials with a long half-life (more than 200,000 years) produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium.
A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is a mode of failure for a nuclear reactor; if not managed effectively, the results of a LOCA could result in reactor core damage.
Louise Fréchette, OC (born July 16, 1946) was United Nations Deputy Secretary-General for eight years, and a long-time Canadian diplomat and public servant.
Mary Henrietta Kaldor CBE (born 16 March 1946) is a British academic, currently Professor of Global Governance at the London School of Economics, where she is also the Director of the Civil Society and Human Security Research Unit.
Matthew Bunn is an American nuclear and energy policy analyst, currently a professor of practice at the Harvard Kennedy School at Harvard University.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Mycle Schneider (pronounce Michael, /ˈmaɪkəl/) (born 1959 in Cologne) is a Paris-based nuclear energy consultant, and lead author of The World Nuclear Industry Status Reports.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is a United States federal government agency responsible for enhancing national security through the military application of nuclear science.
The National Post is a conservative Canadian English-language newspaper.
The Negev Nuclear Research Center (קריה למחקר גרעיני – נגב, officially Nuclear Research Center – Negev or NRCN, unofficially sometimes referred to as the Dimona reactor) is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, about thirteen kilometers south-east of the city of Dimona.
Non-ionizing (or non-ionising) radiation refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy per quantum (photon energy) to ionize atoms or molecules—that is, to completely remove an electron from an atom or molecule.
Non-Nuclear Futures: The Case for an Ethical Energy Strategy is a 1975 book by Amory B. Lovins and John H. Price.
Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies is a 1984 book by Yale sociologist Charles Perrow, which provides a detailed analysis of complex systems conducted from a social sciences perspective.
A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility." Examples include lethal effects to individuals, radioactive isotope to the environment, or reactor core melt." The prime example of a "major nuclear accident" is one in which a reactor core is damaged and significant amounts of radioactive isotopes are released, such as in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
Nuclear criticality safety is a field of nuclear engineering dedicated to the prevention of nuclear and radiation accidents resulting from an inadvertent, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
A nuclear flask is a shipping container that is used to transport active nuclear materials between nuclear power station and spent fuel reprocessing facilities.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
A nuclear holocaust or nuclear apocalypse is a theoretical scenario involving widespread destruction and radioactive fallout causing the collapse of civilization, through the use of nuclear weapons.
The Nuclear Information and Resource Service (NIRS) is an anti-nuclear group founded in 1978 to be the information and networking center for citizens and organizations concerned about nuclear power, radioactive waste, radiation and sustainable energy issues.
A nuclear meltdown (core melt accident or partial core melt) is a severe nuclear reactor accident that results in core damage from overheating.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
The nuclear power debate is a long-running controversy about the risks and benefits of using nuclear reactors to generate electricity for civilian purposes.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
A nuclear power plant emergency response team (ERT) is an incident response team composed of plant personnel and civil authority personnel specifically trained to respond to the occurrence of an accident at a nuclear power plant.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The United States Government Accountability Office reported more than 150 incidents from 2001 to 2006 of nuclear plants not performing within acceptable safety guidelines.
The three primary objectives of nuclear reactor safety systems as defined by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission are to shut down the reactor, maintain it in a shutdown condition and prevent the release of radioactive material.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with protecting public health and safety related to nuclear energy.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
Nuclear safety in the United States is governed by federal regulations issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).
A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear technology is technology that involves the nuclear reactions of atomic nuclei.
Nuclear terrorism refers to an act of terrorism in which a person or people belonging to a terrorist organization detonates a nuclear device.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The United States was the first country to manufacture nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in combat, with the separate bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II.
The Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) is the safety regulator for the civil nuclear industry in the United Kingdom.
The Office of Science and Technology (OST) was the name given by United States President John F. Kennedy in 1961 to the President's Science Advisory Committee which lasted until 1973, and also a non-ministerial department of the United Kingdom Government between 1992 and 2007.
Operation Opera (מבצע אופרה.), also known as Operation Babylon, was a surprise Israeli air strike carried out on 7 June 1981, which destroyed an Iraqi nuclear reactor under construction 17 kilometers (10.5 miles) southeast of Baghdad.
Operation Outside the Box (מבצע מחוץ לקופסה, Mivtza Michutz La'Kufsa) was an Israeli airstrike on a suspected nuclear reactor, Associated Press Latest Update: 04.28.11, 18:10 referred to as the Al Kibar site (also referred to in IAEA documents as Dair Alzour), in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria, which occurred just after midnight (local time) on 6 September 2007.
Operation Scorch Sword (عملیات شمشیر سوزان) was a surprise airstrike carried out by Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) on 30 September 1980, that damaged an almost-complete nuclear reactor 17 km south-east of Baghdad, Iraq.
Orano (previously Areva) is a French multinational group specializing in nuclear power and renewable energy headquartered in Paris La Défense.
Orde Félix Kittrie is a tenured professor of law at Arizona State University, where his teaching and research focus on international law (especially nonproliferation and sanctions) and criminal law.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
The Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority پاکستان نيؤكلر ريگيلرٹوى اثھارٹى; Acronym: PNRA), is mandated by Government of Pakistan to regulate use of nuclear energy, radioactive sources and use of ionizing radiations. The mission of PNRA is to protect the public, radiation workers and environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiations by formulating and implementing effective regulations and building a relationship of trust with the licensees and maintain transparency in its actions and decisions. Although, the concept of nuclear regulatory existed in 1965 but it gained full government commission in 2001, with the establishment Nuclear Command Authority. Headquartered in Islamabad, this agency was established in 2001 after President Justice (retired) Rafiq Tarar signed the executive decree "Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Ordinance No.III" in 2000, and was first opened its operation in 2001.
