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Nucleophile

Index Nucleophile

Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction. [1]

107 relations: -phil-, Absolute configuration, Acetate, Acetylide, Acid catalysis, Alcohol, Aldol condensation, Alkoxide, Alpha and beta carbon, Alpha effect, Amide, Amine, Ammonia, Aniline, Arthur Lapworth, Atomic nucleus, Azide, Barbier reaction, Base (chemistry), Benzenediazonium chloride, Benzoyl chloride, Benzyl chloride, Blaise reaction, Bromide, Bromine, Bromomethane, Carbazide, Carbocation, Carbon, Carboxylate, Chemical bond, Chemical reaction, Chemical species, Chirality, Chloride, Chlorine, Christopher Kelk Ingold, Claisen condensation, Condensation reaction, Cyanide, Diazonium compound, Dimethylamine, Electron pair, Electrophile, Electrophilic addition, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Empirical evidence, Enamine, Enol, Epoxide, ..., Fluoride, Free-energy relationship, Green–Davies–Mingos rules, Grignard reaction, Haloalkane, Halogen, Heterolysis (chemistry), Hydrazine, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydroxide, Hydroxylamine, Iodide, Ion, Isothiocyanate, IUPAC books, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Kolbe nitrile synthesis, Lactone, Lewis acids and bases, Lone pair, Malachite green, Methanol, Methoxide, Methoxy group, Molecular configuration, Molecule, Nature (journal), Nitrite, Nucleophilic abstraction, Nucleophilic addition, Nucleophilic substitution, Organolithium reagent, Organometallic chemistry, Oxygen, Phenylhydrazine, Pi bond, Piperidine, Polarizability, Rate equation, Reaction rate, Reaction rate constant, Reactivity–selectivity principle, Reformatsky reaction, Semicarbazide, SN2 reaction, Solvolysis, Thiocyanate, Thiol, Thiophenol, Thiosulfate, Toluene, Tosyl, Tropylium cation, Water, 2-Methylfuran. Expand index (57 more) »

-phil-

Suffixes with the common part -phil- (-phile, -philia, -phily, -philic) are used to specify some kind of attraction or affinity to something.

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Absolute configuration

An absolute configuration refers to the spatial arrangement of the atoms of a chiral molecular entity (or group) and its stereochemical description e.g. R or S, referring to Rectus, or Sinister, respectively.

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Acetate

An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.

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Acetylide

Acetylide refers to chemical compounds with the chemical formulas MC≡CH and MC≡CM, where M is a metal.

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Acid catalysis

In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an acid or a base.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Aldol condensation

An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone (an aldol reaction), followed by dehydration to give a conjugated enone.

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Alkoxide

An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.

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Alpha and beta carbon

The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.

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Alpha effect

The alpha effect refers to the increased nucleophilicity of an atom due to the presence of an adjacent (alpha) atom with lone pair electrons.

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Amide

An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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Amine

In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Aniline

Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.

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Arthur Lapworth

Arthur Lapworth FRS (10 October 1872 – 5 April 1941) was a Scottish chemist.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Azide

Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).

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Barbier reaction

The Barbier reaction is an organic reaction between an alkyl halide and a carbonyl group as an electrophilic substrate in the presence of magnesium, aluminium, zinc, indium, tin or its salts.

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Base (chemistry)

In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.

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Benzenediazonium chloride

Benzenediazonium chloride is an organic compound with the formula Cl.

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Benzoyl chloride

Benzoyl chloride, also known as benzenecarbonyl chloride, is an organochlorine compound with the formula C6H5COCl.

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Benzyl chloride

Benzyl chloride, or α-chlorotoluene, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2Cl.

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Blaise reaction

The Blaise reaction is an organic reaction that forms a β-ketoester from the reaction of zinc metal with a α-bromoester and a nitrile.

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Bromide

A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.

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Bromine

Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.

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Bromomethane

Bromomethane, commonly known as methyl bromide, is an organobromine compound with formula CH3Br.

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Carbazide

In chemistry, a carbazide is a functional group with the general formula RNH-NH(C.

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Carbocation

A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carboxylate

A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chemical species

A chemical species is a chemical substance or ensemble composed of chemically identical molecular entities that can explore the same set of molecular energy levels on a characteristic or delineated time scale.

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Chirality

Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science.

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Chloride

The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Christopher Kelk Ingold

Sir Christopher Kelk Ingold (28 October 1893 – 8 December 1970) was a British chemist based in Leeds and London.

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Claisen condensation

The Claisen condensation is a carbon–carbon bond forming reaction that occurs between two esters or one ester and another carbonyl compound in the presence of a strong base, resulting in a β-keto ester or a β-diketone.

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Condensation reaction

A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).

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Cyanide

A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.

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Diazonium compound

Diazonium compounds or diazonium salts are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group where R can be any organic group, such as an alkyl or an aryl, and X is an inorganic or organic anion, such as a halogen.

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Dimethylamine

Dimethylamine is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NH.

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Electron pair

In chemistry, an electron pair or a Lewis pair consists of two electrons that occupy the same molecular orbital but have opposite spins.

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Electrophile

In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.

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Electrophilic addition

In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a π bond is broken and two new σ bonds are formed.

