119 relations: Abundance of the chemical elements, Accretion disk, Alastair G. W. Cameron, Alpha decay, Alpha process, Arthur Eddington, Astrophysics, Asymptotic giant branch, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, B2FH paper, Beryllium, Beta decay, Big Bang, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Binding energy, Black hole, Boron, Carbon, Carbon-14, Carbon-burning process, Chemical element, Cluster decay, CNO cycle, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, Cosmic dust, Cosmic ray, Cosmic ray spallation, Cosmogenic nuclide, Decay product, Deuterium, Donald D. Clayton, Electron capture, Endothermic process, Environmental radioactivity, Extinct isotopes of superheavy elements, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, Fred Hoyle, French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Geoffrey Burbidge, Georges Lemaître, Gold, Gravitational wave, GW170817, Hans Bethe, Hans Suess, Harold Urey, Helium, Helium-3, Helium-4, ..., Hydrogen, INTEGRAL, Interstellar medium, Iodine-129, Iron, Isobar (nuclide), Isotope, Isotopes of argon, Isotopes of hydrogen, Isotopes of thorium, LIGO, Lithium, Magnesium, Manhattan Project, Margaret Burbidge, Metallicity, Neon-burning process, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron emission, Neutron star merger, Nickel, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear reaction, Nucleogenic, Nucleon, Oxygen-burning process, P-process, Photodisintegration, Physical Review, Planetary nebula, Platinum, Plutonium, Polonium, Potassium-40, Presolar grains, Primordial nuclide, Promethium, Proton, Proton–proton chain reaction, Quark–gluon plasma, R-process, Radioactive decay, Radiogenic nuclide, Radon, Red giant, Reviews of Modern Physics, Rp-process, S-process, Silicon-burning process, Smithsonian (magazine), Solar core, Spallation, Spectral line, Spontaneous fission, Star, Stellar evolution, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Supernova, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Technetium, Triple-alpha process, Type II supernova, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Virgo interferometer, White dwarf, William Alfred Fowler. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body.
Alastair G. W. (Graham Walter) Cameron (21 June 1925 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada – 3 October 2005 in Tucson, Arizona, USA) was a Canadian astrophysicist and space scientist who was an eminent staff member of the Astronomy department of Harvard University.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
The alpha process, also known as the alpha ladder, is one of two classes of nuclear fusion reactions by which stars convert helium into heavier elements, the other being the triple-alpha process.
Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The B2FH paper, named after the initials of the authors of the paper, Margaret Burbidge, Geoffrey Burbidge, William A. Fowler, and Fred Hoyle, is a landmark paper on the origin of the chemical elements published in Reviews of Modern Physics in 1957.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, arch(a)eonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and pal(a)eonucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
The carbon-burning process or carbon fusion is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in the cores of massive stars (at least 8 \beginsmallmatrixM_\odot\endsmallmatrix at birth) that combines carbon into other elements.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Cluster decay, also named heavy particle radioactivity or heavy ion radioactivity, is a type of nuclear decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a small "cluster" of neutrons and protons, more than in an alpha particle, but less than a typical binary fission fragment.
The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two known sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.
The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was a space observatory detecting photons with energies from 20 keV to 30 GeV, in Earth orbit from 1991 to 2000.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.
Cosmogenic nuclides (or cosmogenic isotopes) are rare nuclides (isotopes) created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an in situ Solar System atom, causing nucleons (protons and neutrons) to be expelled from the atom (see cosmic ray spallation).
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Donald Delbert Clayton (born March 18, 1935) is an American astrophysicist whose most visible achievement was the prediction from nucleosynthesis theory that supernovae are intensely radioactive.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
Environmental radioactivity is produced by radioactive materials in the human environment.
Extinct isotopes of superheavy elements are isotopes of elements whose half-lives were too short to have lasted through the formation of the solar system and, because they are not replenished by natural processes, can nowadays only be found as their daughters trapped within sediment and meteorite samples dating billions of years ago.
The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), formerly called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit.
Sir Fred Hoyle FRS (24 June 1915 – 20 August 2001) was a British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission or CEA (French: Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives), is a French public government-funded research organisation in the areas of energy, defense and security, information technologies and health technologies.
Geoffrey Ronald Burbidge FRS (24 September 1925 – 26 January 2010) was an English astronomy professor and theoretical astrophysicist, most recently at the University of California, San Diego.
Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître, RAS Associate (17 July 1894 – 20 June 1966) was a Belgian Catholic Priest, astronomer and professor of physics at the Catholic University of Leuven.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
GW170817 was a gravitational wave (GW) signal observed by the LIGO and Virgo detectors on 17 August 2017.
Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Hans Eduard Suess (December 16, 1909 – September 20, 1993) was an Austrian born American physical chemist and nuclear physicist.
Harold Clayton Urey (April 29, 1893 – January 5, 1981) was an American physical chemist whose pioneering work on isotopes earned him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934 for the discovery of deuterium.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).
Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is a currently operational space telescope for observing gamma rays.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Iodine-129 (129I) is a long-lived radioisotope of iodine which occurs naturally, but also is of special interest in the monitoring and effects of man-made nuclear fission decay products, where it serves as both tracer and potential radiological contaminant.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isobars are atoms (nuclides) of different chemical elements that have the same number of nucleons.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Argon (18Ar) has 24 known isotopes, from 30Ar to 53Ar and 1 isomer (32mAr), three of which are stable, 36Ar, 38Ar, and 40Ar.
Hydrogen (1H) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory to detect cosmic gravitational waves and to develop gravitational-wave observations as an astronomical tool.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Eleanor Margaret Burbidge (née Peachey), FRS (born August 12, 1919 in Davenport) is a British-born American astrophysicist, noted for original research and holding many administrative posts, including Director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory.
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.
The neon-burning process (nuclear decay) is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 Solar masses).
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
Neutron emission is a mode of radioactive decay in which one or more neutrons are ejected from a nucleus.
A neutron star merger is a type of stellar collision.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nucleogenic isotope, or nuclide, is one that is produced by a natural terrestrial nuclear reaction, other than a reaction beginning with cosmic rays (the latter nuclides by convention are called by the different term cosmogenic).
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
The oxygen-burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars that have used up the lighter elements in their cores.
The term p-process (p is for proton) is used in two ways in the scientific literature concerning the astrophysical origin of the elements (nucleosynthesis).
Photodisintegration (also called phototransmutation) is a nuclear process in which an atomic nucleus absorbs a high-energy gamma ray, enters an excited state, and immediately decays by emitting a subatomic particle.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
A planetary nebula, abbreviated as PN or plural PNe, is a type of emission nebula consisting of an expanding, glowing shell of ionized gas ejected from red giant stars late in their lives.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.
Presolar grains are interstellar solid matter in the form of tiny solid grains that originated at a time before the Sun was formed (presolar: before the Sun).
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium.
A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radiogenic nuclide is a nuclide that is produced by a process of radioactive decay.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
The rp-process (rapid proton capture process) consists of consecutive proton captures onto seed nuclei to produce heavier elements.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8-11 solar masses.
Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.
The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 to 0.25 of solar radius.
Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.
A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
The Virgo interferometer is a large interferometer designed to detect gravitational waves predicted by the general theory of relativity.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
William Alfred "Willy" Fowler (August 9, 1911 – March 14, 1995) was an American nuclear physicist, later astrophysicist, who, with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics.