129 relations: Actinide, Actinium, Activation product, Alchemy, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Americium, Antoine Lavoisier, Argon, Argonne National Laboratory, Asymptotic giant branch, Atom, Atomic nucleus, B2FH paper, Base metal, Beryllium, Beta decay, Big Bang, Biological half-life, Biology, Boron, Caesium, Caesium-137, Carbon, Carbon-14, Carlo Rubbia, Chain reaction, Chemical element, Chemical substance, Chernobyl, Chrysopoeia, Corpuscularianism, Cosmic ray, Cosmic ray spallation, Curium, Decay chain, Deuterium, Doppler broadening, Endothermic process, Energy amplifier, Ernest Rutherford, Ernest Walton, Fast-neutron reactor, Fred Hoyle, Frederick Soddy, Gamma ray, Geoffrey Burbidge, Gold, Half-life, Heinrich Khunrath, ..., Helium, Hydrogen, Iodine, Iodine-129, Iron, Isotope, Isotopes of argon, Isotopes of caesium, Isotopes of palladium, Isotopes of samarium, Isotopes of tin, Isotopes of zirconium, John Cockcroft, John Dalton, Lead, Light-water reactor, Lise Meitner, List of nuclear waste treatment technologies, Lithium, Long-lived fission product, Margaret Burbidge, Michael Maier, MOX fuel, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Neptunium, Neutron, Neutron activation, Neutron capture, Neutron cross section, Neutron source, Neutron temperature, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear power, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reprocessing, Nucleosynthesis, Otto Hahn, Oxygen, Oxygen-17, Particle accelerator, Philosopher's stone, Physical chemistry, Plutonium, Potassium-40, Primordial nuclide, Proton, R-process, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Radium, Reactor-grade plutonium, Relative atomic mass, Reprocessed uranium, S-process, Samarium, Selenium-79, SN 1987A, Solar System, Stable isotope ratio, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Strontium, Strontium-90, Supernova, Synthesis of precious metals, Technetium, Technetium-99, Thorium, Tokamak, Transuranium element, Unified atomic mass unit, Uranium, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, William Alfred Fowler. Expand index (79 more) » « Shrink index
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
Activation products are materials made radioactive by neutron activation.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The B2FH paper, named after the initials of the authors of the paper, Margaret Burbidge, Geoffrey Burbidge, William A. Fowler, and Fred Hoyle, is a landmark paper on the origin of the chemical elements published in Reviews of Modern Physics in 1957.
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Caesium-137 (Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (Chornobyl′,;; Charnobyl′) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, near Ukraine's border with Belarus.
In alchemy, the term chrysopoeia (χρυσοποιία, khrusopoiia) means transmutation into gold (from the Greek χρυσός, khrusos, "gold", and ποιεῖν, poiein, "to make").
Corpuscularianism is a physical theory that supposes all matter to be composed of minute particles.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.
Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Cm and atomic number 96.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
In atomic physics, Doppler broadening is the broadening of spectral lines due to the Doppler effect caused by a distribution of velocities of atoms or molecules.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
In nuclear physics, an energy amplifier is a novel type of nuclear power reactor, a subcritical reactor, in which an energetic particle beam is used to stimulate a reaction, which in turn releases enough energy to power the particle accelerator and leave an energy profit for power generation.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (6 October 1903 – 25 June 1995) was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with "atom-smashing" experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s, and so became the first person in history to artificially split the atom.
A fast-neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons, as opposed to thermal neutrons used in thermal-neutron reactors.
Sir Fred Hoyle FRS (24 June 1915 – 20 August 2001) was a British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Frederick Soddy FRS (2 September 1877 – 22 September 1956) was an English radiochemist who explained, with Ernest Rutherford, that radioactivity is due to the transmutation of elements, now known to involve nuclear reactions.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Geoffrey Ronald Burbidge FRS (24 September 1925 – 26 January 2010) was an English astronomy professor and theoretical astrophysicist, most recently at the University of California, San Diego.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Heinrich Khunrath (c. 1560 – 9 September 1605), or Dr.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iodine-129 (129I) is a long-lived radioisotope of iodine which occurs naturally, but also is of special interest in the monitoring and effects of man-made nuclear fission decay products, where it serves as both tracer and potential radiological contaminant.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Argon (18Ar) has 24 known isotopes, from 30Ar to 53Ar and 1 isomer (32mAr), three of which are stable, 36Ar, 38Ar, and 40Ar.
