51 relations: Adenine, Amine, Aminoallyl nucleotide, Base (chemistry), Base pair, Biomolecule, Carbonyl group, Complementarity (molecular biology), Cytosine, Deamination, Deoxyribose, Dihydrouracil, Dihydrouridine, DNA, DNA replication, Genetic code, Guanine, Helix, Hydrogen bond, Hypoxanthine, Inosine, Isocytosine, Isoguanine, Methyl group, Microarray, Monomer, Mutagen, NASA, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid notation, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleoside, Nucleoside analogue, Nucleotide, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Pseudouridine, Purine, Pyrimidine, Ribose, Ring (chemistry), RNA, Science Daily, Thymine, Transcription (biology), Uracil, Xanthine, Xanthosine, 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-Methylcytidine, 5-Methylcytosine, ..., 7-Methylguanosine. Expand index (1 more) » « Shrink index
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Aminoallyl nucleotide is a nucleotide with a modified base containing an allylamine.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.
Dihydrouracil is an intermediate in the catabolism of uracil.
Dihydrouridine (abbreviated as D, DHU, or UH2) is a pyrimidine nucleoside which is the result of adding two hydrogen atoms to a uridine, making it a fully saturated pyrimidine ring with no remaining double bonds.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative.
Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
Isocytosine or 2-aminouracil is a pyrimidine base that is an isomer of cytosine.
Isoguanine or 2-hydroxyadenine is a purine base that is an isomer of guanine.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
A microarray is a multiplex lab-on-a-chip.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
The nucleic acid notation currently in use was first formalized by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in 1970.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.
Nucleoside analogues are nucleosides which contain a nucleic acid analogue and a sugar.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Pseudouridine (abbreviated by the Greek letter psi- Ψ or the letter Q) is an isomer of the nucleoside uridine in which the uracil is attached via a carbon-carbon instead of a nitrogen-carbon glycosidic bond.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
In chemistry, a ring is an ambiguous term referring either to a simple cycle of atoms and bonds in a molecule or to a connected set of atoms and bonds in which every atom and bond is a member of a cycle (also called a ring system).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
Xanthosine is a nucleoside derived from xanthine and ribose.
5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is a DNA pyrimidine nitrogen base derived from cytosine.
5-Methylcytidine is a modified nucleoside derived from 5-methylcytosine.
5-Methylcytosine is a methylated form of the DNA base cytosine that may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription.
7-Methylguanosine (m7G) is a modified purine nucleoside.