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Electrophilic aromatic substitution

Electrophilic aromatic substitution is an organic reaction in which an atom that is attached to an aromatic system (usually hydrogen) is replaced by an electrophile.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Enamine

An enamine is an unsaturated compound derived by the condensation of an aldehyde or ketone with a secondary amine.

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Enol

Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.

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Epoxide

An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.

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Fluoride

Fluoride.

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Free-energy relationship

In physical organic chemistry, a free-energy relationship or Gibbs energy relation relates the logarithm of a reaction rate constant or equilibrium constant for one series of reactions with the logarithm of the rate or equilibrium constant for a related series of reactions.

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Green–Davies–Mingos rules

In organometallic chemistry, the Green–Davies–Mingos rules predict the regiochemistry for nucleophilic addition to 18-electron metal complexes containing multiple unsaturated ligands.

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Grignard reaction

The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.

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Haloalkane

The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.

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Halogen

The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Heterolysis (chemistry)

In chemistry, heterolysis or heterolytic fission (from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, "different", and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") is the process of cleaving a covalent bond where one previously bonded species takes both original bonding electrons from the other species.

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Hydrazine

Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Hydroxide

Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.

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Hydroxylamine

Hydroxylamine is an inorganic compound with the formula NH2OH.

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Iodide

An iodide ion is the ion I−.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Isothiocyanate

Isothiocyanate is the chemical group –N.

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IUPAC books

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry publishes many books, which contain its complete list of definitions.

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.

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Kolbe nitrile synthesis

The Kolbe nitrile synthesis is a method for the preparation of alkyl nitriles by reaction of the corresponding alkyl halide with a metal cyanide.

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Lactone

Lactones are cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure, or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring.

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Lewis acids and bases

A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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Lone pair

In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.

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Malachite green

Malachite green is an organic compound that is used as a dyestuff and controversially as an antimicrobial in aquaculture.

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Methanol

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Methoxide

Methoxides are organic salts and the simplest alkoxides.

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Methoxy group

A methoxy group is the functional group consisting of a methyl group bound to oxygen.

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Molecular configuration

The molecular configuration of a molecule is the permanent geometry that results from the spatial arrangement of its bonds.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nitrite

The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.

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Nucleophilic abstraction

Nucleophilic abstraction is a type of an organometallic reaction which can be defined as a nucleophilic attack on a ligand which causes part or all of the original ligand to be removed from the metal along with the nucleophile.

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Nucleophilic addition

In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where a chemical compound with an electron-deficient or electrophilic double or triple bond, a π bond, reacts with electron-rich reactant, termed a nucleophile, with disappearance of the double bond and creation of two new single, or σ, bonds.

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Nucleophilic substitution

In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.

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Organolithium reagent

Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.

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Organometallic chemistry

Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Phenylhydrazine

Phenylhydrazine is the chemical compound with the formula C6H5NHNH2.

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Pi bond

In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.

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Piperidine

Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH.

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Polarizability

Polarizability is the ability to form instantaneous dipoles.

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Rate equation

The rate law or rate equation for a chemical reaction is an equation that links the reaction rate with the concentrations or pressures of the reactants and constant parameters (normally rate coefficients and partial reaction orders).

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Reaction rate

The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products.

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Reaction rate constant

In chemical kinetics a reaction rate constant or reaction rate coefficient, k, quantifies the rate of a chemical reaction.

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Reactivity–selectivity principle

In chemistry the reactivity–selectivity principle or RSP states that a more reactive chemical compound or reactive intermediate is less selective in chemical reactions.

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Reformatsky reaction

The Reformatsky reaction (sometimes spelled Reformatskii reaction) is an organic reaction which condenses aldehydes or ketones, with α-halo esters, using a metallic zinc to form β-hydroxy-esters: The organozinc reagent, also called a 'Reformatsky enolate', is prepared by treating an alpha-halo ester with zinc dust.

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Semicarbazide

Semicarbazide is the chemical compound with the formula OC(NH2)(N2H3).

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SN2 reaction

The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry.

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Solvolysis

Solvolysis is a type of nucleophilic substitution (SN1) /(SN2) or elimination, where the nucleophile is a solvent molecule.

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Thiocyanate

Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.

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Thiol

Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).

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Thiophenol

Thiophenol is an organosulfur compound with the formula C6H5SH, sometimes abbreviated as PhSH.

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Thiosulfate

Thiosulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; sometimes thiosulphate in British English) is an oxyanion of sulfur.

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Toluene

Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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Tosyl

A toluenesulfonyl (shortened tosyl, abbreviated Ts or Tos) group is CH3C6H4SO2.

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Tropylium cation

In organic chemistry, the tropylium ion is an aromatic species with a formula of +. Its name derives from the molecule tropine (itself named for the molecule atropine).

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Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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2-Methylfuran

2-Methylfuran is a flammable, water-insoluble liquid with a chocolate odor, found naturally in Myrtle and Dutch Lavender used as a FEMA GRAS flavoring substance, with the potential for use in alternative fuels.

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Ambident nucleophile, Nucleophiles, Nucleophilic, Nucleophilic attack, Nucleophilicity, Nucleophyl.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleophile

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