94 relations: Adenine, Allele, Amino acid, Ancestor, Artificial gene synthesis, Base pair, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biomolecular structure, Biotechnology, Cell (biology), Central dogma of molecular biology, Chromosome, Coalescent theory, Complementarity (molecular biology), Computational phylogenetics, Conserved sequence, Covalent bond, Cytosine, Deoxyribose, Diagnosis, Directionality (molecular biology), Disease, DNA, DNA methylation, DNA repair, Evolution, Gene, Gene structure, Genes & Development, Genetic code, Genetic disorder, Genome, Guanine, Human genome, Hypoxanthine, In silico, Indel, Information, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Kozak consensus sequence, LSm, Medical diagnosis, Medicine, Messenger RNA, Molecular clock, Most recent common ancestor, Mutagen, Natural selection, Nucleic acid double helix, ..., Nucleic acid secondary structure, Nucleic acid tertiary structure, Nucleobase, Nucleotide, Pathogen, Phosphate, Phosphodiester bond, Phylogenetic tree, Point mutation, Polymer, Polymerase chain reaction, Protein, Quaternary numeral system, Research, Reverse transcriptase, Ribose, Ribosome, RNA, RNA editing, RNA polymerase III, Sense (molecular biology), Sequence database, Sequence motif, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, Side chain, Silent mutation, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Small nucleolar RNA, Small nucleolar RNA U3, Structural biology, Sugar, Thymine, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), U1 spliceosomal RNA, U12 minor spliceosomal RNA, U2 spliceosomal RNA, U4 spliceosomal RNA, U5 spliceosomal RNA, U6 spliceosomal RNA, Uracil, Xanthine, 5-Methylcytidine, 7-Methylguanosine. Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Artificial gene synthesis, sometimes known as DNA printing is a method in synthetic biology that is used to create artificial genes in the laboratory.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
Computational phylogenetics is the application of computational algorithms, methods, and programs to phylogenetic analyses.
In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene structure is the organisation of specialised sequence elements within a gene.
Genes & Development is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering molecular biology, molecular genetics, cell biology, and development.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative.
In silico (literally cod Latin for "in silicon", alluding to the mass use of silicon for semiconductor computer chips) is an expression used to mean "performed on computer or via computer simulation." The phrase was coined in 1989 as an allusion to the Latin phrases in vivo, in vitro, and in situ, which are commonly used in biology (see also systems biology) and refer to experiments done in living organisms, outside living organisms, and where they are found in nature, respectively.
Indel is a molecular biology term for an '''in'''sertion or '''del'''etion of bases in the genome of an organism.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
The Kozak consensus sequence, Kozak consensus or Kozak sequence is a sequence which occurs on eukaryotic mRNA and has the consensus (gcc)gccRccAUGG.
In molecular biology, LSm proteins are a family of RNA-binding proteins found in virtually every cellular organism.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Nucleic acid secondary structure is the basepairing interactions within a single nucleic acid polymer or between two polymers.
Nucleic acid tertiary structure is the three-dimensional shape of a nucleic acid polymer.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Quaternary is the base- numeral system.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA editing is a molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within an RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase.
In eukaryote cells, RNA polymerase III (also called Pol III) transcribes DNA to synthesize ribosomal 5S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs.
In molecular biology and genetics, the sense of nucleic acid molecules (often DNA or RNA) is the nature of their roles and their complementary molecules' nucleic acid units' roles in specifying amino acids.
In the field of bioinformatics, a sequence database is a type of biological database that is composed of a large collection of computerized ("digital") nucleic acid sequences, protein sequences, or other polymer sequences stored on a computer.
In genetics, a sequence motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and has, or is conjectured to have, a biological significance.
The Shine-Dalgarno (SD) Sequence is a ribosomal binding site in bacterial and archaeal messenger RNA, generally located around 8 bases upstream of the start codon AUG.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not have an observable effect on the organism's phenotype.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules that primarily guide chemical modifications of other RNAs, mainly ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs and small nuclear RNAs.
U3 snoRNA is a non-coding RNA found predominantly in the nucleolus.
Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
U1 spliceosomal RNA is the small nuclear RNA (snRNA) component of U1 snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein), an RNA-protein complex that combines with other snRNPs, unmodified pre-mRNA, and various other proteins to assemble a spliceosome, a large RNA-protein molecular complex upon which splicing of pre-mRNA occurs.
U12 minor spliceosomal RNA is formed from U12 small nuclear (snRNA), together with U4atac/U6atac, U5, and U11 snRNAs and associated proteins, forms a spliceosome that cleaves a divergent class of low-abundance pre-mRNA introns.
U2 spliceosomal snRNAs are a species of small nuclear RNA (snRNA) molecules found in the major spliceosomal (Sm) machinery of virtually all-eukaryotic organisms.
The U4 small nuclear Ribo-Nucleic Acid (U4 snRNA) is a non-coding RNA component of the major or U2-dependent spliceosome – a eukaryotic molecular machine involved in the splicing of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA).
U5 RNA is a non-coding RNA that is a component of both types of known spliceosome.
U6 snRNA is the non-coding small nuclear RNA (snRNA) component of U6 snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein), an RNA-protein complex that combines with other snRNPs, unmodified pre-mRNA, and various other proteins to assemble a spliceosome, a large RNA-protein molecular complex that catalyzes the excision of introns from pre-mRNA.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
5-Methylcytidine is a modified nucleoside derived from 5-methylcytosine.
7-Methylguanosine (m7G) is a modified purine nucleoside.
Computerized genetics, DNA sequence, DNA sequences, Digital genetic sequence, Dna sequence, Full gene sequence, Genetic information, Genetic sequence, Nucleic acid primary structure, Nucleotide sequence, Nucleotide sequences, Oligonucleotide sequence, RNA sequence.