Passive nuclear safety is a safety feature of a nuclear reactor that does not require operator actions or electronic feedback in order to shut down safely in the event of a particular type of emergency (usually overheating resulting from a loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow).
The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a particular design of pebble bed reactor under development by South African company PBMR (Pty) Ltd since 1994.
In nuclear physics, plasma containment refers to the act of maintaining a plasma in a discrete volume.
The Plowshares movement is an anti-nuclear weapons and Christian pacifist movement that advocates active resistance to war.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
The Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act (commonly called the Price-Anderson Act) is a United States federal law, first passed in 1957 and since renewed several times, which governs liability-related issues for all non-military nuclear facilities constructed in the United States before 2026.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII), An Institiúid Éireannach um Chosaint Raideolaíoch, was an independent public body in Ireland under the aegis of the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
The RBMK (Реактор Большой Мощности Канальный Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy, “High Power Channel-type Reactor”) is a class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactor designed and built by the Soviet Union.
RELAP5-3D is a simulation tool that allows users to model the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for various operational transients and postulated accidents that might occur in a nuclear reactor.
Richard Anderson Falk (born November 13, 1930) is an American professor emeritus of international law at Princeton University.
The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
In the context of nuclear reactors, a safety code is a computer program used to analyze the safety of a reactor, or to simulate possible accident conditions.
Safety culture is the attitude, beliefs, perceptions and values that employees share in relation to safety in the workplace.
A scram or SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor.
Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
The SL-1, or Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One, was a United States Army experimental nuclear power reactor in the United States which underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators.
Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a type of nuclear fission reactor which are smaller than conventional reactors, and manufactured at a plant and brought to a site to be fully constructed.
The hijacking of Southern Airways Flight 49 started on November 10, 1972 in Birmingham, Alabama, stretching over 30 hours and, not ending until the next evening in Havana, Cuba.
K-19 was one of the first two Soviet submarines of the Project 658 class (NATO reporting name), the first generation nuclear submarine equipped with nuclear ballistic missiles, specifically the R-13 SLBM.
Soviet submarine K-431 (originally the Soviet submarine K-31) was a Soviet nuclear-powered submarine that had a reactor accident on 10 August 1985.
Stephanie S. Cooke is a journalist who began her reporting career in 1977 at the Associated Press.
Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years.
Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm, first uncovered in 2010.
Technetium-99 (99Tc) is an isotope of technetium which decays with a half-life of 211,000 years to stable ruthenium-99, emitting beta particles, but no gamma rays.
The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable is a book by the essayist, scholar, philosopher, and statistician Nassim Nicholas Taleb, released April 17, 2007 by Random House.
The Doomsday Machine: The High Price of Nuclear Energy, the World's Most Dangerous Fuel is a 2012 book by Martin Cohen and Andrew McKillop which addresses a broad range of concerns regarding the nuclear industry, the economics and environmental aspects of nuclear energy, nuclear power plants, and nuclear accidents.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, or THORP, is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria, England.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The Three Mile Island accident occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg.
Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI) is a nuclear power plant located on Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River just south of Harrisburg.
Fukushima Dai-ichi (dai-ichi means "#1"), is a multi-reactor nuclear power site in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan.
There have been two Tokaimura nuclear accidents at the nuclear facility at Tōkai, Ibaraki.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
Trevor Findlay is director of the Nuclear Energy Futures Project at the Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) in Waterloo, Ontario.
Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere.
UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is a nonprofit science advocacy organization based in the United States.
The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was set up by resolution of the United Nations General Assembly in 1955.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium mining is the process of extraction of uranium ore from the ground.
Vassili Nesterenko (2 December 1934 – 25 August 2008) was a Soviet and Belarusian physicist from Ukraine and a former director of the Institute of Nuclear Energy at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (1977-1987).
The vulnerability of nuclear plants to deliberate attack is of concern in the area of nuclear safety and security.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
The Washington State Department of Ecology, or simply, Ecology, is an environmental regulatory agency for the State of Washington.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
The Windscale fire of 10 October 1957 was the worst nuclear accident in Great Britain's history, ranked in severity at level 5 out of a possible 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
The World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) is an international group of nuclear power plant operators, dedicated to nuclear safety.
The World Energy Council is a global and inclusive forum for thought-leadership and tangible engagement with headquarters in London.
is a Japanese politician who was Prime Minister of Japan from 2011 to 2012.
The Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, as designated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act amendments of 1987, is to be a deep geological repository storage facility within Yucca Mountain for spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste in the United States.
Zia Mian (Urdu: ضياء میاں) is a Pakistani-American physicist, nuclear expert, nuclear policy maker and research scientist at Princeton University.
The 1990 Clinic of Zaragoza radiotherapy accident was a radiological accident that occurred from December 10–20, 1990, at the Clinic of Zaragoza, in Spain.
The radiotherapy accident in Costa Rica occurred with the Alcyon II radiotherapy unit at San Juan de Dios Hospital in San José, Costa Rica.
The 1999 Blayais Nuclear Power Plant flood was a flood that took place on the evening of December 27, 1999.
The Chūetsu Offshore earthquake (平成19 年（2007 年）新潟県中越沖地震) was a powerful magnitude 6.6 earthquake that occurred 10:13 local time (01:13 UTC) on July 16, 2007, in the northwest Niigata region of Japan.
The was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately.