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Nucleobase

Index Nucleobase

Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids. [1]

51 relations: Adenine, Amine, Aminoallyl nucleotide, Base (chemistry), Base pair, Biomolecule, Carbonyl group, Complementarity (molecular biology), Cytosine, Deamination, Deoxyribose, Dihydrouracil, Dihydrouridine, DNA, DNA replication, Genetic code, Guanine, Helix, Hydrogen bond, Hypoxanthine, Inosine, Isocytosine, Isoguanine, Methyl group, Microarray, Monomer, Mutagen, NASA, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid notation, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleoside, Nucleoside analogue, Nucleotide, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Pseudouridine, Purine, Pyrimidine, Ribose, Ring (chemistry), RNA, Science Daily, Thymine, Transcription (biology), Uracil, Xanthine, Xanthosine, 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-Methylcytidine, 5-Methylcytosine, ..., 7-Methylguanosine. Expand index (1 more) »

Adenine

Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Amine

In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Aminoallyl nucleotide

Aminoallyl nucleotide is a nucleotide with a modified base containing an allylamine.

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Base (chemistry)

In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Biomolecule

A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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Carbonyl group

In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.

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Complementarity (molecular biology)

In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.

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Cytosine

Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Deamination

Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.

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Deoxyribose

Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.

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Dihydrouracil

Dihydrouracil is an intermediate in the catabolism of uracil.

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Dihydrouridine

Dihydrouridine (abbreviated as D, DHU, or UH2) is a pyrimidine nucleoside which is the result of adding two hydrogen atoms to a uridine, making it a fully saturated pyrimidine ring with no remaining double bonds.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Guanine

Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Helix

A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hypoxanthine

Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative.

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Inosine

Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.

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Isocytosine

Isocytosine or 2-aminouracil is a pyrimidine base that is an isomer of cytosine.

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Isoguanine

Isoguanine or 2-hydroxyadenine is a purine base that is an isomer of guanine.

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Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.

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Microarray

A microarray is a multiplex lab-on-a-chip.

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Monomer

A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".

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Mutagen

In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Nucleic acid notation

The nucleic acid notation currently in use was first formalized by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in 1970.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nucleoside

Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.

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Nucleoside analogue

Nucleoside analogues are nucleosides which contain a nucleic acid analogue and a sugar.

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Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Pseudouridine

Pseudouridine (abbreviated by the Greek letter psi- Ψ or the letter Q) is an isomer of the nucleoside uridine in which the uracil is attached via a carbon-carbon instead of a nitrogen-carbon glycosidic bond.

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Purine

A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.

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Pyrimidine

Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.

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Ribose

Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.

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Ring (chemistry)

In chemistry, a ring is an ambiguous term referring either to a simple cycle of atoms and bonds in a molecule or to a connected set of atoms and bonds in which every atom and bond is a member of a cycle (also called a ring system).

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Thymine

---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Uracil

Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

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Xanthine

Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.

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Xanthosine

Xanthosine is a nucleoside derived from xanthine and ribose.

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5-Hydroxymethylcytosine

5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is a DNA pyrimidine nitrogen base derived from cytosine.

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5-Methylcytidine

5-Methylcytidine is a modified nucleoside derived from 5-methylcytosine.

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5-Methylcytosine

5-Methylcytosine is a methylated form of the DNA base cytosine that may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription.

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7-Methylguanosine

7-Methylguanosine (m7G) is a modified purine nucleoside.

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Redirects here:

ACGT, ACGU, Base (genetics), DNA base, DNA bases, N-Base, N-Bases, N-base, N-bases, Nucleic base, Nucleobase transport proteins, Nucleobases, Nucleotide base, Nucleotide bases, RNA base.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleobase

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