The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Édouard Joseph Louis Marie Van Beneden (Leuven, 5 March 1846 – Liège, 28 April 1910), son of Pierre-Joseph Van Beneden, was a Belgian embryologist, cytologist and marine biologist.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.
The nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell, the nucleus contains nucleoplasm, karyoplasm, or nucleus sap.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane.
Walther Flemming (21 April 1843 – 4 August 1905) was a German biologist and a founder of cytogenetics.