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Index Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth. [1]

119 relations: ACS style, Adenine, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Amidophosphoribosyltransferase, Amine, Amino acid, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aspartate carbamoyltransferase, Aspartic acid, Atom, Base pair, Biochemistry, Biology, Biomolecule, Biosynthesis, Carbamoyl aspartic acid, Carbamoyl phosphate, Cell membrane, Cell signaling, Chromosome, Coenzyme A, Cofactor (biochemistry), Complementarity (molecular biology), Cortisol, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic nucleotide, Cytidine triphosphate, Cytoplasm, Cytosine, D5SICS, De novo synthesis, Deoxyribose, Dihydroorotase, Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, Directionality (molecular biology), DNA, DNA replication, DNaM, Enzyme, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flavin mononucleotide, Folate, Formate, Free base, Gene, Genetics, Glutamine, Glycine, ..., Guanine, Guanosine monophosphate, Guanosine triphosphate, Histidine, Hydroxy group, Hypoxanthine, Immunoglobulin A, In vitro, In vivo, Inosine, Inosine monophosphate synthase, Inosinic acid, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC books, IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, Ketone, Macromolecule, Metabolism, Moiety (chemistry), Monomer, Nature (journal), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nitrogenous base, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid analogue, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleobase, Nucleoside, Nucleoside triphosphate, Nucleotide salvage, Oligonucleotide synthesis, Organelle, Organic compound, Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, Orotidine 5'-monophosphate, Pentose, Pentose phosphate pathway, Phosphate, Phosphoramidite, Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, Phosphoribosylamine, Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase, Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, Plasmid, Polymer, Primer (molecular biology), Protecting group, Protein, Purine, Pyrimidine, Pyrophosphate, Radioactive tracer, Radionuclide, Ribonucleotide, Ribose, Ribose 5-phosphate, Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase, RNA, Scripps Research Institute, Taekwondo, Thymine, Transcription (biology), Tryptophan, Uracil, Uric acid, Uridine triphosphate, 4,5-Dihydroorotic acid. Expand index (69 more) »

ACS style

The ACS style is a set of standards for writing documents relating to chemistry, including a standard method of citation in academic publications, developed by the American Chemical Society (ACS).

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Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Adenosine monophosphate

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Amidophosphoribosyltransferase (ATase), also known as glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase (GPAT), is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) into 5-phosphoribosyl-1-amine (PRA), using the ammonia group from a glutamine side-chain.

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In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Aromatic hydrocarbon

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.

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Aspartate carbamoyltransferase

Aspartate carbamoyltransferase (also known as aspartate transcarbamoylase or ATCase) catalyzes the first step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway.

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Aspartic acid

Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Carbamoyl aspartic acid

Carbamoyl aspartic acid (or ureidosuccinic acid) is a carbamate derivative which serves as an intermediate in pyrimidine biosynthesis.

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Carbamoyl phosphate

Carbamoyl phosphate is an anion of biochemical significance.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Coenzyme A

Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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Complementarity (molecular biology)

In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.

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Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).

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Cyclic nucleotide

A cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) is a single-phosphate nucleotide with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate groups.

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Cytidine triphosphate

Cytidine triphosphate is a pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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d5SICS is an artificial nucleoside containing 6-methylisoquinoline-1-thione-2-yl group instead of a base.

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De novo synthesis

De novo synthesis refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugars or amino acids, as opposed to recycling after partial degradation.

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Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.

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Dihydroorotase (carbamoylaspartic dehydrase, dihydroorotate hydrolase) is an enzyme which converts carbamoyl aspartic acid into 4,5-dihydroorotic acid in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines.

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Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DHODH gene on chromosome 16.

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Directionality (molecular biology)

Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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dNaM is an artificial nucleoside containing a 3-methoxy-2-naphthyl group instead of a base.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Flavin adenine dinucleotide

In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.

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Flavin mononucleotide

Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.

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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Formate (IUPAC name: methanoate) is the anion derived from formic acid.

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Free base

Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.

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Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Guanosine monophosphate

Guanosine monophosphate (GMP), also known as 5'-guanidylic acid or guanylic acid (conjugate base guanylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA.

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Guanosine triphosphate

Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.

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Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative.

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Immunoglobulin A

Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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In vivo

Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.

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Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.

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Inosine monophosphate synthase

Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATIC gene.

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Inosinic acid

Inosinic acid or inosine monophosphate (IMP) is a nucleoside monophosphate.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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IUPAC books

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry publishes many books, which contain its complete list of definitions.

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IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry

In chemical nomenclature, the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

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In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.

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A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Moiety (chemistry)

In organic chemistry, a moiety is a part of a molecule.

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A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.

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Nitrogenous base

A nitrogenous base, or nitrogen-containing base, is an organic molecule with a nitrogen atom that has the chemical properties of a base.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Nucleic acid analogue

Nucleic acid analogues are compounds which are analogous (structurally similar) to naturally occurring RNA and DNA, used in medicine and in molecular biology research.

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Nucleic acid double helix

In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.

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Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.

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Nucleoside triphosphate

A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.

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Nucleotide salvage

A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the degradative pathway for nucleotides.

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Oligonucleotide synthesis

Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical synthesis of relatively short fragments of nucleic acids with defined chemical structure (sequence).

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase

Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRTase) or orotic acid phosphoribosyltransferase is an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis.

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Orotidine 5'-monophosphate

Orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP), also known as orotidylic acid, is a pyrimidine nucleotide which is the last intermediate in the biosynthesis of uridine monophosphate.

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A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms.

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Pentose phosphate pathway

The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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A phosphoramidite (RO)2PNR2 is a monoamide of a phosphite diester.

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Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate

Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a pentosephosphate.

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Phosphoribosylamine (5PRA) is an intermediate in purine metabolism.

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Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase

Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase (or AIR carboxylase) is an enzyme involved in nucleotide biosynthesis and in particular in purine biosynthesis.

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Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase

Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (2-amino-N-ribosylacetamide 5'-phosphate transformylase, GAR formyltransferase, GAR transformylase, glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase, GAR TFase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate:2-amino-N-ribosylacetamide ribonucleotide transformylase) is an enzyme with systematic name 10-formyltetrahydrofolate:5'-phosphoribosylglycinamide N-formyltransferase.

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A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Primer (molecular biology)

A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.

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Protecting group

A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.

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Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.

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In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.

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Radioactive tracer

A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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In biochemistry, a ribonucleotide or ribotide is a nucleotide containing ribose as its pentose component.

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Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.

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Ribose 5-phosphate

Ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) is both a product and an intermediate of the pentose phosphate pathway.

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Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase

Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase (or phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase or ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase) is an enzyme that converts ribose 5-phosphate into phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP).

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Scripps Research Institute

The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is a nonprofit American medical research facility that focuses on research and education in the biomedical sciences.

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Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.

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---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Uridine triphosphate

Uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) is a pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate, consisting of the organic base uracil linked to the 1' carbon of the ribose sugar, and esterified with tri-phosphoric acid at the 5' position.

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4,5-Dihydroorotic acid

4,5-Dihydroorotic acid is a derivative of orotic acid which serves as an intermediate in pyrimidine biosynthesis.

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Deoxynucleoside triphosphate, Deoxynucleotide, Deoxynucleotide triphosphate, Deoxynucleotides-triphosphate, Dinucleotide, Genetic code (ATGC), Nucleatide, Nucleoside diphosphate, Nucleoside monophosphate, Nucleotide mapping, Nucleotide metabolism, Nucleotide synthesis, Nucleotide transport proteins, Nucleotides, Riboneucleotide, Salvage synthesis, Thionucleotides.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleotide

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