Caesium (55Cs; or cesium) has 40 known isotopes, making it, along with barium and mercury, the element with the most isotopes.
Naturally occurring palladium (46Pd) is composed of six stable isotopes, 102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 108Pd, and 110Pd, although two of them are theoretically unstable.
Naturally occurring samarium (62Sm) is composed of five stable isotopes, 144Sm, 149Sm, 150Sm, 152Sm and 154Sm, and two extremely long-lived radioisotopes, 147Sm (half life: 1.06 y) and 148Sm (7 y), with 152Sm being the most abundant (26.75% natural abundance).
Tin (50Sn) is the element with the greatest number of stable isotopes (ten; three of them are potentially radioactive but have not been observed to decay), which is probably related to the fact that 50 is a "magic number" of protons.
Naturally occurring zirconium (40Zr) is composed of four stable isotopes (of which one may in the future be found radioactive), and one very long-lived radioisotope (96Zr), a primordial nuclide that decays via double beta decay with an observed half-life of 2.0×1019 years; it can also undergo single beta decay, which is not yet observed, but the theoretically predicted value of t1/2 is 2.4×1020 years.
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft, (27 May 1897 – 18 September 1967) was a British physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951 for splitting the atomic nucleus with Ernest Walton, and was instrumental in the development of nuclear power.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The light-water reactor (LWR) is a type of thermal-neutron reactor that uses normal water, as opposed to heavy water, as both its coolant and neutron moderator – furthermore a solid form of fissile elements is used as fuel.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
The following are most of the different possible methods of treating and disposing of nuclear waste:;Storage.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Long-lived fission products (LLFPs) are radioactive materials with a long half-life (more than 200,000 years) produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium.
Eleanor Margaret Burbidge (née Peachey), FRS (born August 12, 1919 in Davenport) is a British-born American astrophysicist, noted for original research and holding many administrative posts, including Director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory.
Michael Maier (Michael Maierus; 1568–1622) was a German physician and counsellor to Rudolf II Habsburg.
Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material, usually consisting of plutonium blended with natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium.
A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen-17 is a low-abundant, natural, stable isotope of oxygen (0.0373% in seawater; approximately twice as abundant as deuterium).
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
The philosopher's stone, or stone of the philosophers (lapis philosophorum) is a legendary alchemical substance capable of turning base metals such as mercury into gold (from the Greek χρυσός khrusos, "gold", and ποιεῖν poiēin, "to make") or silver.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Reactor-grade plutonium/RGPu is the isotopic grade of plutonium that is found in spent nuclear fuel after the primary fuel, that of Uranium-235 that a nuclear power reactor uses, has (burnt up/burnup).
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Reprocessed uranium (RepU) is the uranium recovered from nuclear reprocessing, as done commercially in France, the UK and Japan and by nuclear weapons states' military plutonium production programs.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.
Selenium-79 is a radioisotope of selenium present in spent nuclear fuel and the wastes resulting from reprocessing this fuel.
SN 1987A was a peculiar type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
The synthesis of precious metals involves the use of either nuclear reactors or particle accelerators to produce these elements.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
Technetium-99 (99Tc) is an isotope of technetium which decays with a half-life of 211,000 years to stable ruthenium-99, emitting beta particles, but no gamma rays.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
A tokamak (Токамáк) is a device that uses a powerful magnetic field to confine a hot plasma in the shape of a torus.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
William Alfred "Willy" Fowler (August 9, 1911 – March 14, 1995) was an American nuclear physicist, later astrophysicist, who, with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics.