59 relations: Acetylation, Apoptosis, Apoptotic DNA fragmentation, Archaea, Arginine, Base pair, Cell nucleus, Cellular differentiation, CENPA, Centromere, Chromatin, Chromosome, Crystal structure, CTCF, Deoxyribonuclease, Dialysis, Disulfide, DNA, DNA laddering, DNA supercoil, Electron microscope, Epigenetics, Euchromatin, Eukaryote, Förster resonance energy transfer, Gel electrophoresis, H2AFX, H2AFZ, Heat shock, Heterochromatin, Histone, Histone H1, Histone H2A, Histone H2B, Histone H3, Histone H4, Histone octamer, Hydrogen bond, In vitro, Lysine, Methylation, N-terminus, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Origin of replication, Phosphorylation, Post-translational modification, Promoter (genetics), Protamine, Protein, RNA polymerase II, ..., Roger D. Kornberg, Root-mean-square deviation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Serine, T cell, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Ubiquitin, X-inactivation. Expand index (9 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Apoptotic DNA fragmentation is a key feature of apoptosis, a type of programmed cell death.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Centromere protein A, also known as CENPA, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CENPA gene.
The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Transcriptional repressor CTCF also known as 11-zinc finger protein or CCCTC-binding factor is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the CTCF gene.
A deoxyribonuclease (DNase, for short) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA backbone, thus degrading DNA.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA laddering is a feature that can be observed when DNA fragments, resulting from apoptotic DNA fragmentation, are visualized after separation by gel electrophoresis.
DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Euchromatin is a lightly packed form of chromatin (DNA, RNA, and protein) that is enriched in genes, and is often (but not always) under active transcription.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET) is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores).
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
H2AFX (H2A histone family, member X) is one of several genes coding for histone H2A.
Histone H2A.Z is a protein that in humans is encoded by the H2AFZ gene.
In biochemistry, heat shock is the effect of subjecting a cell to a temperature that is greater than the optimal temperature range of function of the cell.
Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA or condensed DNA, which comes in multiple varieties.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
Histone H1 is one of the five main histone protein families which are components of chromatin in eukaryotic cells.
Histone H2A is one of the five main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells.
Histone H2B is one of the 5 main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells.
Histone H3 is one of the five main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells.
Histone H4 H4 is one of the five main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells.
A histone octamer is the eight protein complex found at the center of a nucleosome core particle.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Protamines are small, arginine-rich, nuclear proteins that replace histones late in the haploid phase of spermatogenesis and are believed essential for sperm head condensation and DNA stabilization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
RNA polymerase II (RNAP II and Pol II) is a multiprotein complex.
Roger David Kornberg (born April 24, 1947) is an American biochemist and professor of structural biology at Stanford University School of Medicine.
The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) or root-mean-square error (RMSE) (or sometimes root-mean-squared error) is a frequently used measure of the differences between values (sample or population values) predicted by a model or an estimator and the values observed.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms, i.e. it occurs ''ubiquitously''.
X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.